Michigan Statutes

Statute by categorysort descending Citation Summary
MI - Assistance animals - Assistance Animal/Guide Dog Laws MCL 287.291 and MCL 750.50a, 750.502c; MCL 752.51a, 752.52, 752.61 - 63

The following statutes comprise the state's relevant assistance animal and guide dog laws.

MI - Biological Diversity - Chapter 324. Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act. M.C.L.A. 324.35501 - 35506

These Sections describe the State's desire to conserve biological diversity as well as the State's strategy and considerations in achieving this goal. These sections also create the joint legislative working committee on biological diversity.

MI - Constitutional Provisions - Michigan Natural Resources Trust Fund M. C. L. A. Const. Art. 9, § 35

The trust fund consists of all bonuses, rentals and royalties collected or reserved by the state under provisions of leases for the extraction of nonrenewable resources from state owned lands.

MI - Constitutional Provisions - Protection of Natural Resources M. C. L. A. Const. Art. 4, § 52

This section declares the protection, conservation, and development of the state's natural resources to be of paramount public concern and the legislature shall provide for the protection of the air, water and other natural resources of the state from pollution, impairment and destruction.

MI - Constitutional Provisions - § 5. State lands Mich. Const. art. X § 5

This section describes the State legislature's authority over all state land and the requirement that all departments that have supervision or control of any state land submit an annual report as to the status of such land to the legislature .

MI - Cruelty - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. MI ST 750.51

This Michigan law provides that no railroad company shall permit the confinement of animals in railroad cars for longer than 36 consecutive hours without unloading for rest, water, and feeding of at least 5 consecutive hours unless prevented by a storm, or other "accidental causes." Any company, owner or custodian of such animals, who does not comply with the provisions of this section, can be fined between $100 and $500 for each and every such offense. However, when animals are carried in cars where they have proper food, water, space and opportunity for rest, the provisions of this section that require unloading do not apply.

MI - Cruelty - 712A.18l. Juveniles, guilty of cruelty to animals or arson; court ordered psychiatric or psychological treatment M. C. L. A. 712A.18l

This statute provides that if a juvenile is found to be within the court's jurisdiction for an offense that, if committed by an adult, would be a violation of the Michigan penal code relating to either cruelty to animals or arson, the court shall order that the juvenile be evaluated to determine if he or she needs psychiatric or psychological treatment. If the court determines that psychiatric or psychological treatment is appropriate, the court may order that treatment in addition to any other treatments or penalties allowed by law.

MI - Cruelty - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code. M.C.L.A. 750.50b

This law was amended in late 2008 to clearly define killing or torturing an animal as a general intent crime (the terms "willfully" and "maliciously" were changed to "knowingly"). Under the statute, violation is an automatic felony punishable by a prison term of up to four years for knowingly killing, torturing, mutilating, maiming, poisoning any animal "without just cause." That phrase was added to exclude negligent conduct such as hitting a deer on the road.  In addition, commission of  a reckless act knowing or having reason to know that the act will cause an animal to be killed, tortured, mutilated, maimed, or disfigured also falls under the statute. Among the exclusions are hunting, fishing, trapping, livestock husbandry, and scientific research.

MI - Cruelty - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code. M.C.L.A. 750.52

This statute provides that it is the duty of the officials involved in animal cruelty investigations to arrest and prosecute those committing the offenses where there is knowledge or reasonable notice of the acts.  The failure or neglect by an officer involved to do so may result in a misdemeanor.

MI - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes (MCL 750.49 - 70) M. C. L. A. 750.49 - 70; M.C.L.A. 750.158

The Michigan Legislature has designed three primary provisions related to cruelty to animals: intentional infliction of pain and suffering, duty to provide care, and anti-animal fighting.  The intentional infliction of pain and suffering provision carries the most severe penalties for animal cruelty and a violation is automatically a felony.  A violation of the duty to provide care provision is initially a misdemeanor, which becomes a felony for a second or subsequent violation.  A violation of the anti-animal fighting provision is either a misdemeanor or a felony, depending on the severity of conduct related to fighting.  The provision does not apply to the lawful killing of livestock or customary animal husbandry of livestock, or lawful fishing, hunting, trapping, wildlife control, pest or rodent control, and animal research.

MI - Cruelty - Legislative Analysis HOUSE BILLS 4550-4552 (legislative analysis)

This document is the legislative analysis for House Bills 4551 and 4552. The bills (now law) amend the penal laws (MCL 750.50) to revise the penalties for harming animals and allow for consecutive sentencing.  Both bills would exempt veterinarians and veterinarian technicians from the prohibitions and penalties when lawfully engaging in the practice of veterinarian medicine. Under the new law, a court could order a term of imprisonment imposed for a violation prohibited under the bills to be served consecutively to a term of imprisonment imposed for any other crime including any other violation of law arising out of the same transaction. 

