Dogs: Related Statutes

Statute by categorysort descending Citation Summary
MI - Dogs - Consolidated Dog Laws M.C.L. 287.261 - 395; 317.63; 324.73101 - 42106

The regulation of dogs and cats in Michigan implicates three major issues: licensing and registration of dogs; the regulation of animal control facilities and pet shops; and the ever-present concern of dog bites.  The primary statutory vehicle that regulates the licensing requirements for dogs is the The Dog Law of 1919. Under the dog law, it is unlawful for any person to own a dog six months or older unless the dog is licensed. MCL § 287.262. It is also unlawful for a person to own a dog six months or older that does not wear a collar and tag at all times, except when engaged in hunting activities accompanied by his or her owner. MCL § 287.262. A female dog that is in heat may not go beyond her owner’s premises unless properly held on a leash under this section.

MI - Exotic pets - CHAPTER 287. ANIMAL INDUSTRY. WOLF-DOG CROSS ACT. M. C. L. A. 287.1021

Under this Michigan statute, a local unit is empowered to adopt an ordinance governing wolf-dog crosses that is more restrictive than this act, provided it fulfills the  requirements of this act in addition to any other requirements governing a wolf-dog cross under state and federal law.

MI - Exotic pets - CHAPTER 287. ANIMAL INDUSTRY. WOLF-DOG CROSS ACT. M. C. L. A. 287.1004

This Michigan statute provides the requirements for ownership of wolf-dog hybrids in the state.

MI - Exotic Pets - Chapter 287. Animal Industry; Wolf-dog Cross Act MCLA 287.1001 - 1023

This Michigan law bans acquisition and possession of wolf-dog hybrids, though it “grandfathered” animals already owned as pets at the time of the law's enactments. In order to maintain public safety and animal welfare, the state created a strict permit system for those owners who were allowed to keep their already-existing pets. (See also link to Chapter 287. Animal Industry; Large Carnivore Act ; link to 287.731- Importation of species having potential to endanger life or property prohibited; importation of wild or exotic animals; requirements and prohibitions ).

MI - Food animal - § 750.477a Sale of unlabelled horse and dog meat M.C.L.A. 750.477a This Michigan statute makes it a misdemeanor for an individual to knowingly sell any horse or dog meat unless it is plainly labelled.
MI - Impound - Chapter 287. Animal Industry. Use of Dogs and Cats for Research. MCL 287.388

This Michigan statute provides that a dealer, a county, city, village, or township operating a dog pound or animal shelter shall not sell or otherwise dispose of a dog or cat within 4 days after its acquisition. If the dog or cat has a collar, license, or other evidence of ownership, the operator of the pound or shelter shall notify the owner in writing and disposition of the animal shall not be made within 7 days from the date of mailing the notice.

MI - Leash - 287.262. Licensing and control of dogs; hunting dogs; female dogs in heat; straying dogs M. C. L. A. 287.262

This section of the Dog Law of 1919 provides that any dog over six months must be registered and wear a collar at all times.  It also mandates that female dogs in heat must be kept on their owners' premises or restrained on a leash.  The overall leash requirement is less clear, stating that it is unlawful for an owner to allow a dog " to stray unless held properly in leash."  This does appear to mandate a statewide leash requirement for dogs, however.

MI - Service Animal - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code. M.C.L.A. 750.50a

This statute makes it a misdemeanor to (1) willfully and maliciously assault, beat, harass, injure, or attempt to assault, beat, harass, or injure a service animal that he or she knows or has reason to believe is a service animal used by a person with a disability; or (2) willfully and maliciously impede or interfere with, or attempt to impede or interfere with, duties performed by a service animal that he or she knows or has reason to believe is a service animal used by a person with a disability. Violation is a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 90 days or a fine of not more than $500.00, or both.

MI - Service Animal - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code. M.C.L.A. 750.50c

This statute outlines the penalty for the intentional physical harm or interference with a police dog or horse.  The statute provides for a misdemeanor in the case of interference to the animal and a five-year felony where the animal was killed or seriously physically injured.  If the interference was committed during the commission of another felony, then the penalty rises to a potential two-year imprisonment.

MN - Dangerous - Minnesota Dangerous Dog Definitions, Dog Bites, & Rabies Treatments M. S. A. § 35.67 - 35.69; M.S.A. § 346.51; M.S.A. § 347.50

This Minnesota set of laws outlines the procedure for a town establishing a rabies proclamation and prevents the running at large of unmuzzled dogs in such localities.  It also provides that an owner or custodian of a dog which does not have an appropriate antirabies vaccination and which bites or otherwise exposes a person to rabies virus may be penalized under section 346.53.  The statute also defines "dangerous dog" and "potentially dangerous dog." 

