|Statute by category||Citation||Summary|
|US - Crimes - Chapter 3. Animals, Birds, Fish, and Plants.||18 USCA § 43||This federal law provides for crime and penalties for animal enterprise terrorism.|
|US - Cruelty - § 48. Animal crush videos||18 U.S.C.A. § 48||This federal law was amended in November 2019 to expand its prohibition on "animal crush videos" to "crushing" that affects interstate or foreign commerce or occurs within the special maritime or territorial jurisdiction of the U.S. "Crushing" is defined as "actual conduct in which one or more living non-human mammals, birds, reptiles, or amphibians is purposely crushed, burned, drowned, suffocated, impaled, or otherwise subjected to serious bodily injury (as defined in section 1365 and including conduct that, if committed against a person and in the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, would violate section 2241 or 2242." Exceptions exist for things like veterinary care, animal husbandry, animal slaughter, hunting and fishing, medical or scientific research, personal protection, and animal euthanasia. Violation incurs a fine or imprisonment for not more than 7 years or both fine and imprisonment.|
|US - Disability - Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)||42 U.S.C.A. § 12101, 12102, 12132; 2 U.S.C.A. § 1311||Following are excerpted sections from the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 that relate to assistance animals. Also included is § 1311 of the Civil Rights Act that defines discriminatory practices and outlines the remedies for such violations.|
|US - Divorce/Custody - Uniform Marriage & Divorce Act. Section 307. Part III Dissolution. Section 307 Disposition of Property.||ULA Marr & Divorce s 307||Uniform act created to address division of marital property upon divorce in equitable distribution jurisdiction. Two alternatives are given, directing equitable apportionment in one and division in just proportions in the other.|
|US - Divorce/Custody - United States. Uniform Marital Property Act. Section 4. Classification of Property of Spouses.||ULA Marital Property Act s 4||Uniform act created to address division of marital property upon divorce in community property jurisdictions.|
|US - Eagle - Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act||16 U.S.C. 668a - d||The BGEPA prohibits any form of possession or taking of both bald and golden eagles through criminal and civil sanctions as well as an enhanced penalty provision for subsequent offenses. Further, the BGEPA provides for the forfeiture of anything used to acquire eagles in violation of the statute. The statute excepts from its prohibitions on possession the use of eagles or eagle parts for exhibition, scientific, and Indian religious uses.|
|US - Elephant - African Elephant Conservation Act||16 USC 4201 - 4246||A U.S. federal law that reaffirms the endangered status of African elephants and allocates money toward conservation efforts.|
|US - Elephant - Asian Elephant Conservation Act||16 USC 4261 - 4266||A U.S. federal law that reaffirms the endangered status of Asian elephants and allocates money toward conservation efforts.|
|US - Endangered Species - Chapter 35. Endangered Species.||16 USC 1531 - 1544||
This is key law at the national level for the listing and protecting of endangered species and their critical habitat. It also implements the US obligations under the treaty CITES. For more, see the Topical Introduction to the ESA.