MI - Cruelty, neglect - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code. MCL 750.50

This statute sets out the Michigan duty of care for all vertebrate animals, including what define adequate food, water, and shelter. Also explained are the penalty and forfeiture provisions for violations of the statute. The exclusions under the statute include those animals used in hunting, fishing, trapping, horse racing, farming, zoos, and scientific research.  The 2008 amendments revise the penalties for harming animals and allow for consecutive sentencing.

MI - Dangerous - Chapter 287. Animal Industry. Dangerous Animals. M. C. L. A. 287.321 - 323

This Michigan statute defines "dangerous animal," which means a dog or other animal that bites or attacks a person, or a dog that bites or attacks and causes serious injury or death to another dog while the other dog is on the property or under the control of its owner.  However, a dangerous animal does not include any of the following:  an animal that bites or attacks a person who is knowingly trespassing on the property of the animal's owner; an animal that bites or attacks a person who provokes or torments the animal; or an animal that is responding in a manner that an ordinary and reasonable person would conclude was designed to protect a person if that person is engaged in a lawful activity or is the subject of an assault.

MI - Dog Bite - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code. MCL 750.66a

This Michigan law, which becomes effective January of 2009, provides that a person 18 years of age or older who is responsible for controlling the actions of a dog or wolf-dog cross and the person knows or has reason to know that the dog or wolf-dog cross has bitten another person shall remain on the scene. A person who violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 93 days or a fine of not more than $500.00, or both.

MI - Dogs - Consolidated Dog Laws M.C.L. 287.261 - 395; 324.73101 - 42106

The regulation of dogs and cats in Michigan implicates three major issues: licensing and registration of dogs; the regulation of animal control facilities and pet shops; and the ever-present concern of dog bites.  The primary statutory vehicle that regulates the licensing requirements for dogs is the The Dog Law of 1919. Under the dog law, it is unlawful for any person to own a dog six months or older unless the dog is licensed. MCL § 287.262. It is also unlawful for a person to own a dog six months or older that does not wear a collar and tag at all times, except when engaged in hunting activities accompanied by his or her owner. MCL § 287.262. A female dog that is in heat may not go beyond her owner’s premises unless properly held on a leash under this section.

MI - Endangered - Part 365. Endangered Species Protection M. C. L. A. 324.36501 - 07

The state of Michigan defines an endangered species as "any fish, plant life, or wildlife that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant part of its range, other than a species of insecta determined by the department or the Secretary of the United States Department of the Interior to constitute a pest whose protection under this part would present an overwhelming and overriding risk to humans."  Violation of the taking provision constitutes a misdemeanor punishable up to 90-days in jail and/or up to $1,0000 in fines.

MI - Enforcement - Chapters 760 to 777 Code of Criminal Procedure. MI ST 764.16

This law authorizes private citizens to make arrests.

MI - Equine Liability - Chapter 691. Judiciary. Equine Activity Liability Act MCLA 691.1661 - 1667 This act stipulates that an equine sponsor or professional, or any other person, is immune from liability for the death or injury of a participant, which resulted from the inherent risks of equine activities. However, there are exceptions to this rule: a person will be held liable for injuries if he or she commits a negligent act or omission that results in the proximate cause of injury or death, and if he or she fails to make reasonable and prudent efforts in ensuring the safety of the participant. In addition, a person will also be held liable for the injury of an equine activity participant if he or she is injured on the land or at a facility due to a dangerous latent condition of which was known to the equine sponsor, professional or other person.
MI - Exotic Pets - CHAPTER 287. ANIMAL INDUSTRY; ANIMAL INDUSTRY ACT MI ST 287.731

Michigan completely prohibits the importation into the state of “any species having the potential to spread serious diseases or parasites, to cause serious physical harm, or to otherwise endanger native wildlife, human life, livestock, domestic animals, or property.” For other wild or exotic animals, Michigan regulates various aspects of their importation, such as requiring physical exams by vets, negative disease tests, and proper animal care and restraint. (See also link to Chapter 287. Animal Industry - Large Carnivore Act ; link to Wolf-dog Cross Act ).

MI - Exotic pets - CHAPTER 287. ANIMAL INDUSTRY. WOLF-DOG CROSS ACT. M. C. L. A. 287.1004

This Michigan statute provides the requirements for ownership of wolf-dog hybrids in the state.