MN - Dog - Consolidated Dog Laws M. S. A. 35.67 - 71; 97A.321, 97B.001 - 621; 135A.191; 325F.79-792; 346.01-58; 347.01-56; 365.10; 366.01; § 609.226

These statutes comprise Minnesota's relevant dog laws.  Among the provisions include several laws related to natural resources protection and hunting with dogs, the sale of dogs, and laws related to damage done by dogs.

MN - Dogs, license - 347.14. Unlicensed dogs M. S. A. § 347.14

This Minnesota statute, amended in 2006, provides that any person may seize, impound, or restrain any unlicensed dog which the person may find running at large. The fact that a dog is without a license attached to a collar shall be presumptive evidence that the dog is unlicensed.  An officer is under a duty to seize and impound such animal.

MN - Ordinances - 366.01.Chapter 366. Town Board; Board of Audit. Town Board. M. S. A. § 366.01

This Minnesota statute provides that the supervisors of each town constituting a town board are empowered to license and regulate the presence or keeping of dogs or domestic animal pets when deemed to be in the public interest.

MN - Ordinances - Chapter 347. Dogs and Cats. Dogs. M. S. A. § 347.21

This Minnesota statute provides that state dog control laws are supplemental to local provisions enacted by ordinance and shall not be construed as to modify, repeal, or prevent municipalities from prohibiting, licensing, or regulating the running at large of dogs.

MN - Ordinances - Chapter 365. Town General Law. Town Meeting Powers. M. S. A. § 365.10

Under this Minnesota statute, town electors at their annual town meeting, are empowered to exercise control over a number of activities relating to dogs.  They can decide the locations of pounds, set the number of poundmasters, and discontinue a pound.  The electors may make orders and bylaws on restraining horses, cattle, sheep, swine, and other domestic animals from going at large on roads. They may also make orders and bylaws on the impounding of domestic animals going at large and fix penalties for violations of the orders and bylaws.  The electors may let the town board pass an ordinance for licensing dogs and cats and regulating their presence, keeping, and running at large in the town.  The electors are also granted the authority t o provide for a specific activity that is within any of the following categories:   the promotion of health, safety, order, and convenience, and the general welfare.  

MN - Rabies - Chapter 35. Animal Health M. S. A. § 35.67 - 35.69

This set of Minnesota laws relates to rabies investigation and proclamation. The owner or custodian of a dog may not permit it to be at large, either on the premises of the owner or elsewhere, within any city or town covered by a proclamation made under section 35.68, during the time the proclamation is in force, unless the dog is effectively muzzled so that it cannot bite any other animal or person. Sec. 35.69 also allows any person to kill a dog found running at large contrary to a rabies proclamation.

MN - Research animals - 135A.191. Research dogs and cats M.S.A. § 135A.191

This Minnesota law states that a publicly-funded higher education facility that confines dogs or cats for science, education, or research purposes and plans on euthanizing a dog or cat for other than science, education, or research purposes must first offer the dog or cat to an animal rescue organization.

MN - Restaurants - 157.175. Dogs; outdoor food and beverage service establishments M. S. A. § 157.175 This Minnesota law allows a statutory or home rule charter city to adopt an ordinance permitting food and beverage service establishments to allow dogs to accompany persons patronizing designated outdoor areas. The law describes the permitting process that establishments must first undergo. At a minimum, the ordinance must include the following five requirements, which must be posted conspicuously on a sign at the premises: (1) employees must be prohibited from touching, petting, or otherwise handling dogs; (2) employees and patrons must not allow dogs to come into contact with serving dishes, utensils, tableware, linens, paper products, or any other items involved in food service operations; (3) patrons must keep their dogs on a leash at all times and must keep their dogs under reasonable control; (4) dogs must not be allowed on chairs, tables, or other furnishings; and (5) dog waste must be cleaned immediately and the area sanitized.
MO - Dog Ordinances - Chapter 77. Third Class Cities. V.A.M.S. 77.510

This Missouri statute provides that a city council may tax, restrain and prohibit the running at large of dogs, and provide for their destruction when at large contrary to ordinance, and impose penalties on the owners or keepers thereof.

MO - Dogs - Consolidated Dog Laws V. A. M. S. 273.010 - 405; 77.510; 80.090; 322.010 - 080

These Missouri statutes comprise the state's dog laws.  Among the provisions include laws for impounding loose dogs, licensing, rabies control, and the Animal Care Facilities Act, which regulates commercial breeders/pet shops.

