Statutes

Statute by category Citationsort ascending Summary
FL - Cruel Confinement - § 21. Limiting Cruel and Inhumane Confinement of Pigs During Pregnancy FL CONST Art. 10 § 21 This ballot proposal, adopted in 2002 and effective in 2008, addresses the inhumane treatment of animals, specifically, pregnant pigs. The law provides that to prevent cruelty to animals and as recommended by The Humane Society of the United States, no person shall confine a pig during pregnancy in a cage, crate or other enclosure, or tether a pregnant pig, on a farm so that the pig is prevented from turning around freely, except for veterinary purposes and during the prebirthing period; provides definitions, penalties, and an effective date. This measure passed in the November 2002 election with 54% of the vote.
Mexico - Health - Ley Federal de Sanidad Animal Federal Law of Animal Health The Federal Law of Animal Health establishes the foundation for diagnosing, preventing, controlling, and eradicating zoonotic diseases. It defines animal welfare and outlines best practices related to livestock, among other things. This law defines animal welfare as the set of activities aimed at providing animals comfort, tranquility, protection, and safety during rearing, maintenance, exploitation, transport, and slaughter.
Germany - Cruelty - German Animal Welfare Act Federal Law Gazette I, p. 1094

This is the primary piece of animal welfare legislation in Germany. It enforces the utilitarian principle that there must be good reason for one to cause an animal harm and identifies that it is the responsibility of human beings to protect the lives and well-being of their fellow creatures. For a discussion on the German Animal Welfare Act as compared to other European and United States animal welfare laws, see Detailed Discussion.

AU - Exotic diseases in Animals Act 1981 (QLD) Exotic diseases in Animals Act 1981

An Act to provide for the control, eradication and prevention of exotic diseases in animals, the compensation of owners for loss or destruction of animals and property during outbreaks of exotic diseases, the establishment of an exotic diseases expenses and compensation fund and for related purposes.

AU - Exhibited Animals Protection Act 1986 (NSW) Exhibited Animals Protection Act 1986

This Act deals with the exhibition of animals at marine or zoological parks, circuses and other places. It regulates the exhibition of all vertebrate animals in zoos, circuses or mobile displays regardless of whether they are native, exotic or domestic.

 

A person must have an approval to keep and exhibit an animal, and this is subject to qualifications, experience or any other term or condition that may be considered necessary

Ecuador - Cruelty - Criminal Code Excerpt Excerpt Código Orgánico Integral Penal This excerpt is from the Criminal Code of Ecuador, Chapter 4, crimes against the environment and nature or "Pacha mama." The crimes against animals are outlined in this chapter. More specifically, Section 2, "Crimes of private action against animals that are part of the urban fauna," articles 249-250. Under the current criminal code, causing injury to an animal is punished with confinement in jail for two to six months. If the act involves cruelty or torture, the punishment is six to twelve months of confinement in jail. Sexual conduct with an animal and sexual exploitation of an animal is also punishable. The death of an animal resulting from sexual conduct is considered an aggravating factor punishable with confinement in jail between one to three years. If the animal dies due to circumstances other than sexual behavior on the animal, the punishment is confinement in jail for six months to one year. Finally, If death is the product of cruel acts, confinement will last one to three years. Dog fighting, abandonment of companion animals, and mistreatment are also prohibited.
Eastern Band Cherokee - Animal Control - Sec. 19.1, Animal Control Department Eastern Band Cherokee, Sec. 19-19.1

This section of the Eastern Band Cherokee Code describes the purpose of the Tribe's Animal Control Department. The Eastern Band Cherokee Animal Control Code includes Sections 19.1 through 19.7. Each section addresses a different topic within the Tribe's animal control, ranging from administrative purposes to restrictions and regulations.

AU - Domestic Animals Act 2000 (ACT) Domestic Animals Act 2000

The Domestic Animals Act 2000 is a piece of legislation in the Australian Capital Territory of relevance to domestic animals. The Act encourages responsible pet ownership and outlines the obligations of pet owners to their animals and to the community. It also provides for the identification and registration of certain animals.