MI - Exotic pets - CHAPTER 287. ANIMAL INDUSTRY. WOLF-DOG CROSS ACT. MI ST 287.1021

Under this Michigan statute, a local unit is empowered to adopt an ordinance governing wolf-dog crosses that is more restrictive than this act, provided it fulfills the  requirements of this act in addition to any other requirements governing a wolf-dog cross under state and federal law.

MI - Exotic Pets - Chapter 287. Animal Industry; Large Carnivore Act MI ST 287.1101 - 1123

This Michigan law bans acquisition and possession of large carnivores (big cats and bears), though it “grandfathered” animals already owned as pets at the time of the law's enactment. In order to maintain public safety and animal welfare, the state created a strict permit system for those owners who were allowed to keep their already-existing pets.  The statute also outlines minimal care requirements, transportation guidelines, and procedures for when a large carnivore suspected of carrying rabies bites a human or livestock. (See also link to Chapter 287. Animal Industry; Wolf-dog Cross Act; link to 287.731- Importation of species having potential to endanger life or property prohibited; importation of wild or exotic animals; requirements and prohibitions ).

MI - Exotic Pets - Chapter 287. Animal Industry; Wolf-dog Cross Act MI ST 287.1001 - 1023

This Michigan law bans acquisition and possession of wolf-dog hybrids, though it “grandfathered” animals already owned as pets at the time of the law's enactments. In order to maintain public safety and animal welfare, the state created a strict permit system for those owners who were allowed to keep their already-existing pets. (See also link to Chapter 287. Animal Industry; Large Carnivore Act ; link to 287.731- Importation of species having potential to endanger life or property prohibited; importation of wild or exotic animals; requirements and prohibitions ).

MI - Fighting Generally - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code MCL 750.49

The anti-animal fighting provision prohibits conduct related to animal fighting, including but not limited to organizing or being a spectator at a fight and training or using animals for fighting.

MI - Fish & Wildlife Law Enforcement - Part 16. Enforcement of Laws for Protection of Wild Birds, Wild Animals, and Fish M.C.L.A. 324.1501 - 1615

These sections lay out the powers, including the power to serve criminal process, and jurisdiction of conservation officers, peace officers, and volunteer conservation officers.

MI - Fish & Wildlife, Generally Powers - Chapter 324. Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act. M.C.L.A. 324.501 - 507

These sections lay out the creation, jurisdiction, powers and duties of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources.

MI - Fishing - Chapter 324. Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act. M.C.L.A. 324.45101 - 45711

These sections describe the regulations of fishing from inland waters and with hook and line. These sections also describe the regulations regarding the taking of frogs and mussels.

MI - Fishing - Chapter 324. Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act. M.C.L.A. 324.48701 - 48727

These sections lay out the guidelines for sport fishing including legal fishing devices, the open season for each species as well as the minimum legal size requirement for each species of fish.

MI - Fishing - Chapter 324. Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act. M.C.L.A. 324.48728 - 48740 These sections lay out the guidelines for sport fishing including legal fishing devices, the open season for each species as well as the minimum legal size requirement for each species of fish.
MI - Fishing - PaChapter 324. Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act. M.C.L.A. 324.47301 - 47335

These sections describe the regulation of commercial fishing including the licenses required and the daily reports of fisherman's catches.

MI - Forfeiture - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code M.C.L.A. 750.53

This statute provides that a person violating any of the animal cruelty statutes may be arrested without warrant, similar to the arrest of those found disturbing the peace.  Further, the official making the arrest has a duty to seize the animals involved and place them in the custody of the jurisdiction.

MI - Foxes - Chapter 324. Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act. M.C.L.A. 324.43101 - 43104

These sections lay out the regulations and prohibited acts with regard to foxes in captivity.

MI - Great Lakes - Chapter 324. Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act. M.C.L.A. 324.32101 - 32206

These sections describe the authorization of the compacts and the powers and duties of the commissioners of the Great Lakes compact commission and the Great Lakes Basin compact.

MI - Habitat Protection - Chapter 324. Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act. M.C.L.A. 324.30101 - 301113

These sections describe the necessity and process of obtaining a permit to build a marina, canal or any other project that affects any inland lake, stream or bottomland.

MI - Habitat Protection - Chapter 324. Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act. M.C.L.A. 324.30301 - 30329

These sections describe prohibited acts as well as permissible uses of land designated as wetlands. Municipal and wetland ordinances are also described.

MI - Habitat Protection - Wilderness, Wild, and Natural Areas (Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act) M.C.L.A. 324.35101 - 35111

These sections define, identify, and set guidelines for the protection of wilderness, wild, and/or natural areas.