|US - Environmental - National Environmental Policy Act of 1969||42 USC 4321 - 4370h||The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires federal agencies to integrate environmental values into their decision making processes by considering the environmental impacts of their proposed actions and reasonable alternatives to those actions. To meet this requirement, federal agencies prepare a detailed statement known as an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). EPA reviews and comments on EISs prepared by other federal agencies, maintains a national filing system for all EISs, and assures that its own actions comply with NEPA.|
|US - Exotic Birds - Wild Exotic Bird Conservation Act||16 USC 4901 - 4916||The Wild Exotic Bird Conservation Act addresses the population threat to non-indigenous wild birds due to the demand the from U.S. as the number one importer of exotic birds (e.g., the "pet" bird trade). Exceptions under the statute include qualified breeding facilities, scientific or zoological study, and people returning the U.S. who have been out of the country for more than a year (limited to two birds).|
|US - Fisheries - Packwood-Magnuson Amendment||16 USC 1801 - 1803||The aim of this statute is the development of United States' controlled fishing conservation and management program designed to prevent overfishing and to rebuild depleted stock.|
|US - Fisheries - Pelly Amendment (§ 1978)||22 USC 1978||The Pelly Amendment provides restrictions on importation of fishery or wildlife products from countries which violate international fishery or endangered or threatened species programs.|
|US - Food Animal - Humane Methods of Livestock Slaughter||7 USC 1901 - 1907||These statutory sections comprise what is commonly termed the Humane Slaughter Act. Included in these sections are Congress' statement that livestock must be slaughtered in a humane manner to prevent needless suffering, research methods on humane methods of slaughter, the nonapplicability of these statutes to religious or ritual slaughter, and the investigation into the care of nonambulatory livestock.|
|US - Food Animal - Twenty Eight Hour Law||49 USC 80502||This Federal law addresses the transportation of animals, including those raised for food or in food production, across state lines. The statute provides that animals cannot be transported by "rail carrier, express carrier or common carrier" (except by air or water) for more than 28 consecutive hours without being unloaded for five hours for rest, water and food.|
|US - Food Labeling - Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act||21 U.S.C. § 341 - 343||
The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act is a set of laws passed by Congress that gives authority to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics.
|US - Funding State - Pittman-Roberson Act (Chapter 5B. Wildlife Restoration)||16 USC 669 - 669k||The Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to cooperate with the States, through their respective State fish and game departments, in wildlife-restoration projects. However, no money shall be expended until the state in question assents to the provisions of this chapter and has passed laws for the conservation of wildlife, which includes a prohibition against the diversion of license fees paid by hunters for any other purpose than the administration of the fish and game department.|
|US - Fur - Subchapter IV. Labeling of Fur Products||15 USCA § 69 et seq.||The Fur Products Labeling Act, 15 U.S.C. Sec. 69, declares that fur products will be considered misbranded if falsely or deceptively labeled or identified, and/or if the product does not contain a label that legibly shows the name(s) of the animals from which the fur was taken, the name or other identification of the person(s) who manufactured the fur, and the country of origin of the fur. The label must also state, if true, that the fur product contains used or artificially colored fur, and/or if it is composed in whole or in substantial part of paws, tails, bellies, or waste fur. However, the law defines fur product as an article of clothing that is made in whole or in part by fur, but states that the Commission can exempt articles because of the small quantity of fur they contain. The Federal Trade Commission has deemed relatively small quantity or value to equal $150, which means multiple animal pelts [can exist] on a garment without a label.|
|US - Fur, dog and cat fur products - Chapter 4. Tariff Act of 1930.||19 U.S.C.A. § 1308||This federal statute prohibits commerce in dog or cat fur. Specifically, the statute forbids import into, or export from, the United States of any dog or cat fur product; or the introduction into interstate commerce, manufacture for introduction into interstate commerce, sell, trade, or advertise in interstate commerce, offer to sell, or transport or distribute in interstate commerce in the United States, any dog or cat fur product. The exception under the act is for the importation, exportation, or transportation, for noncommercial purposes, of a personal pet that is deceased, including a pet preserved through taxidermy.|
|US - Golden Eagle - Protection||Public Law 87-884; 76 Stat. 1246 (1962)||
This public law amended the Eagle Protection Act by adding golden eagles as a protected species under the Act. The Joint Resolution states that the golden eagle was added under the Act not only because it too faced extinction, but its listing would further protect the bald eagle, as the two species are sometimes mistaken for each other. For further discussion, see the Eagle Act Detailed Discussion.
