Dogs: Related Statutes
|Statute by category||Citation||Summary|
|IL - Ordinances - 5/3. Appointment of administrator;||510 I.L.C.S. 5/3||
This Illinois statute provides that the County Board Chairman with the consent of the County Board shall appoint an Administrator who may appoint as many Animal Control Wardens to aid him or her as authorized by the Board. The Board is authorized by ordinance to require the registration and microchipping of dogs and cats and shall impose an individual animal and litter registration fee. All persons selling dogs or cats or keeping registries of dogs or cats shall cooperate and provide information to the Administrator as required by the Board.
|IL - Ordinances - 5/5. Duties and powers||510 I.L.C.S. 5/5||
This Illinois statute outlines the local animal control duties of the Administrator related to sterilization, humane education, rabies inoculation, stray control, impoundment, quarantine, and any other means deemed necessary, to control and prevent the spread of rabies and to exercise dog and cat overpopulation control. It also states that counties may by ordinance determine the extent of the police powers that may be exercised by the Administrator, Deputy Administrators, and Animal Control Wardens and which powers shall pertain only to this Act.
|IL - Ordinances - 5/7. Remittance of fees; Animal Control Fund; use of fund; self-insurance||510 I.L.C.S. 5/7||
This Illinois statute provides that all registration fees collected shall be remitted the county Animal Control Fund. This fund shall be set up for the purpose of paying costs of the Animal Control Program. This includes paying claims for loss of livestock or poultry and for other ordinance enacted measures, including the purchase of human rabies anti-serum, human vaccine, the cost for administration of serum or vaccine, minor medical care; paying the cost of stray dog control, impoundment, education on animal control and rabies; or any county or municipal ordinance as established by ordinance of the County Board. In 2013, the statute was amended to provide different provisions for how the fund shall be used for cities with 3 million or more people and for cities with less than 3 million people.
|IL - Police dog - Act 82. Police Dog Retirement Act||510 I.L.C.S. 82/1 - 5||
The Police Dog Retirement Act, effective on January 1, 2017, states that a public service dog that is no longer fit for service shall be offered by the law enforcement agency to the officer or employee who had custody and control of the animal during its service. This includes a search and rescue dog, service dog, accelerant detection canine, or other dog that is in use by a county, municipal, or State law enforcement agency. If the officer or employee does not wish to keep the dog, the dog may be offered to another officer or employee in the agency, or to a non-profit organization or a no-kill animal shelter.
|IL - Research - Act 93. Research Dogs and Cats Adoption Act||510 I.L.C.S. 93/1 - 10||This act, effective January 1, 2018, is entitled the Research Dogs and Cats Adoption Act. Under the act, a research facility shall assess the health of a dog or cat used in research and then make reasonable efforts to offer for adoption a dog or cat determined to be suitable for adoption, either through private placement or through an animal adoption organization. The research facility must have a facility adoption policy that is made available on its website.|
|IL - Restaurant - 5/11-20-14. Companion dogs; restaurants||65 ILCS 5/11-20-14||
This law provides that a municipality with a population of 1,000,000 or more may, by ordinance, authorize the presence of companion dogs in outdoor areas of restaurants where food is served, if the ordinance provides for adequate controls to ensure compliance with other Illinois health laws. An ordinance enacted under this Section shall provide that: (i) no companion dog shall be present in the interior of any restaurant or in any area where food is prepared; and (ii) the restaurant shall have the right to refuse to serve the owner of a companion dog if the owner fails to exercise reasonable control over the companion dog or the companion dog is otherwise behaving in a manner that compromises or threatens to compromise the health or safety of any person present in the restaurant. Under this law, "companion dog" means a dog other than one who is assisting a person with disability.
|IL - Service Animal - Chapter 740. Civil Liabilities.||740 I.L.C.S. 13/1 - 10||
Under this Illinois statute, a physically impaired person may bring an action for both economic and noneconomic damages against a person who steals, injures, or attacks his or her assistance animal with hazardous chemicals (provided he or she reasonably knew the guide dog was present and the chemical was hazardous). The economic damages recoverable include veterinary medical expenses, replacement costs, and temporary replacement assistance (provided by person or animal). No cause of action lies where the physically impaired person was committing a civil or criminal trespass at the time of the attack or theft.