AU - Companion Animals - Domestic Animals Act 1994 (VIC) Domestic Animals Act 1994 - No. 81 of 1994 The purpose of the Domestic Animals Act is to promote animal welfare, responsible pet ownership and to protect the environment. The legislation provides for cat and dog identification and enables Municipal Councils to deal effectively with feral, straying and nuisance populations.
AU - Dog Act 1976 (WA) Dog Act 1976

An Act to amend and consolidate the law relating to the control and registration of dogs, the ownership and keeping of dogs and the obligations and rights of persons in relation thereto, and for incidental and other purposes.

EU - Research - Directive 2010.63.EU Directive 2010/63/EU Directive 2010/63/EU revises Directive 86/609/EEC on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes. It aims to replace, reduce and refine the use of animals in research procedures by using alternative approaches. The directive applies to live non-human vertebrate animals, including independently feeding larval forms and foetal forms of mammals in the last trimester, and live cephalopods. The directive also applies to animals used in procedures, which are at an earlier stage of development than that referred to above, if the animal is to be allowed to live beyond that stage of development and, as a result of the procedures performed, is likely to experience pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm after it has reached that stage of development. It also sets out provisions for risk-based inspections and lays down minimum care standards.
Chile - Farm animals - Decreto Supremo 240,1993 Decreto Supremo 240,1993 General regulation for the transportation of cattle and meat by land, rail, water, and air transportation.
Colombia - Environment - DECRETO LEY 2811, 1974, Code of Natural Resources DECRETO LEY 2811 The Code of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection declared the environment a common heritage of the nation and nature as a legal good that has to be protected. Article 1 of this code establishes that, “the preservation and management of natural resources are of public utility and social interest." The main goal of this statute is to protect and restore the environment. It strives for the preservation, improvement and rational utilization of the natural resources, attempting for a continued availability of such resources.
Peru - CITES - Decreto Ley 21080, 1975 Decreto Ley 21080, 1975 This Decreto Ley approves and adopts the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) into the Peruvian legal system. The main purpose of this international agreement is to ensure that international trade of specimens of wildlife does not pose a threat to their survival.
Colombia - Health - Decreto 780 Decreto 780 Decreto 780, 2016, establishes standards and regulations for the control of epidemics and zoonotic diseases. Article 2.8.5.2.19 establishes the duty to vaccinate domestic animals in accordance with the legal standards against preventable zoonotic diseases. Article 2.8.5.2.20 prohibits the sale and commercialization of any animals on public roads. This law also prohibits the establishment of breeding facilities in urban areas of domestic, wild, or exotic animals.
Argentina - Wildlife - Decreto 666, 1997 Decreto 666, 1997 This “Decreto” regulates Law No. 22,421, relating to the law for conservation of wildlife, emphasizing the management powers of the national enforcement authority, through the Secretariat of Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. This regulatory decree also regulates the practice of hunting and creates the National Registry of Hunters. The National Registry of Hunters deals in: sport hunting, commercial hunting, hunting with scientific or educational purposes, and hunting for control of harmful species. Other topics that Decreto 666 regulates include: sanctuaries, breeding stations for wildlife, import, export and interprovincial trade of wildlife and byproducts. In the latter, it is mandatory to register in the corresponding registry of the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development and to keep books that record the movement of such animals and products. It is also mandatory to supply the reports that are required and to facilitate access at all times of the authorized officials for inspection and control. The law created the Advisory Commission for Wildlife and its Habitat to propose solutions to problems relating to the sustainable use of wild fauna. The Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development is the authority of enforcement with national scope. Its responsibility is to classify the wild fauna species, to set the corresponding tariffs for the registry of sport hunting, among other responsibilities. The National Service of health and agro-food quality (SENASA) is in charge of the sanitary control of wildlife subject to national and international trade.
Chile - Wildlife - Decreto 531, 1967 Decreto 531, 1967 (125338) This Decreto ratifies The Convention for the Protection of Flora, Fauna, and Natural Scenic Beauty of the Americas, signed in Washington on October 12, 1940.