|US - Grazing - Taylor Grazing Act||43 USC 315 - 315r||Statute empowers Secretary of the Interior to establish and oversee grazing districts on federal land via a system of permits.|
|US - Horse - Chapter 44. Protection of Horses.||15 U.S.C.A. § 1821 - 1831||The Federal Horse Protection Act of December 2, 1970, states that causing horses to be "sore" or to suffer physical pain and distress for the purpose of improving the horse's performance is cruel and inhumane. This set of statutes describes both lawful and unlawful conduct against horses as well as the civil and criminal penalties that are in place for violating this Act.|
|US - Horse - Wild Horses and Burros Act||16 USC 1331 - 1340||The Wild Horses and Burros Act approved December 15, 1971, provides for protection of wild, free-roaming horses and burros. It directs the Bureau of Land Management of the Department of the Interior and Forest Service of the Department of Agriculture to manage such animals on public lands under their jurisdiction.|
|US - Horses - Sale of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros||PL 108-447||
These amendments to the Wild Horses Act, 16 U.S.C.A. § 1333, amended by Public Law 108-447, allow for the sale of animals for commercial purposes in some circumstances, specifically when the excess animal is more than 10 years old, or has been unsuccessfully offered for adoption on at least 3 occasions. Once the excess animal is sold, it will no longer be considered a wild free-roaming horse or burro according to this Act.
|US - Housing - Fair Housing. Subchapter I. Generally. Section 3602. Definitions.||42 U.S.C.A. 3601 - 3604||The following sections of the Fair Housing Act relate to "reasonable accommodations" for persons with a handicap or disability. In Section 3602, the definition of "handicap" includes a person with: (1) a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more of such person's major life activities; (2) a record of having such an impairment, or (3) being regarded as having such an impairment. Section 3604 is the operative part of the law that makes it unlawful to discriminate because of a handicap in the sale or rental of a dwelling. Under subsection (3)(B), the law states that discrimination includes the refusal to make "reasonable accommodations in rules, policies, practices, or services, when such accommodations may be necessary to afford such person equal opportunity to use and enjoy a dwelling."|
|US - Housing - FHA Definitions ( Section 705. Definitions)||29 USC 705(20)(B)||Sec. 504 provides the federal definition of "disability" (part 9) and "handicap" (part 20).|
|US - Housing - Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973||29 USC 794||In the context of housing discrimination, this statute creates the rule that public housing authorities cannot deny housing to a disabled person solely because of his or her disability, and that if a reasonable accommodation can be made to make housing available to a disabled person, the landlord is required to make the accommodation. To establish a prima facie case of housing discrimination, the tenant must establish four elements: (1) tenant is an individual with a disability; (2) tenant is "otherwise qualified" to receive the benefit; (3) tenant was denied the benefit of the program solely by reason of his or her disability; and (4) the program receives federal financial assistance.|
|US - Hunting - Airborne Hunting Act||16 USC 742j-1||This Act approved November 18, 1971 added to the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 a new section 13 (16 U.S.C. 742j-l), which is commonly referred to as the Airborne Hunting Act or Shooting from Aircraft Act, prohibits shooting or attempting to shoot or harassing any bird, fish, or other animal from aircraft except for certain specified reasons, including protection of wildlife, livestock, and human life as authorized by a Federal or State issued license or permit. States authorized to issue permits are required to file reports with the Secretary of the Interior containing information on any permits issued.|
|US - Importation - CHAPTER 3. ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND PLANTS||18 USCS § 42||Under this federal law, no importation of certain listed animals is permitted. Whoever violates this section, or any regulation issued pursuant thereto, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than six months, or both.|
|US - Importation - Fraud and False Statements||18 USC § 1001||Under this federal law, fraudulent statements, orally or in writing, may result in a fine and or imprisonment.|
|US - Importation - Mailing of Injurious Article||18 USCS § 1716||All kinds of poison, all articles and compositions containing poison, all poisonous animals, insects, reptiles, all explosives, inflammable materials, infernal machines, and mechanical, chemical, or other devices or compositions which may ignite or explode, all disease germs or scabs, and all other natural or artificial articles, compositions, or material which may kill or injure another, or injure the mails or other property, whether or not sealed as first-class matter, are nonmailable matter and shall not be conveyed in the mails or delivered from any post office or station thereof, nor by any officer or employee of the Postal Service.|