|IN - Assistance Animal - Assistance Animal/Guide Dog Laws||I.C.9-21-17-21; 16-32-3-1 - 5; 22-9-6-5; 22-9-5-9.5; 22-9-5-20; 35-31.5-2-295; 35-46-3-11.5; 3-11-9-5||
These statutes comprise Indiana's assistance animal/guide dog laws.
|IN - Bite - Indiana Dog Bite Laws||IC 15-20-1-1 - 7; IC 35-47-7-4||
These Indiana statutes provide the state's dog bite laws. If a dog, without provocation, bites any person who is peaceably conducting himself in any place where he may be required to go for the purpose of discharging any duty imposed upon him by the laws of this state or by the laws or postal regulations of the United States of America, the owner of such dog may be held liable for any damages suffered by the person bitten, regardless of the former viciousness of such dog or the owner's knowledge of such viciousness. It also establishes the conditions under which an owner will be criminally liable if his or her dog bites another person. In Indiana, physicians treating dog bite injuries are required to report such injuries not more than 72-hours after the incident.
|IN - Breeder - Article 21. Commercial Dog Breeder Regulation||I.C. 15-21-1-1 - 15-21-1-7||
The laws set forth requirements for commercial breeders in Indiana, defined as a person who maintains more than twenty (20) unaltered female dogs that are at least twelve (12) months of age. These laws do not apply to humane societies, rescue groups, certain service and hunting dog breeders, foster homes, or hobby breeders. A person may not operate a commercial dog breeder or broker operation without first registering with the state. Failure to register is a Class A misdemeanor. The chapter sets forth minimum standards of care and requires that a breeder comply with federal standards of care set forth in 9 CFR 3.1 through 9 CFR 3.12. Enforcement of the chapter will fall to the Indiana state board of animal health, which may seek injunctive relief and impose civil penalties ranging from $500 - $5,000 for violations.
|IN - Dog - Consolidated Dog Laws||I.C. 15-17-6-1 - 14; 25-38.1-4-8 ; 15-20-2-1 - 7; 6-9-39-1 - 9; 35-46-3-15; 15-20-3-1 - 4; 14-22-11-1||
These Indiana statutes comprise the state's dog laws. Included are provisions on rabies, liability of owners for dog bites or damage to livestock, and taxation and registration laws, among others.
|IN - Dog Ordinances - Chapter 1. Liability for Dog Bites||I.C. 15-20-1-1||
This Indiana statute provides that the chapter related to dog bite law does not limit the power of an agency of the state or a political subdivision to adopt a rule or an ordinance that does not conflict with this chapter.
|IN - Property - (Repealed by P.L.162-2006, SEC.49.) - Dogs as Personal Property for Taxation||I.C. 15-5-10-1 (Repealed by P.L.162-2006, SEC.49.)||
Dogs are considered personal property in Indiana (repealed).
|KS - Assistance Animal - Consolidated Assistance Animal Laws||K. S. A. 39-1101 to 1113; 21-6416; 8-1542||
The following statutes comprise the state's relevant assistance animal and guide dog laws.
|KS - Dogs - Consolidated Dog Laws||K. S. A. § 47-645 - 646a; 47-835; 47-1701 - 1737; 79-1301; 32-954||
These Kansas statutes comprise the state's dog laws. Among the provisions include licensing of dogs, specific laws that outline the care of dogs in kennel situations, and laws pertaining to dogs who endanger livestock.
|KY - Dog Laws (also includes cats & ferrets) - Kentucky Consolidated Dog Laws (License, Impound, Bite, etc.)||KRS § 39F.040; KRS § 258.005 - 991; 150.390||
These Kentucky statutes comprise the state's Dog Laws, which were amended significantly in 2005. Included are all vaccination, licensing, animal control provisions, and the relevant dog bite statutes. Under Section 258.235, any person may kill or seize any dog which he sees in the act of pursuing or wounding any livestock, or wounding or killing poultry, or attacking human beings, whether or not such dog bears the license tag required by the provisions of this chapter. There shall be no liability on such person in damages or otherwise for killing, injuring from an attempt to kill, or for seizing the dog. That same section also comprises the state's new strict liability law for dog bites. Under Sec. 235(4), any owner whose dog is found to have caused damage to a person, livestock, or other property shall be responsible for that damage.