Colombia - Cruelty - Decreto 497 Decreto 497 Decreto 497, regulates Ley 5, 1972. Article 3 lists acts constituting bad treatment towards animals, such as keeping animals in places that are unsanitary or that prevent them from breathing, moving, or resting or which deprives them of air or light; forcing animals to work excessively or beyond their strength or to any act that results in suffering in order to obtain from the efforts that cannot reasonably be required of them except by the means of punishment; abandoning the injured, sick, exhausted or mutilated animal, or stop providing everything that can be humanely provided, including veterinary assistance; not giving an animal a quick death free of prolonged suffering, regardless of whether the animal will be used for human consumption; confining animals in such a number that it is not possible for them to move freely, or leave them without water and food for more than 12 hours; keeping animals confined with others that terrify or annoy them; and skinning or plucking live animals.
Colombia - Dangerous dogs - DECRETO 380 DE 2022 DECRETO 380 DE 2022 This decree adds Chapter 10 to Title 8 of Decree 1070, 2015 (Regulatory Decree of the Defense Administrative Sector). It regulates the civil liability of owners or keepers of "special management dogs." Owners and keepers must acquire liability insurance and dogs in this category must be microchipped.
Chile - Transport, animals - Decreto 30 Decreto 30 This "Decreto" or executive order contains welfare standards for animals during transport. It is an indirect result of the agreement DS N° 28/2003 between Chile and the European Union together with decretos 28, and 29, 2013. Under this decreto, cattle cannot be transported in conditions that could cause unnecessary pain and suffering. However, there are no limitations regarding the number of animals that can be loaded, and animals can be transported without food, water, and rest for up to 24 hours. if it is impossible to unload the animals, the carrier must ensure that animals are provided food and water.
Chile - Farm animals - Decreto 29 Decreto 29 This "Decreto" or executive order contains the welfare standards in industrial livestock production and commercialization. It is an indirect result of the agreement DS N° 28/2003 between Chile and the European Union together with decretos 28, and 30, 2013. It defines industrial production and confinement. Other important aspects include the prohibition of improperly managing animals, and the requirement to minimize pain and suffering during surgical husbandry procedures such as castration, dehorning/disbudding, tail cropping, beak trimming, etc.
Chile - Slaughter - Decreto 28, 2013 Decreto 28, 2013 (1051388) This "Decreto" or executive order contains the regulations for the protection of animals that are used for meat, leather, feathers, and other byproducts by imposing the use of rational methods to avoid unnecessary suffering during technical procedures and slaughter. It is an indirect result of the agreement DS N° 28/2003 between Chile and the European Union together with decretos 29, and 30, 2013. Animals must be stunned by the use of adequate methods that minimize their suffering before slaughter, and the animal must remain insensible until death. Article 24 exempts ritual slaughter.
Colombia - Farm animals - Decreto 2113, 2017 DECRETO 2113 DE 2017 This decreto adds a chapter to Title 3, Part 14 of Book 2 of Decreto 1071, 2015 “Decreto Único Reglamentario del Sector Administrativo Agropecuario, Pesquero y de Desarrollo Rural.” This Decreto establishes the dispositions and requirements for the welfare of species for agricultural production.
Colombia - Farm animals - Decreto 2113 de 2017 Decreto 2113 de 2017 Adds a Chapter to Title 3, part 13, 2nd book of Decree 1071, 2015 (Sole Regulatory Decree of the Agricultural, Fisheries, and Rural Development Administrative Sector), titled “Animal welfare for production species in the agricultural sector,” which establishes the general provisions and requirements for livestock Animal Welfare in the agricultural sector. Among other things, it establishes that Decree 1071, 2015 is framed based on the five freedoms (freedom from hunger and thirst; freedom from discomfort; freedom from pain, injury, and disease; freedom to express normal and natural behavior) and defines production animals as “vertebrates and invertebrates used in commercial production.” Some of the general aspects include that surfaces (for walking, resting, etc.) must be adapted to the species in order to minimize the risks of injury or transmission of diseases or parasites to the animals. The environmental conditions must allow for comfortable rest and safe and comfortable movements, including changes in normal postures, as well as allow the animals to show natural behavior. Allowing animals to be in social groups encourages positive social behaviors and minimizes injury, disorder, or chronic fear. When painful procedures cannot be avoided, pain should be managed to the extent available methods allow. Animal handling should promote a positive relationship between humans and animals and not cause injury, panic, lasting fear, or avoidable stress. Finally, the Colombian Agricultural Institute (ICA) is the enforcing authority in charge of imposing sanctions for violations of animal health and welfare regulations.
Argentina - Farm animals - Decreto 206, 2001 Decreto 206/2001 Decreto 206/2001 created the The National Program of Organic Production (PRONAO), which is under the jurisdiction of the Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock, Fishing and Food of the Ministry of Economy. The purpose of this program is to promote the production and trade of organic production in Argentina. Specifically, Chapter VII of this decreto regulates animal production. Article 13. Reads: “Organic livestock should develop a harmonious relationship between land, plants and livestock, and respect the physiological and behavioral needs of animals." Animals produced under these organic standards must meet animal welfare guidelines. This program advises to use alternative practices to mutilations such as tail-docking, debeaking, tooth and wing trimming. It specifically states that this practices are not recommended as a concurrent practice.