MO - Impound - Chapter 273. Dogs--Cats. Local Option Dog Tax. V. A. M. S. 273.100

This Missouri statute provides that every city or town marshal of every incorporated city or town shall seize and impound all dogs found running at large without collars around their necks.  These dogs will be kept for a period of one week after which they shall be put to death by humane methods.  The statute further states that any marshal who shall fail or refuse to take up and impound any such dog shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction thereof fined not less than five dollars nor more than twenty-five dollars.

MO - Initiatives - Proposition B (dog breeders) Proposition B (2010)

This 2010 ballot measure asked whether Missouri law shall be amended to: require large-scale dog breeding operations to provide each dog under their care with sufficient food, clean water, housing and space; necessary veterinary care; regular exercise and adequate rest between breeding cycles; prohibit any breeder from having more than 50 breeding dogs for the purpose of selling their puppies as pets; and create a misdemeanor crime of puppy mill cruelty” for any violations. It was passed in 2010 by 51.6% of voters.

MO - Ordinances - Chapter 79. Fourth Class Cities. Police and Health Regulations V. A. M. S. 79.400

This Missouri statute provides that a local board of aldermen may tax, regulate and restrain and prohibit the running at large of dogs, and provide for their destruction when at large contrary to ordinance, and impose penalties on the owners or keepers thereof.

MO - Pet Shop - Animal Care and Facilities Licensing and Regulation (Chapter 273) V.A.M.S. 273.325 - 359

Under these Missouri statutes, a license is required to operate animal boarding facilities, pet shops, pounds, dealers and commercial breeders. The canine cruelty prevention act makes it the crime of canine cruelty if the person poses a substantial risk to the health and welfare of animals in the person's custody. A violation is a misdemeanor.

MO - Rabies - Chapter 322. Protection Against Rabies V. A. M. S. 322.090 - 322.145

This chapter concerns laws preventing the transmission and control of rabies and other zoonotic diseases. Section 322.140 provides that if a county does not adopt rules and regulations pursuant to sections 322.090 to 322.130, whenever an animal bites or otherwise possibly transmits rabies or any zoonotic disease, the incident shall be immediately reported to the county health department. It also provides that the owner of an owner that bites is responsible for the costs associated with rabies testing and/or treatment. Further, the owner of an animal that bites or otherwise possibly transmitted rabies or any zoonotic disease shall be liable to an injured party for all damages done by the animal.

MS - Dog - Consolidated Dog Laws Miss. Code Ann. § 19-5-50; § 19-25-83; § 19-5-3; § 21-19-9; § 21-21-5; § 37-7-342; § 41-53-1 - 13; § 45-3-52; § 49-7-42; § 69-29-2; § 73-39-89; § 95-5-19 - 21

These Mississippi statutes comprise the state's dog laws.  Included are provisions relating to hunting with dogs, local dog ordinances, and liability of owners for damage done by dogs.

MS - Dog Licenses - Chapter 53. Dogs and Rabies Control. Miss. Code Ann. § 41-53-11

This Mississippi statute provides that it is the lawful duty for any sheriff, conservation officer or peace officer of a county or municipality to kill any dog above the age of three (3) months found running at large on whose neck there is no such collar and tag or who are not inoculated according to state law. No action shall be maintained by the owner for such killing.  However, the statute then goes on to say that it is the duty of such officer to first impound the dogs for five days and give a description of the dog to the sheriff.

MS - Dog Theft - Chapter 17. Crimes Against Property Miss. Code. Ann. § 97-17-51

This Mississippi Statute provides that a person commits a felonious offense by stealing, taking and carrying away any dog that is the property of another. If the person who commits the offense is indicted and convicted for stealing the dog, he or she shall be punished by a fine not more than $500, imprisonment not more than 6 months, or both, or imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than 1 year nor more than 2 years.

MS - Leash, Impound - Chapter 19. Health, Safety, and Welfare Miss. Code Ann. § 21-19-9

This Mississippi law grants broad powers to local units of government for animal control, including the power to prevent or regulate the running at large of animals of all kinds, and to cause such as may be running at large to be impounded and sold to discharge the costs and penalties provided for the violation of such regulations and the expense of impounding and keeping and selling the same; to regulate and provide for the taxing of owners and harborers of dogs, and to destroy dogs running at large, unless such dogs have proper identification.

MS - Licenses - Chapter 5. Health, Safety and Public Welfare. In General Miss. Code Ann. § 19-5-50

This Mississippi statute provides that the governing authorities of any county bordering on the Gulf of Mexico and having within its boundaries two cities having in excess of forty thousand (40,000) population each and any county with a population in excess of two hundred thousand (200,000) shall have the power to prevent or regulate the running at large of animals of all kinds, and to cause such as may be running at large to be impounded and sold to discharge the costs.  These governing bodies are also given the authority to regulate and tax dogs generally.