|KY - Impound - Chapter 258. Animal Control and Protection.||KRS § 258.215||
This Kentucky statute provides that peace officers, dog wardens, or animal control officers shall seize and impound any dog which does not bear a proper license tag or other legible identification which is found running at large. Interestingly, if an officer after diligent effort to do so, should fail to seize the dog, it is his or her duty to destroy the dog by any reasonable and humane means. The statute specifically exempts actively engaged hunting dogs from the "loose dog" prohibition.
|KY - Impound - Chapter 258. Animal Control and Protection.||KRS § 258.265||
This Kentucky statute provides that an owner shall exercise proper care and control of his dog to prevent the dog from violating any local government nuisance ordinance. Any peace officer or animal control officer may seize or destroy any dog found running at large between the hours of sunset and sunrise and unaccompanied and not under the control of its owner or handler. A peace officer or animal control officer shall be under a duty to make a fair and reasonable effort to determine whether any dog found at large between sunset and sunrise is a hound or other hunting dog which has become lost temporarily.
|KY - Ordinances - Chapter 258. Animal Control and Protection.||KRS § 258.195||
This Kentucky statute set up in 1954 the position of county dog warden. Additionally in 1955, each county was to establish and maintain a dog pound as a means of facilitating and administration of this chapter. It also provides that cities, urban-county governments, or charter county governments may enter into agreements with the counties for the enforcement of the county's ordinances.
|KY - Ordinances - CHAPTER 258. DOGS.||KRS § 258.365||This Kentucky statute provides that nothing in this chapter related to state regulation of dogs shall be construed to prohibit or limit the right of any city to pass or enforce any ordinance with respect to the regulation of dogs, the provisions of which are not inconsistent with the provisions of this chapter.|
|KY - Property - Chapter 258. Animal Control and Protection.||KRS § 258.245||
This Kentucky statute provides that all licensed dogs are personal property and can thus be subject to larceny. It further states that it is unlawful (except as otherwise provided by law) for anyone, including a peace officer, to kill or attempt to kill a licensed dog.
|LA - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes||LSA-R.S. 14:102 - .27||
These Louisiana statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty provisions. The term "cruel" is defined in the first section every act or failure to act whereby unjustifiable physical pain or suffering is caused or permitted. The crime of cruelty to animals is subdivided into simple cruelty or aggravated cruelty. Simple cruelty occurs when a person intentionally or with criminal negligence overdrives, overloads, drives when overloaded, or overworks, torments, cruelly beats, or unjustifiably injures, or, having charge, custody, or possession of any animal, either as owner or otherwise, unjustifiably fails to provide any living animal with proper food, proper drink, proper shelter, or proper veterinary care.
|LA - Dangerous - Louisiana Dangerous Dog & Dog Bite Laws||LA R.S. 14:102.12 - 18; L.A. R.S. § 2771 - 2778||
These Louisiana statutory sections provide the state's animal control and dangerous dog laws. A dog becomes dangerous when (1) unprovoked, on two separate occasions within the prior thirty-six-month period, engages in any behavior that requires a defensive action by any person to prevent bodily injury when the person and the dog are off the property of the owner of the dog; (2) any dog which, when unprovoked, bites a person causing an injury; or (3) any dog which, when unprovoked, on two separate occasions within the prior thirty-six-month period, has killed, seriously bitten, inflicted injury, or otherwise caused injury to a domestic animal off the property of the owner of the dog. It is unlawful for any person to own a dangerous dog without properly restraining or confining the dog. Any citizen or officer may kill any dangerous or vicious dog, and no citizen or officer shall be liable for damages or to prosecution by reason of killing any dangerous or vicious dog. The section also provides laws on licensing, vaccination, and prohibitions on dogs running at large.
|LA - Dog - Consolidated Dog Laws||LSA-R.S. 13:5544 - 45; LSA-R.S.3:2451 - 2778; LSA-R.S. 56:124.1, 141; LSA-R.S. 49:165||
These statutes comprise Louisiana's dog laws. Included among the provisions are dangerous dog laws, impoundment provisions, and the relevant licensing requirements.
|LA - Dog Bite - Art. 2321. Damage caused by animals.||LA C.C. Art. 2321||
This Louisiana civil code statute provides that an owner of any animal is liable for damages caused by that animal only upon a showing that he or she knew or should have known that his or her animal's behavior would cause damage, that the damage could have been prevented by the exercise of reasonable care, and that he or she failed to exercise such reasonable care. However, the owner of a dog is strictly liable for injuries to persons or property caused by the dog and which the owner could have prevented and which did not result from the injured person's provocation of the dog.