Chile - Sterilization - Decreto 2, 2015 Decreto 2, 2015 This Decreto lays out the regulations for the reproductive control of pets. Its purpose is to control the population of companion animals through the sterilization of these species.
Colombia - Transportation - Decreto 178, 2012 Decreto 178, 2012 This decreto relates to measures for the replacement of vehicles of animal traction. The term ‘vehicle of animal traction’ is defined by the National Traffic Code, Ley 769, 2002 as a “non-motorized vehicle pulled or moved by an animal. Decreto 178, 2012, regulates and approves the substitution of the vehicles of animal traction for cargo vehicles as a way to facilitate and incentivize the development of alternatives for the drivers.
Colombia - Wildlife - Decreto 1608, 1978 DECRETO 1608 de 1978 Decreto 1608 regulates the Code of Natural Renewable Resources and environmental protection regarding terrestrial wildlife, as well as all the activities and products relating to this resource. Even though Decreto 1608, lays out general dispositions for the conservation and protection of terrestrial wildlife, Article 5 establishes that Decreto 1608 applies to “the management of cetaceans, sirenians, pinnipeds, marine and semi-aquatic birds, sea turtles and fresh or brackish water, anuran batrachians and all other species that do not complete their life cycle in the aquatic environment, but that depend on it for their subsistence.” In order to guarantee the efficient use of wildlife and its products, Decreto 1608, requires specific licenses for the exploitation of wildlife and its products. It establishes the parameters and limitations for the activity of hunting and the granting of licenses for this purpose.
Colombia - Slaughter - Decreto 1500, 2007 Decreto 1500 de 2007 This decreto establishes the technical rules that frame the system of inspections, supervision and controls over meat processed for human consumption. These health requirements must be met at every step of the chain, from primary production to marketplaces. Article 31, lays out the requirements for the antemortem and postmortem inspection of animals in slaughterhouses. Numeral 3 of this article establishes that slaughter methods must be humane. According to this article, animals must be slaughtered through non-cruel methods. Animals have to be appropriately stunned before being slaughtered. Slaughter must be done following correct techniques, avoiding unnecessary risks for the operator and suffering of the animal. The methods utilized must be authorized by the National Institute for Drug and Food Supervision (INVIMA). This article establishes ritual religions as the only exception to humane slaughter. This process must be supervised and approved by the Invima.
Colombia - Slaughter - Decreto 1500 de 2007 Decreto 1500 de 2007 Decreto 1500, 2007, establishes the technical regulations that create the standards for inspection, supervision, and control in the meat production chain. This decree focuses on the sanitary and health aspects involved in the slaughter phase of livestock. However, there are some provisions that directly or indirectly address animal welfare. Some of these provisions include raising animals in facilities that pose a minimum risk for animal production and welfare. Primary production farms must implement good practices in animal feeding and animal welfare. Transportation vehicles must have adequate physical separation mechanisms to prevent overcrowding, crowding, and animal aggression during transport. In addition, vehicles must have adequate conditions for animal welfare, biosecurity, biocontainment, and sanitary management. Article 31 Num 3 establishes that animals must be slaughtered by non-cruel methods, which ensure that they are rendered unconscious before being slaughtered. The National Institute for Food and Drug Supervision -INVIMA- is the authority in charge of establishing and overseeing compliance with slaughter methods.
Chile - CITES - Decreto 141, 1975 Decreto 141, 1975 Approves and adopts the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), ratified in Washington, March 3, 1973.
Argentina - Transportation - Decreto 1248, 1975 Decreto 1248 This Decreto contains the regulations for the safe treatment of live animals during loading, unloading and transportation of livestock. It aims for the humane treatment of animals during transportation and other related options.
Argentina - Companion animals - Decreto 1088/2011 Decreto 1088/2011 This law creates the "National Program for Responsible Ownership and Health of Dogs and Cats" in Argentina.
Nigeria - Endangered Species - Endangered Species Act (in English) Decree No. 11 of 1985 The hunting or capture of or trade in animal species listed in the First Schedule to this Act is absolutely prohibited. Furthermore, no person shall hunt, capture, trade in or otherwise deal with an animal species specified in the Second Schedule to this Act except if that person is in possession of a license issued under this Act. The act also sets out the conditions of licenses and permits. The Minister may by an order publish in the Federal Gazette alter the list of animals specified in the First or Second Schedule to this Act by way of addition, substitution or deletion or otherwise. Penalties for violations are also provided.
CR - Pets - (Decree 31626 on Pet Ownership) Reglamento para la Reproducción y Tenencia Responsable de Animales de Compañía Decree 31626-S (2004)