MS - Theft - § 97-17-61. Taking of animals or vehicles Miss. Code Ann. § 97-17-61

This Mississippi statute provides that any person who takes away any livestock animal, dog, or vehicle without the consent of the owner or his or her agent, where such taking and carrying away does not amount to larceny, shall be fined, imprisoned, or both upon conviction. This statute does not apply to anyone who takes property of another believing, in good faith, that he or she has a right to do so.

MT - Bite - Chapter 1. Availability of Remedies--Liability. MCA 27-1-715

This Montana statute provides that the owner of any dog which shall without provocation bite any person while such person is on or in a public place or lawfully on or in a private place, including the property of the owner of such dog, located within an incorporated city or town shall be liable for such damages as may be suffered by the person bitten regardless of the former viciousness of such dog or the owner's knowledge of such viciousness.

MT - Dangerous - CHAPTER 23. DOMESTIC ANIMAL CONTROL AND PROTECTION. MCA 7-23-2109

This Montana statute provides that the county governing body may regulate, restrain, control, kill, or quarantine any vicious dog, whether such dog is licensed or unlicensed, by the adoption of an ordinance which substantially complies with state dangerous dog laws.

MT - Dogs - Consolidated Dog Laws MCA 7-23-101 to 7-23-105; 7-23-2108 to 7-23-4104; 7-23-4201 to 7-23-4203; 27-1-715; 81-7-401 to 81-7-403; 87-6-404; 87-4-915

These Montana statutes comprise the state's dog laws.  Among the provisions include strict liability for all dog bites, authority for counties to enact ordinances regarding dangerous dogs, barking dogs, and destruction of unlicensed dogs, as well as general laws related to registration and licensing.

MT - Licenses - Chapter 23. Domestic Animal Control and Protection. MCA 7-23-4103 This Montana statute relates to annual dog licenses issued by municipal corporations pursuant to an ordinance which substantially complies with state law.
MT - Ordinance - Chapter 23. Domestic Animal Control and Protection. MCA 7-23-2108

This Montana statute provides that the governing body of the county may regulate, restrain, or prohibit the running at large of dogs by the adoption of an ordinance which substantially complies with state law provisions related to licensing.  Violation of an ordinance adopted is a misdemeanor.  Additionally, t he county governing body is authorized to impound, sell, kill, or otherwise destroy dogs found at large contrary to ordinances.

NC - Dangerous Dog - Chapter 67. Dogs. Article 1A. Dangerous Dogs. N.C.G.S.A. § 67-1 to 18; N.C.G.S.A. § 130A-196, 130A-200

These North Carolina statutes comprise the state's dangerous dog and dog bite laws.  Among the provisions include misdemeanor penalties for an owner if a dangerous dog attacks a person and causes physical injuries requiring medical treatment in excess of one hundred dollars ($100.00) and strict liability in civil damages for any injuries or property damage the dog inflicts upon a person, his property, or another animal.  Another statute provides that any person brought to receive medical treatment for a dog bite must report it to the local health director and the animal must be confined for a ten day observation period.

NC - Dangerous Dogs - Chapter 67. Dogs N.C.G.S.A. § 67-14.1

This North Carolina statute provides that any dog which trails, runs, injures or kills any deer or bear on any wildlife refuge, sanctuary or management area designated by the Wildlife Resources Commission, during the closed season for hunting with dogs on such refuge or management area, is hereby declared to be a public nuisance, and any wildlife protector may destroy it by humane method.  Any unmuzzled dog running at large in such area shall be impounded and notice shall be published in some newspaper published in the county for two successive weeks.  If no owner comes to claim the dog, it may be destroyed within 15 days after publication.

NC - Dogs - Consolidated Dog Laws N.C.G.S.A. § 14-81 to 82; N.C.G.S.A. § 14-401.17; § 19A-20 to 44; § 19A-60 to 69; § 67-1 - 36; § 90-187.7; § 113-291.5; § 130A-184 to 204; § 145-13; § 160A-186; § 160A-212

These North Carolina statutes comprise the state's dog laws.  Among the provisions include pet shop provisions, rabies vaccination laws, and the dangerous dog chapter.

NC - Licenses - Chapter 160A. Cities and Towns. N.C.G.S.A. § 160A-212

This North Carolina statute provides that a city shall have power to levy an annual license tax on the privilege of keeping any domestic animal, including dogs and cats, within the city.  However, this section shall not limit the city's authority to enact related ordinances.