|US - Invasive - Chapter 67. Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control||16 USCS 4701 - 4751||The Act focuses on all aquatics, including aquatic plants. The Act created the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, which is an intergovernmental organization, administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service, committed to preventing and controlling aquatic nuisance species and implementing the Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act. The Task Force coordinates Federal governmental efforts dealing with aquatic nuisance species with those of state and local governments, non-governmental organizations, academic institutions, and the private sector.|
|US - Lacey Act - Chapter 53. Control of Illegally Taken Fish and Wildlife.||16 USC 3371 - 3378||The Lacey Act provides that it is unlawful for any person to import, export, transport, sell, receive, acquire, or purchase any fish or wildlife or plant taken, possessed, transported, or sold in violation of any law, treaty, or regulation of the United States or in violation of any Indian tribal law whether in interstate or foreign commerce. All plants or animals taken in violation of the Act are subject to forfeiture as well as all vessels, vehicles, aircraft, and other equipment used in the process.|
|US - Lacey Act - Conspiracy Statute||18 USC § 371||If two or more persons conspire either to commit any offense against the United States, or to defraud the United States, or any agency thereof in any manner or for any purpose, and one or more of such persons do any act to effect the object of the conspiracy, each shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. If, however, the offense, the commission of which is the object of the conspiracy, is a misdemeanor only, the punishment for such conspiracy shall not exceed the maximum punishment provided for such misdemeanor.|
|US - Marine Mammals- Marine Mammal Protection Act||16 USC 1361 - 1421h||The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) is the main regulatory vehicle that protects marine mammal species and their habitats in an effort to main sustainable populations. In doing so, the statute outlines prohibitions, required permits, criminal and civil penalties, and international aspects in addressing marine mammals. Included in the MMPA are provisions to protect dolphins from ocean vessels that harvest tuna with purse seine nets; provisions to protect polar bear; provisions that establish the Marine Mammal Commission and that agency's duties; and provisions for the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program, including funding for standing response and unusual mortality events. The Act's 1972 Legislative History is also included.|
|US - MBTA - Senate Bill 2547 An Act to Amend the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA)||2004 Senate Bill 2547||
This Act, now known as the Migratory Bird Treaty Reform Act (MBTRA), revamps the MBTA by excluding species of birds that are "non-native" to the United States. Under the bill, a bird species shall not be treated as native to the United States if the species occurs in the United States solely as a result of intentional or unintentional human-assisted introduction after the date of adoption of the treaty in 1918. As a result, some 94 species of birds currently protected under the treaty would lose their protected status.
|US - Meat - Chapter 12. Meat Inspection.||21 U.S.C.A. § 601 - 695||The Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 (FMIA) was enacted to prevent adulterated or misbranded meat and meat products from being sold as food and to ensure that meat and meat products are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions. The Act requires covered meat products to be labeled and packaged in accordance with the chapter to effectively regulate commerce and protect the health and welfare of consumers.|
|US - Migratory - Migratory Bird Hunting and Conservation Stamp Act||16 USC 718 - 718k||The Migratory Bird Hunting and Conservation Stamp Act, or the "Duck Stamp Act," as this March 16, 1934, authority is commonly called, requires each waterfowl hunter 16 years of age or older to possess a valid Federal hunting stamp. Receipts from the sale of the stamp are deposited in a special Treasury account known as the Migratory Bird Conservation Fund and are not subject to appropriations. A contest is held each year by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to select the design of the stamp.|
|US - Migratory Bird - Migratory Bird Treaty Act||16 USC 703 - 712||This law implements the treaties that the US has signed with a number of countries protecting birds that migrate across our national borders. It makes illegal the taking, possessing or selling of protected species.|
|US - MMPA - Legislative History of 1972||U.S.C.C.A.N. 4144, 1971 WL 11285 (Leg.Hist.)||
This document contains most of the legislative history surrounding the 1972 adoption of the Marine Mammal Protection Act.