This Costa Rica law regulates the responsible ownership of pets (text provided in Spanish).

DC - Dogs - § 22-1311. Allowing dogs to go at large. DC ST § 22-1311 The following District of Columbia statute prohibits dogs that the owner knows to be fierce or dangerous, to the danger or annoyance of the inhabitants, from running at large; it also prohibits female dogs in heat to run at large.
DC - Cruelty, reporting - § 22-1002.01. Reporting requirements. DC ST § 22-1002.01 This District of Columbia statute requires that any law enforcement or child protective services employee who knows or has reason to suspect than an animal is experiencing cruelty, abandonment, or neglect shall provide a report of the abuse within the specified time. The statute also states that any employee who observes an animal at the home of a person reasonably suspected of child, adult, or animal abuse should report it. The statute also specifies what information the report must include for completion.
DC - Municipalities - § 1-303.41. Regulations for the keeping, leashing, and running at large of dogs. DC ST § 1-303.41 The following District of Columbia statute allows the council to make and the mayor to enforce regulations regarding leashing dogs in DC.
DC - Wildlife Control - Chapter 22 Wildlife Protection DC CODE § 8-2201 - 2212 The following D.C. statutes provide the legal requirements for wildlife control service providers, which are defined as operators of businesses which involve the charging of a fee for services in wildlife control. Specifically, these statutes provide provisions about capturing target animals and non-target animals, as well as indicating how often a wildlife control service providers must check their traps.
DC - Assistance Animals - Chapter 20A. Pet Ownership Restriction in Assisted Housing. DC Code § 8-2031 - § 8-2035; DC CODE § 7-1002, 1006, 1009; DC CODE § 8-1804 The owner or operator of locally assisted housing accommodations for elderly or disabled people may not prevent a tenant from keeping common household pets. However, an owner or operator may require the removal of pets whose conduct or condition constitutes a threat or nuisance to the health or safety of the other occupants. A violation is a civil infraction that may result in a fine of up to $300.
DC - Horses - Chapter 20. Horse-Drawn Carriages. DC CODE § 8-2001 - 2013 This DC regulation makes it unlawful to operate a horse-drawn carriage trade without a license and an ID card. The regulations forbid certain types of bits and require that each horse wear a diaper. Horses may not be worked or driven for more than 8 hours a day. Horses must be rested, provided with food and water. A violation of the regulations may result in a fine of $300 (1st offense). A serious intentional injury to the horse by neglect or inhumane treatment shall be fined up to $2,500.
DC - Restaurant - Subchapter VII. Dining with Dogs. DC CODE § 8-1865.01, .02 These laws from 2018 allow food establishments in D.C. to permit dogs in outdoor dining areas of food establishments or unenclosed sidewalk cafés. These establishments must post signage outside that states dogs are permitted along with any restrictions on dogs based on size or temperament. They must also provide an entrance that does not require dogs to enter an indoor dining area or an area in which food is being stored or prepared to access the outdoor dining area and provide patrons with waste bags and a means of proper disposal. Patrons must keep their dog in a carrier or on a leash at all times and never leave the dogs unattended.
DC - Disaster - Subchapter VI. Animal Emergency Preparedness. DC CODE § 8-1861.01 This DC law provides that the Mayor must establish an emergency preparedness plan for the protection, sheltering, and evacuation of domestic animals during and following a major disaster or emergency within 90 days of December 5, 2008.
DC - Cruelty - Subchapter V. Classroom Animals. DC CODE § 8-1851.01 to .02 These DC statutes allow animals of appropriate size and temperament be kept in classrooms for instructional purposes. The animals must be provided with sufficient food and water, and be cared for in a safe and humane manner. If the animals are no longer needed, they should be adopted out or given to a local humane organization for adoption.