|LA - Dog Dangerous - Chapter 1. Criminal Code.||LA R.S. 14:102.14||
This Louisiana statute defines a "dangerous dog" as any dog which when unprovoked, on two separate occasions within the prior thirty-six-month period, engages in any behavior that requires a defensive action by any person to prevent bodily injury when the person and the dog are off the property of the owner of the dog; or any dog which, when unprovoked, bites a person causing an injury; or any dog which, when unprovoked, on two separate occasions within the prior thirty-six-month period, has killed, seriously bitten, inflicted injury, or otherwise caused injury to a domestic animal off the property of the owner of the dog. It is unlawful for any person to own a dangerous dog without properly restraining or confining the dog.
|LA - Leash - Chapter 18. Animals Running at Large||LSA-R.S. 3:2771||
This Louisiana law states that no person shall permit any dog in his or her possession to run at large on any unenclosed land, or trespass upon any enclosed or unenclosed lands of another.
|LA - Leash - Chapter 23. Louisiana White Cane Law.||LSA-R.S. 46:1956||
This Louisiana leash law provides that “any person who purposely or negligently injures an assistance dog or any owner of a dog who allows that dog to injure an assistance dog because he fails to control or leash the dog shall also be guilty of a misdemeanor and fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars or imprisoned for not more than six months, or both.” That person shall also be liable for any injuries to the assistance dog and, if necessary, the replacement and compensation for the loss of the assistance dog and attorney fees.
|LA - Ordinances - CHAPTER 18. ANIMALS RUNNING AT LARGE.||LA R.S. 3:2731||
This Louisiana statute provides that the governing bodies of all parishes and municipalities may impose license taxes on all dogs, enact ordinances for the regulation of dogs running at large, and maintain pounds for the impounding of dogs.
|MA - Dog - Consolidated Dog Laws||M.G.L.A. 2 § 14; M.G.L.A. 112 § 12Z; M.G.L.A. 128A § 14E; M.G.L.A. 266 § 47; M.G.L.A. 140 § 136A - § 174F; M.G.L.A. 129 § 39G; M.G.L.A. 131 § 20, 21, 21A, 82||
These Massachusetts statutes comprise the state's dog laws. Among the provisions include licensing laws, dangerous dog laws, and rabies vaccination provisions.
|MA - Dog Ordinances - CHAPTER 140. LICENSES.||M.G.L.A. 140 § 173A||
This Massachusetts statute provides the state law relative to violation of municipal by-laws or ordinances related to dog control. Included are penalty provisions and appearance requirements.
|MA - Exotic Pets - Chapter 131. Inland Fisheries and Game and Other Natural Resources.||M.G.L.A. 131 § 77A||Massachusetts bans hybrid animals, those offspring of mating between a domestic animal and its wild counterpart, usually wolves and dogs. No individual may possess or own a hybrid as a pet.|
|MA - Initiatives - 2008 Question 3 (dog racing)||Question 3 (2008)||This proposed law would prohibit any dog racing or racing meeting in Massachusetts where any form of betting or wagering on the speed or ability of dogs occurs. The State Racing Commission would be prohibited from accepting or approving any application or request for racing dates for dog racing. Any person violating the proposed law could be required to pay a civil penalty of not less than $20,000 to the Commission. All existing parts of the chapter of the state's General Laws concerning dog and horse racing meetings would be interpreted as if they did not refer to dogs. These changes would take effect January 1, 2010. The measure was approved by a margin of 65% to 35 %.|
|MA - Initiatives - Question 3, 2000 (dog racing)||Question 3 (2000)||This Massachusetts ballot question asked voters in 2000 whether they wanted to prohibit in Massachusetts any dog racing where any form of betting or wagering on the speed or ability of dogs occurs. Any person violating the proposed law could be required to pay a civil penalty of not less than $20,000 to the State Racing Commission. The question failed with 49% voting "yes" and 51% voting "no" on the question.|
|MA - Leash - § 174B. Restraint of dogs in public highway rest areas; penalty||M.G.L.A. 140 § 174B||
This Massachusetts law states that whoever is the owner or keeper of a dog shall restrain said dog by a chain or leash when in an officially designated public highway rest area. Whoever violates the provisions of this section shall be punished by a fine of not more than $100.