|US - Native American - American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIFRA)||42 USC 1996||This act created an executive policy of respect for Native American religious ideas and practices. While it does not create any substantive right of action by a Native American, AIFRA has been used substantiate claims against federal acts that infringe the exercise of Native American religions (policy affirmed by a 1994 executive order).|
|US - Native American - RFRA (Religious Freedom Restoration Act)||42 USC 2000bb-1||RFRA provides that the government may not substantially burden an individual's free exercise of religion unless it is in furtherance of a compelling government interest and it is done through the least restrictive means.|
|US - Patent - Patentability of Inventions and Grant of Patents||35 USC 103||The Patent Act governs the law of patents in the United States. Currently, the Patent and Trademark Office functions to issue patents, for which genetically engineered animal species may legally be patented in the United States.|
|US - Pets Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act of 2006 - Chapter 68. Disaster Relief||42 U.S.C.A. § 5196 - 5196d||The FEMA Administrator is directed to develop emergency preparedness plans that take into account the needs of individuals with pets and service animals prior to, during, and following a major disaster or emergency. The Administrator must also ensure that state and local emergency preparedness plans take into account the needs of such individuals. The Administrator may make financial contributions to the States and local authorities for animal emergency preparedness purposes to accommodate people with pets and service animals.|
|US - Poultry Products Inspection Act (PPIA)||21 U.S.C.A. § 451 - 472||PPIA regulates the processing and distribution of poultry products. To ensure that poultry is fit for human consumption, it forbids the buying, selling, transporting and importing of dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry and products made from poultry that died other than by slaughter. PPIA requires certain sanitary, labeling and container standards to prevent the sale of adulterated or misbranded poultry products. Violations may result in a fine and/or imprisoned.|
|US - Rhinoceros - Chapter 73. Rhinoceros and Tiger Conservation.||16 USC 5301 - 5306||The purpose of the Act is to assist in the conservation of rhinoceros and tigers by supporting the conservation programs of nations whose activities affect rhinoceros and tiger populations, as well as those of the Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The Act also provides financial resources for those programs.|
|US - Rodent - Nutria Eradication and Control Act of 2003||2004 P.L. 108-16; 2004 P.L. 105-322||
Nutria are large, semi-aquatic rodents that are native to South America and have invaded the marshland of certain U.S. states. There are no natural predators to control nutria, no market for their fur, and private trappers have failed to keep pace with the animals' ability to reproduce. P.L. 108-16 of 2003 and P.L. 105-322 of 1998 authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to provide financial assistance to the States of Maryland and Louisiana for a program to implement measures to: (1)eradicate nutria in Maryland; (2)eradicate or control nutria in Louisiana and other States; and (3) restore marshland damaged by nutria.
|US - Seal - Chapter 24. Conservation and Protection of North Pacific Fur Seals.||16 USC 1151 - 1187||The Fur Seal Act of 1966 prohibited, except under specified conditions, the taking, including transportation, importing or possession, of fur seals and sea otters. Exceptions are authorized for Indians, Aleuts, and Eskimos who dwell on the coasts of the North Pacific Ocean, who are permitted to take fur seals and dispose of their skins. The statute also authorized the Secretary of Interior to conduct scientific research on the fur seal resources of the North Pacific Ocean.|
|US - Sharks - Chapter 38. Fishery Conservation and Management||16 U.S.C.A. § 1857||The Shark Conservation Act of 2010 amended Sec. 1857 of the Magnuson Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. The amendment effectively closed a loophole that allowed vessels to transport illegally obtained shark fins so long as no sharks were finned aboard the vessel. The act makes it illegal to remove any of the fins of a shark (including the tail) at sea; to have custody, control, or possession of any such fin aboard a fishing vessel unless it is naturally attached to the corresponding carcass; to transfer any such fin from one vessel to another vessel at sea, or to receive any such fin in such transfer, without the fin naturally attached to the corresponding carcass; or to land any such fin that is not naturally attached to the corresponding carcass, or to land any shark carcass without such fins naturally attached. Essentially, all sharks must be brought aboard with their fins attached. There is a rebuttable presumption under the Act that if any shark fin (including the tail) is found aboard a vessel, other than a fishing vessel, without being naturally attached to the corresponding carcass, such fin was transferred in violation of the Act.|
|US - Smuggling - § 545. Smuggling goods into the United States||18 USCA § 545||This federal law provides punishment for smuggling merchandise (including animals) into the United States.|