|Statute by category||Citation||Summary|
|VA - Cruelty - Article 7. Animal Control Officers and Humane Investigators.||Va. Code Ann. § 3.2-6555 - 3.2-6569||These chapters relate to the qualifications and duties of animal control officers and the procedures for impounding stray animals.|
|VA - Cemeteries, Pet - Article 8. Pet Cemeteries||VA Code Ann. §§ 57-39.20 - 57-39.25||This Virginia chapter concerns pet cemeteries. Pet cemetery means land, together with any structures, facilities, or buildings appurtenant thereto provided to members of the public for use or reservation for use for the individual interment, above or below ground, of pet remains. The owner of land used for a pet cemetery must file a declaration in the office of the clerk restricting the land use. Each pet cemetery operation must establish a "perpetual care fund" of at least $12,000 before the first plot is sold in the pet cemetery. Violation of § 57-39.22 relating to the perpetual care fund is a Class 3 misdemeanor.|
|VA - Breeder - § 3.2-6500. Definitions (definitions for commercial breeder)||Va. Code Ann. § 3.2-6500||Provides most recent definitions for terms used throughout the rest of the statute, including but not limited to private and public animal shelters, commercial breeder, shelter, pet shop, and kennel.|
|VA - Assistance animal - Assistance Animal/Guide Dog Laws||Va. Code Ann. § 3.2-6528, 6588; § 46.2-932.1 - 934; § 51.5-40.1 - 51.5-46; § 36-96.1:1 - 3.2||The following statutes comprise the state's relevant assistance animal and guide dog laws.|
|UT - Wolves - Chapter 29. Wolf Management Act||U.C.A. 1953 § 23-29-101 - 202||Under the Utah Wolf Management Act, wolves must be managed so as to prevent the establishment of a viable pack anywhere in the state where the wolf is not listed as threatened or endangered until the wolf is delisted. If a wolf is discovered in an area where wolves are listed as threatened or endangered, the division must request its immediate removal from the state by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.|
|UT - Wildlife - Title 23. Wildlife Resources Code of Utah||U.C.A. 1953 § 23-13-1 - 19||Under these Utah statutes, all wildlife is the property of the state unless held in private ownership, but it is illegal to hold protected wildlife in captivity, with exceptions, such as for furbearers. Other provisions deal with invasive species, forbid remote-controlled hunting, establish the Utah State Hunting and Fishing Day, and provide penalties for violations.|
|UT - Veterinary - Chapter 28. Veterinary Practice Act.||U.C.A. 1953 § 58-28-101 - 606||These are the state's veterinary practice laws. Among the provisions include licensing requirements, laws concerning the state veterinary board, veterinary records laws, and the laws governing disciplinary actions for impaired or incompetent practitioners.|
|UT - Trusts - § 75-2-1001. Honorary trusts--Trusts for pets||U.C.A. 1953 § 75-2-1001||This Utah statute provides that a trust for the care of a designated domestic or pet animal is valid. The trust terminates when no living animal is covered by the trust. Trusts under this section shall be liberally construed to presume against the merely precatory or honorary nature of the disposition, and to carry out the general intent of the transferor.|
|UT - Sterilization - Animal Welfare Act. Part 2. Animal Shelter Pet Sterilization Act||U.C.A. 1953 § 11-46-201 - 208||Under this Utah act, a shelter may not transfer an unsterilized animal for adoption unless the shelter has a written agreement in which the recipient agrees to have the animal sterilized and gives the shelter a sterilization deposit. If a recipient fails to comply with the agreement, the animal may be seized and impounded, and the recipient forfeits the deposit. A first violation may result in a civil penalty of $250.|
|UT - Predator Control - Chapter 23. Agricultural and Wildlife Damage Prevention Act||U.C.A. 1953 § 4-23-101 - 111||This Utah statute is known as the Agricultural and Wildlife Damage Prevention Act. It creates the Agricultural and Wildlife Damage Prevention Board and Agricultural and Wildlife Damage Prevention Account. This act also makes it a class B misdemeanor to hold a raccoon or coyote in captivity (with exceptions).|
|UT - Nuisance Animals - Chapter 18. Furbearers.||U.C.A. 1953 § 23-18-1 to 6||These Utah statutes require a furbearer license to take furbearers, except for red fox, striped skunk, or beavers that are doing damage to private property (with authorization). Fur dealers must have a fur dealer certificate of registration from the Division of Wildlife Resources.|