|MA - Ordinances - By-laws and ordinances relative to regulation of dogs||M.G.L.A. 140 § 147A (§ 147A. Repealed, 2012, 193, Sec. 19)||This Massachusetts statute provides that any city or town that accepts the provisions of this statutory section is empowered to enact by-laws and ordinances relative to the regulation of dogs. These areas may relate to, but not be limited to dog licensing, establishing dog fees, disposition of fees, appointment of dog officers, kennel licensing and regulations, procedures for the investigation of and reimbursement for damage caused by dogs, restraining of dogs and establishing penalties for a breach. This section was repealed in 2012.|
|MD - Bite - Maryland Dangerous Dog Laws||MD Code, Criminal Law, § 10-619||
This Maryland statute outlines what is a "Dangerous dog." As defined by statute, it is a dog that, without provocation, has killed or inflicted severe injury on a person, or it is a potentially dangerous dog that bites a person, when not on its owner's real property, kills or inflicts severe injury on a domestic animal, or attacks without provocation. An owner of a dangerous dog must keep the dog securely enclosed on his or her property or must muzzle and restrain the dog. A person who violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction is subject to a fine not exceeding $2,500.
|MD - Dogs - Consolidated Dog Laws||MD Code, Local Government, § 13-101 - 134; MD Code, Transportation, § 21-1004.1; MD Code, Natural Resources, § 10-413, 416, 701, 703, and 807; MD Code, Public Safety, § 2-313; MD Code, Health - General, § 18-312 - 321; MD Code, General Provisions, § 7-304||
These statutes comprise Maryland's dog laws. Maryland is unique in that the state law governs the specific licensing and other regulations certain counties may adopt or enforce. Also included are the state rabies provisions and even the law that designates the state dog (the Chesapeake Bay retriever).
|MD - Food Service - § 21-304.2. Restaurant patrons with dogs||Md. Code Ann., Health-Gen. § 21-304.2||This Maryland statute deals with the eligibility of restaurants for dog admission. Under the statute, a restaurant with an outdoor dining area may allow a patron’s dog to accompany the patron in the outdoor dining area. The statute requires that the owner of the restaurant notify the local health department of the owner’s intention to allow dogs in the outdoor dining area at least 30 days prior to any dogs being allowed in the outdoor dining area. Additionally, the owner may limit the amount of space available for dogs, the size and type of dog allowed in the outdoor dining area, and may reject and patron with a dog at his or her discretion.|
|MD - Licenses - Article 24. Political Subdivisions--Miscellaneous Provisions.||MD Code, Local Government, § 13-115||This law, enacted in 2013, replaces a former section that dealt with the running at large of dogs. The new section concerns Calvert County and establishes guidelines for the issuance of dog and kennel licenses and dog tags. The "Animal Matters Hearing Board" was also created under this law. The Board's duty is to "resolve disputes and controversies arising under animal control ordinances adopted under subsection (c) of this section." The law also makes a dog running at large in Calvert County without a properly attached licensed a "nuisance," subject to seizure, detention, and euthanasia. A holding period for seized dogs (72 hours) is also established under the new law.|
|MD - Ordinances - Article 24. Political Subdivisions--Miscellaneous Provisions.||MD Code, Local Government, § 13-117; MD Code, Local Government, § 13-118; MD Code, Local Government, § 13-121||These Maryland statutory sections apply to Carroll, Cecil, and Frederick Counties. The laws provide that the county commissioners, by ordinance, may provide for a comprehensive system for the regulation of domestic animals, including dogs, and wild animals held in captivity, within the county, including licensing and control. Also included are provisions for the impoundment and disposal of unlicensed or dangerous dogs and provisions for the regulation of persons who own or keep any animal which disturbs the peace.|
|MD - Ordinances - § 236A. Washington County; animal control ordinance||MD Code, Local Government, § 13-122; MD Code, Local Government, § 13-132||These two laws enacted in 2013 concern animal control laws for Garret and Washington counties.|