MI - Humane Slaughter - Chapter 287. Animal Industry. Humane Slaughter of Livestock. M.C.L.A. 287.551 - 556

A typical state law that imposes the requirements of humane slaughter upon the commercial operations of the state.  The law describes humane methods of slaughter, which include ritual slaughter methods.  It also makes the statement that no slaughterer, packer or stockyard operator shall shackle, hoist or otherwise bring livestock into position for slaughter by any method which shall cause injury or pain.  However, the director, by administrative order, may exempt from compliance with this act, for a period not to exceed 1 year after the effective date of this act, any slaughterer, packer or stockyard operator if he finds that an earlier compliance would cause such person an undue hardship.  Any person who violates any provision of this act shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.

MI - Hunting - Chapter 324. Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act. M. C. L. A. 324.41701 - 41712

These sections set out the guidelines for private shooting preserves, including the species of wild animals and birds permitted to be hunted.

MI - Hunting - Chapter 324. Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act. M.C.L.A. 324.41901 - 41905

These sections describe the powers of the Department of Natural Resources to regulate and even to close areas to hunting.

MI - Hunting - Chapter 324. Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act. M.C.L.A. 324.42701 - 42714

These sections describe the licensing of and regulations of breeders and dealers, including zoological parks. These sections also describe the parameters for enclosures and pens.

MI - Hunting - Chapter 324. Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act. M.C.L.A. 324.43301 - 43303

These sections place limitations on acreage held for sporting purposes and on acreage within 2 miles of other lands held for sporting purposes.

MI - Hunting - Chapter 324. Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act. M.C.L.A. 324.40112

This law makes it a crime to interfere or obstruct someone in the lawful taking of animals.

MI - Hunting and Fishing Licenses - Chapter 324. Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act. M.C.L.A. 324.43501 - 43531b

These sections describe the required licenses for each type of game animal or aquatic species.

MI - Hunting and Fishing Licenses, Chapter 324. Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act M.C.L.A. 324.43532 - 43561 These sections describe the required licenses for each type of game animal or aquatic species.
MI - Hunting/Recreational Trespass - Chapter 324. Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act. M.C.L.A. 324.73101 - 73301

These sections describe the Department of Natural Resources ability to enforce and prosecute persons who enter upon the land of another, who remove or destroy signs or posters or enclose someone else's land without permission. These sections also describe the potential liability of landowners.

MI - Impound - Chapter 287. Animal Industry. Use of Dogs and Cats for Research. MCL 287.388

This Michigan statute provides that a dealer, a county, city, village, or township operating a dog pound or animal shelter shall not sell or otherwise dispose of a dog or cat within 4 days after its acquisition. If the dog or cat has a collar, license, or other evidence of ownership, the operator of the pound or shelter shall notify the owner in writing and disposition of the animal shall not be made within 7 days from the date of mailing the notice.

MI - Initiatives - Michigan Proposal 3 (mourning dove hunting) 2006 Michigan Proposal 3 In 2006, Michigan voters were presented with Proposal 3 that would have legalized the hunting of mourning doves by adding the species to the state game list. The measure was defeated by a 69 to 31 percent vote.
MI - Initiatives - Proposal 14-1, Keep Michigan Wolves Protected Proposal 14-1 (2014) This proposal for 2014 is a referendum of Public Act 520 of 2012, which authorizes the establishment of the first open hunting season for wolves. It will appear on the November 4, 2014 ballot. The measure will UPHOLD Public Act 520, which allows the authorization of wolf hunting seasons in Michigan. In Michigan, a "Yes" vote on a veto referendum upholds the law and a "No" vote rejects the law. As a result, the referendum's supporters are campaigning for a "No" vote.
MI - Initiatives - Proposal 14-2, A REFERENDUM OF PUBLIC ACT 520 OF 2012, ESTABLISHING A HUNTING SEASON FOR WOLVES AND AUTHORIZING ANNUAL WOLF HUNTING SEASONS Proposal 14-2 (2014) This is the second wolf-related ballot measure for the November 4, 2014 election that also operates as a veto referendum. If the proposal is approved, it would uphold Public Act 21 of 2013, which authorizes the Natural Resources Commission to directly designate game species (including wolves) and determine hunting seasons. In Michigan, a "Yes" vote on a veto referendum upholds the law and a "No" vote rejects the law. As a result, the referendum's supporters are campaigning for a "No" vote.
MI - Leash - 287.262. Licensing and control of dogs; hunting dogs; female dogs in heat; straying dogs M. C. L. A. 287.262

This section of the Dog Law of 1919 provides that any dog over six months must be registered and wear a collar at all times.  It also mandates that female dogs in heat must be kept on their owners' premises or restrained on a leash.  The overall leash requirement is less clear, stating that it is unlawful for an owner to allow a dog " to stray unless held properly in leash."  This does appear to mandate a statewide leash requirement for dogs, however.

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