|UT - Native American - § 64-13-40. Worship for native American inmates||U.C.A. 1953 § 64-13-40||This unique provision allows Native American inmates in Utah access to eagle parts and other traditional ceremonial objects for use in worship. The inmate has the burden of establishing his or her Native American ancestry.|
|UT - Livestock - § 76-6-111. Wanton destruction of livestock--Penalties--Seizure and disposition of property||U.C.A. 1953 § 76-6-111||This Utah statute makes wanton destruction of livestock a crime. A person is guilty if that person intentionally or knowingly and without the permission of the owner injures, physically alters, releases, or causes the death of livestock. Wanton destruction of livestock is punishable as a misdemeanor or a felony, depending on the value of the livestock.|
|UT - Lien - § 38-2-1. Lien on livestock--For feed and care||U.C.A. 1953 § 38-2-1||Every ranchman, farmer, agistor, herder of cattle, tavern keeper or livery stable keeper to whom any domestic animals shall be entrusted for the purpose of feeding, herding or pasturing shall have a lien upon such animals for the amount that may be due him for such feeding, herding or pasturing, and is authorized to retain possession of such animals until such amount is paid.|
|UT - License - § 10-8-65. Dogs--License and tax--Destruction, sale or other disposal||U.C.A. 1953 § 10-8-65||This Utah statute, under the chapter relating the general powers of all cities, provides that cities may license, tax, regulate or prohibit the keeping of dogs, and authorize the destruction, sale or other disposal of the same when at large contrary to ordinance.|
|UT - Invasive Species - Chapter 27. Aquatic Invasive Species Interdiction Act||U.C.A. 1953 § 23-27-101 - 401||These statutes comprise the Utah Aquatic Invasive Species Interdiction Act. This Act makes it illegal to possess a Dreissena mussel, release one into a water body, or transport a conveyance or equipment that has been in an infested water without decontaminating it. A violation is an infraction, but a knowing or intentional violation is guilty of a class A misdemeanor.|
|UT - Initiatives - Utah Supermajority for Hunting Initiatives, Proposition 5 (1998)||Utah Supermajority for Hunting Initiatives, Proposition 5 (1998) (passed)||Proposition 5 amends present provisions of the Utah Constitution regarding the power of the people of the state to initiate legislation and submit it to a vote of the people for approval or rejection by majority vote. This proposition requires a two-thirds vote in order to adopt by initiative a state law allowing, limiting, or prohibiting the taking of wildlife or the season for or method of taking wildlife. The measures passed with 56.1% of the vote.|
|UT - Impound - Chapter 46. Animal Welfare Act. Part 1. General Provisions||U.C.A. 1953 § 11-46-101 - 103||Under this act, animal control officers must hold stray animals in safe and humane custody for a minimum of 5 business days prior to making any final disposition of the animal. A stray animal may be euthanized prior to the completion of the 5-day period to prevent unnecessary suffering due to serious injury or disease.|
|UT - Impound - (Repealed) § 77-24-1.5. Safekeeping by officer pending disposition--Records required||U.C.A. 1953 § 77-24-1.5 (§§ 77-24-1 to 77-24-5. Repealed by Laws 2013, c. 394, § 40, eff. July 1, 2013)||Sections 77-24-1 to 77-24-5. Repealed by Laws 2013, c. 394, § 40, eff. July 1, 2013 (Formerly: this Utah statute, amended in 2011, states that each peace officer shall hold all "property" in safe custody until it is received into evidence or disposed of as provided in this chapter. He or she must also maintain a record that identifies it. Note that the provisions related to specifically to animal impoundment/euthanasia were removed.)|
|UT - Hunting - § 23-20-4.5. Illegal taking, possession, or wanton destruction of protected wildlife||U.C.A. 1953 § 23-20-4.5||This statute lists the restitution amounts for the illegal killing of certain species (including bald and golden eagles) of wildlife, with enhanced monetary penalties for "trophy" animals. These funds are used in educational and wildlife enforcement activities by the state.|
|UT - Hunting - § 23-20-29. Interference with hunting prohibited--Action to recover damages--Exceptions||U.C.A. 1953 § 23-20-29, 23-20-29.5||This section reflects Utah's hunter harassment provisions. A person is guilty of a class B misdemeanor who intentionally interferes with the right of a person, licensed and legally hunting, to take wildlife by driving, harassing, or intentionally disturbing any species of wildlife for the purpose of disrupting a legal hunt, trapping, or predator control. A person adversely affected, or the state, may bring a civil action for damages resulting from the violation or a seek a restraining order. This section does not apply to incidental interference with a hunt caused by lawful activities including, but not limited to, ranching, mining, and recreation.|