|MD - Pet Sales - Pet Purchaser Protection||MD Code, Business Regulation, § 19–701 to 19–707||This statute regulates retail pet stores that sell dogs. According to this statute, a purchaser is allowed remedies if, within two weeks after the purchase of a dog from a pet store, a veterinarian certifies that a dog suffers from or has died from a disease or illness that existed at the time of purchase. The purchaser may also be entitled to remedies if, within three months after the purchase of a dog from a pet store, a veterinarian certifies that the dog possesses or has died from a congenital or hereditary disease the adversely affects the dog's health, requires hospitalization or a non-elective surgical procedure. This statute also discusses a retail pet store's obligations to the purchaser, the limitations to obtaining these remedies, and provides the seller with an opportunity to contest the consumer's demand for remedies.|
|ME - Dog, Dangerous - Maine Dangerous Dog Laws||7 M. R. S. A. § 3951 - 3953; 7 M. R. S. A. § 3961 - 3964; 7 M. R. S. A. § 3907||
This Maine statutory sections outlines the state's dangerous dog laws. It first provides that any person may lawfully kill a dog if necessary to protect that person, another person or a domesticated animal during the course of a sudden, unprovoked assault. A person who owns or keeps a dangerous dog commits a civil violation for which the court shall adjudge a fine of not less than $250 and not more than $1,000. The dog may be ordered to be muzzled, or euthanized if it has killed, maimed or inflicted serious bodily injury upon a person or has a history of a prior assault. Notably, if a dog whose owner refuses or neglects to comply with the order wounds any person by a sudden assault or wounds or kills any domestic animal, the owner shall pay the person injured treble damages and costs to be recovered by a civil action. The statute sets out the specific procedure for declaring a dog dangerous and the statutory definition of dangerous is also provided by reference to a companion statute.
|ME - Dogs - Consolidated Dog Laws||7 M.R.S.A.§ 3901 - 4163; 12 M.R.S.A. § 11111; 12 M.R.S.A. § 11228; 12 M.R.S.A. § 11302; 12 M.R.S.A. § 11951; 12 M.R.S.A. § 12051 - 12055; 12 M.R.S.A. § 12404; § 12707; 17-A M.R.S.A. § 752-B; 17 M.R.S.A. § 1044;||
These Maine statutes comprise the state's dog laws. Among the provisions include licensing requirements, laws that determine the disposition of loose or dangerous dogs, and a chapter on the sale of dogs.
|ME - Exotic Pets - Chapter 723. Facility Licenses.||7 M. R. S. A. § 3931-B (§ 3931-B. Repealed. Laws 2011, c. 100, § 13, eff. May 19, 2011)||
This Maine statute outlines the requirements that apply to wolf hybrid kennels. A person who operates a wolf hybrid kennel must register with the department. The offspring of a wolf hybrid must be permanently identified prior to transferring ownership or care of the animal. Failure to comply with the provisions of this section results in a civil violation with a forfeiture not to exceed $1,000. (For other exotic pet laws in Maine, see Chapter 730-A. Breeding, Sale and Transportation of Small Mammals).
|ME - Impound -Chapter 719. Uncontrolled Dogs.||7 M. R. S. A. § 3912||
This Maine statute provides that an animal control officer shall seize, impound, or restrain a loose dog. If ownership is unknown, the dog may be delivered to the local animal shelter where it can be treated as a stray. If ownership is known, the officer must either deliver it to the owner or take it to an animal shelter.
|MI - Assistance animals - Assistance Animal/Guide Dog Laws||MCL 287.291 and MCL 750.50a, 750.502c; MCL 752.51a, 752.52, 752.61 - 64||
The following statutes comprise the state's relevant assistance animal and guide dog laws.
|MI - Dangerous - Chapter 287. Animal Industry. Dangerous Animals.||M. C. L. A. 287.321 - 323||
This Michigan statute defines "dangerous animal," which means a dog or other animal that bites or attacks a person, or a dog that bites or attacks and causes serious injury or death to another dog while the other dog is on the property or under the control of its owner. However, a dangerous animal does not include any of the following: an animal that bites or attacks a person who is knowingly trespassing on the property of the animal's owner; an animal that bites or attacks a person who provokes or torments the animal; or an animal that is responding in a manner that an ordinary and reasonable person would conclude was designed to protect a person if that person is engaged in a lawful activity or is the subject of an assault.
|MI - Dog Bite - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code.||M. C. L. A. 750.66a||
This Michigan law, which became effective January of 2009, provides that a person 18 years of age or older who is responsible for controlling the actions of a dog or wolf-dog cross and the person knows or has reason to know that the dog or wolf-dog cross has bitten another person shall remain on the scene. A person who violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 93 days or a fine of not more than $500.00, or both.