NC - Licenses - § 130A-192. Animals not wearing required rabies vaccination tags N.C.G.S.A. § 130A-192

This North Carolina statute provides that the Animal Control Officer shall canvass the county to determine if there are any dogs or cats not wearing the required rabies vaccination tag.  If the animal is wearing an owner identification tag, or if the Animal Control Officer otherwise knows who the owner is, the Animal Control Officer shall notify the owner in writing to have the animal vaccinated against rabies and to produce the required rabies vaccination certificate within three days.  If the animal is not wearing an owner identification tag and the Animal Control Officer does not otherwise know who the owner is, the Animal Control Officer may impound the animal.  The duration of the impoundment of these animals shall be established by the county board of commissioners, but the duration shall not be less than 72 hours.  During the impoundment period, the Animal Control Officer shall make a reasonable effort to locate the owner of the animal.

NC - Ordinances - § 160A-186. Regulation of domestic animals N.C.G.S.A. § 160A-186

This North Carolina statute provides that a city may by ordinance regulate, restrict, or prohibit the keeping, running, or going at large of any domestic animals, including dogs and cats. The ordinance may provide that animals allowed to run at large in violation of the ordinance may be seized and sold or destroyed after reasonable efforts to notify their owner.

NC - Ordinances - § 67-4.5. Local ordinances N.C.G.S.A. § 67-4.5

This North Carolina statute provides that nothing in the dangerous dog laws shall be construed to prevent a city or county from adopting or enforcing its own program for control of dangerous dogs.

NC - Rabies - § 130A-195. Destroying stray or feral animals in quarantine districts N.C.G.S.A. § 130A-195

This North Carolina statute provides that when quarantine has been declared and dogs and cats continue to run uncontrolled in the area, any peace officer or Animal Control Officer shall have the right, after reasonable effort has been made to apprehend the animals, to destroy the uncontrolled dogs and cats and properly dispose of their bodies.

ND - Dogs - Consolidated Dog Laws NDCC 11-11-14; 20.1-04-12 - 12.2; 20.1-05-02.1; 23-36-01 - 09; 36-21-10 - 11; 40-05-01 -2; 40-05-19; 42-03-01 - 04; 43-29-16.1

These statutes comprise North Dakota's dog laws.  Among the provisions include municipal powers to regulate dogs, rabies, control laws, provisions that define dogs as a public nuisance, and laws concerning dogs that harass big game or livestock.

ND - Rabies - Chapter 23-36. Rabies Control. NDCC 23-36-03

This North Dakota statute provides that the appropriate health department may promptly seize and humanely kill, impound at the owner's expense, or quarantine any animal if the state health officer has probable cause to believe the animal presents clinical symptoms of rabies or determines the animal is a threat to human life or safety due to the possible exposure of an individual to rabies.

NE - Dangerous - ARTICLE 6. DOGS AND CATS. (B) DANGEROUS DOGS. Neb. Rev. St. § 54-617 to 54-624

These Nebraska statutes outline the state's dangerous dog laws.  Among the provisions include a requirement that the dog must be restrained when not in a secure enclosure on the owner's property.  There is also a requirement that owners must post warning signs on the property notifying people that a dangerous dog is present.  If a dangerous dog bites a person, the owner can be found guilty of a Class IV misdemeanor and the dog will be destroyed. 

NE - Dangerous Dog - 54-624. CHAPTER 54. LIVESTOCK . Neb. Rev. St. § 54-624

This Nebraska statute provides that nothing in the state dangerous dog laws (sections 54-617 to 54-623) shall be construed to restrict or prohibit any governing board of any county, city, or village from establishing and enforcing laws or ordinances at least as stringent as the provisions of sections 54-617 to 54-623.

NE - Dogs - Consolidated Dog Laws Neb. Rev. St § 14-102; § 15-218 - 220; § 16-206; 16-235; § 17-526, 17-547; § 25-21,236; § 37-525; § 37-705; § 54-601 - 616; § 54-617 - 624; § 54-625 - 650; § 71-4401 - 4412

These Nebraska statutes comprise the state's dog laws.  Among the provisions include the municipal authority to regulate dogs at large and licensing, rabies control, and dangerous dog laws.  The set of laws relating to commercial pet dealers and breeders is also provided.

NE - Impound - CHAPTER 71. PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE Neb. Rev. St. § 71-4408

This Nebraska statute provides that any dog found outside the owner's premises whose owner does not possess a valid certificate of rabies vaccination and valid rabies vaccination tag for such dog shall be impounded for not less than 72 hours.  If an impounded domestic animal is unclaimed at the end of five days, the authorities may dispose of it in accordance with applicable laws or rules and regulations.

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