|UT - Equine Activity Liability - Part 2. Limitations on Liability for Equine and Livestock Activities||U.C.A. 1953 § 78B-4-201 - 203||This Utah section states that it is presumed that participants in equine or livestock activities are aware of and understand that there are inherent risks associated with these activities. Thus, an equine activity sponsor, equine professional, livestock activity sponsor, or livestock professional is not liable for an injury to or the death of a participant due to the inherent risks associated with these activities. The section also requires an equine professional to give notice to participants of the limitation of liability, either by the posting of a sign or by the execution of a written release.|
|UT - Endangered Species - Chapter 20. Enforcement--Violations and Penalties||U.C.A. 1953 § 23-20-3 - 8||This Utah statute criminalizes the intentional or reckless abandonment of a carcass or killing of wildlife for pecuniary gain. The statute lists the restitution value of species protected under the code (bald eagles $1,000 and golden eagles $500). Further, the statute proscribes mandatory incarceration for felony convictions (aggregate value of species taken over $500) where the motive of the individual was pecuniary gain.|
|UT - Ecoterrorism - § 76-6-110. Offenses committed against animal enterprises--Definitions--Enhanced penalties||U.C.A. 1953 § 76-6-110||This section comprises Utah's animal enterprise interference law. A person who commits any criminal offense with the intent to halt, impede, obstruct, or interfere with the lawful operation of an animal enterprise or to damage, take, or cause the loss of any property owned by, used by, or in the possession of a lawful animal enterprise, is subject to an enhanced penalty. These penalties enhancements raise the level of the crime one degree (e.g., a class C misdemeanor becomes a class B misdemeanor and a class A misdemeanor becomes a third degree felony).|
|UT - Dog Bite - Title 18. Dogs. Chapter 1. Injuries by Dogs.||U.C.A. 1953 § 18-1-1 to 4||This Utah statute provides that every person owning or keeping a dog shall be liable in damages for injury committed by such dog, and it shall not be necessary in any action brought therefor to allege or prove that such dog was of a vicious or mischievous disposition or that the owner or keeper thereof knew that it was vicious or mischievous. This does not apply to dogs used by law enforcement officials. In 2014, a provision for the use of arbitration in personal injury from dog bite cases was added.|
|UT - Dog - Consolidated Dog Laws||U.C.A. 1953 § 10-8-65; § 4-40-101 - 102; § 18-1-1 - 4; § 18-2-101; § 23-17-8 - 9; § 23-20-3; § 26-6-1 - 15; § 26-26-1 - 7; § 58-28-601||These Utah statutes comprise the state's dog laws. Among the provisions include municipal pound pet sterilization provisions, rabies control laws, hunting laws that impact dogs, and laws concerning injuries caused by dogs.|
|UT - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes||U.C.A. 1953 § 76-9-301 - 308||These Utah statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty provisions. "Animal" is defined as a live, nonhuman vertebrate creature, but animals raised for agricultural purposes and wildlife are excluded from the definition. A person is guilty of cruelty to animals if the person intentionally, knowingly, recklessly, or with criminal negligence fails to provide necessary food, care, or shelter for an animal in his custody, abandons an animal in the person's custody, transports or confines an animal in a cruel manner, injures an animal, or causes any animal to fight with another animal for amusement or gain. Aggravated cruelty (i.e., torturing, poisoning, or intentionally killing an animal) and dogfighting incur stiffer penalties.|
|UT - Cats - Chapter 46. Animal Welfare Act. Part 3. Community Cat Act||U.C.A. 1953 § 11-46-301 to 304||A shelter may release a cat prior to the 5-day holding period to a sponsor operating a community cat program. Such a cat is exempt from licensing requirements and feeding bans. Community cat sponsors or caretakers do not have custody of any cat, and sterilization and vaccination records must be kept for three years.|
|UT - Breed - § 18-2-101. Regulation of dogs by a municipality||U.C.A. 1953 § 18-2-101||This Utah law effective in 2015 prohibits a municipality from adopting breed-specific rule, regulation, policy, or ordinance regarding dogs. Any breed-specific rule, regulation, policy, or ordinance regarding dogs is void.|
|UT - Assistance animal - Assistance Animal/Guide Dog Laws||U.C.A. 1953 § 62A-5b-101 - 107; § 41-6a-1007; § 18-1-3; § 76-9-307; § 78B-3-701 - 703; § 10-8-65; § 17-50-336||The following statutes comprise the state's relevant assistance animal and guide dog laws.|