DC - Animal Control - Subchapter III. Release of Animals. DC CODE § 8-1831.01 This D.C. law states that no animal shall be released from custody of animal protection except for the purposes of adoption, redemption by the owner of the animal, or other suitable placement in the best interest of the animal. No animals shall be knowingly released from any entity charged with animal protection for the purposes of research, experimentation, testing, or medical instruction or demonstration. Violation is a misdemeanor.
DC - Breeder - Subchapter II. Commercial Licensing Requirement. DC CODE § 8-1821.01 - .02 These D.C. laws require that the Mayor establish licensure requirements for commercial animal breeders in the District of Columbia. The rules must contain requirements as to licensing fees, standards of care, and facility inspection. For the purposes of this section, the term “commercial animal breeder” means any person, firm, organization, or corporation engaged in the operation of breeding and raising more than 25 animals per year for sale or in return for consideration.
DC - Exotic Pets - § 8-1808. Prohibited conduct. DC CODE § 8-1808 This DC law outlines things an owner or custodian is prohibited from doing with regard to his or her animal. Among them is that an owner or custodian shall not allow his or her animal to go at large. An owner or custodian shall not leave his or her animal outdoors without human accompaniment or adequate shelter for more than 15 minutes during periods of extreme weather, unless the age, condition, and type of each animal allows the animal to withstand extreme weather (excluding cats). The law also states that a person shall not separate a puppy or a kitten from its mother until the puppy or kitten is at least 6 weeks of age. Certain animals are prohibited from being possessed or sold in the District, which are outlined in subsection (j).
DC - Impoundment - § 8-1805. Impoundment DC CODE § 8-1805 Under this law, the Mayor shall make a prompt and reasonable attempt to locate and notify the owner of the impounded animal, including scanning the animal for a microchip. The Mayor shall deem abandoned any animal impounded and not redeemed by its owner within 7 days of impoundment if such animal is wearing identification. Any animal impounded not wearing identification shall be deemed abandoned if not redeemed by its owner within 5 days of impoundment. An animal deemed abandoned shall become the property of the District of Columbia and may be adopted or disposed of in a humane manner.
DC - Dog - Consolidated Dog Laws and Dangerous Dog Provision DC CODE § 8-1801 - 1814; § 8-1821.01- .02; § 8-1831.01; 8-1841.01 - .09; 8-1901 - 1908; § 22-861; § 22-1310 These District of Columbia statutes make up the dog laws for the District. Included among the provisions are definitions, animal control and at large provisions, and vaccinations/licensing regulations. With regard to dangerous dogs, the term "dangerous animal" means an animal that because of specific training or demonstrated behavior threatens the health or safety of the public. The Mayor may impound any animal at large or any dangerous animal. If a dog injures a person while at large, lack of knowledge of the dog's vicious propensity standing alone shall not absolve the owner from a finding of negligence.
DC - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes DC CODE § 22-1001 - 1015 This D.C. statutory section comprises the anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions. Whoever knowingly overdrives, overloads, drives when overloaded, overworks, tortures, torments, deprives of necessary sustenance, cruelly chains, cruelly beats or mutilates, any animal, or knowingly causes such acts, or one who unnecessarily fails to provide proper food, drink, air, light, space, veterinary care, shelter, or protection from the weather, faces imprisonment up to180 days, or a fine of $250, or both. Actions that result in serious bodily injury or death to the animal result in felony prosecution with imprisonment not exceeding 5 years or a fine of $25,000, or both. "Animal" is defined by statute as all living and sentient creatures (human beings excepted). This section also prohibits animal fighting as either a felony (i.e., wagering or conducting the fight) or a misdemeanor (knowingly being present).

Pages