|UT - Agriculture - Title 4 Utah Agriculture Code||U.C.A. 1953 § 4-2-301 - 305; § 4-2-401 - 402; § 4-2-501 to 504; § 4-31-1 to 4-31-119||The following statutes detail penalities for violating of the agricultural code. They also contain animal disease control provisions and detail the organization of the Department of Agriculture and Food.|
|UT - Ag gag - § 76-6-112. Agricultural operation interference--Penalties||U.C.A. 1953 § 76-6-112||This Utah law creates the crime of "agricultural operation interference ." A person commits agricultural operation interference if he or she records an image or sound from an agricultural operation by leaving a recording device without consent, obtains access to an agricultural operation under false pretenses, applies for employment with the intent to record, or without consent intentionally records the operation while committing criminal trespass.|
|UT - Abandonment - § 58-28-601. Animal abandonment||U.C.A. 1953 § 58-28-601||This Utah statute provides that any animal abandoned at a veterinarian's office for a period of ten days may be sold or placed in the custody of the nearest humane society or county dog pound after giving notice to the owner. If no humane society or dog pound is located in the county, the animal may be disposed of in a humane manner.|
|US - Wildlife - Chapter 23. National Wilderness Preservation System.||16 U.S.C.A. §§ 1131 - 1136||Under this Act, Congress established a National Wilderness Preservation System to be composed of federally owned areas designated by Congress as "wilderness areas", and these shall be administered for the use and enjoyment of the American people in such manner as will leave them unimpaired for future use and enjoyment as wilderness, and so as to provide for the protection of these areas, the preservation of their wilderness character, and for the gathering and dissemination of information regarding their use and enjoyment as wilderness; and no Federal lands shall be designated as "wilderness areas" except as provided for in this chapter or by a subsequent Act.|
|US - Whales - Whaling Convention Act||16 U.S.C.A. § 916 - 916l||
These federal statutes describe the Whaling Convention Act which granted authority to the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Commerce for regulation. The Act makes it unlawful for any person in the United States to engage in whaling, transporting, or selling any whale or whale products, that are taken or processed in violation of the Act. The Act also prohibits other unlawful conduct such as whaling without a license and failing to keep required returns, records, and reports. Finally, the Act provide penalties for violations including a fine of not more than $10,000, imprisonment of not more than one year, or both. In addition the court may prohibit such person from whaling for a period of time.
|US - Whales - Chapter 14A. Whale Conservation and Protection.||16 U.S.C.A. § 917 - 917d||
These statutes extended federal authority and responsibility over the conservation and protection of all mammals including certain species of whales. The statutes also granted the Secretary of Commerce with authority to complete a comprehensive study of all whales in an effort to conserve and protect them effectively.
|US - Tuna Fishing - Legislative History of the MMPA (1988)||1988 WL 169926||
This legislative history provides the background and section by section analysis of the 1988 amendments to the Marine Mammal Protection Act. As in 1981, the focus of the amendments rests with the mortality of dolphins from the tuna fishing industry.
|US - Tuna Fishing - Legislative History of the MMPA (1981)||1981 U.S.C.C.A.N. 1458||
This legislative history outlines the background and analysis of the 1981 amendments to the Marine Mammal Protection Act. Of particular note is the discussion related to the "zero mortality" goal for dolphins in the tuna fishing industry.
|US - Trade - Tariff Act of 1930||19 USCA § 1481||
This federal law outlines the requirements for importation invoices.
|US - Smuggling - § 545. Smuggling goods into the United States||18 USCA § 545||
This federal law provides punishment for smuggling merchandise (including animals) into the United States.
|US - Sharks - Chapter 38. Fishery Conservation and Management||16 U.S.C.A. § 1857||
The Shark Conservation Act of 2010 amended § 1857 of the Magnuson–Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. The amendment effectively closed a loophole that allowed vessels to transport illegally obtained shark fins so long as no sharks were finned aboard the vessel. The act makes it illegal to remove any of the fins of a shark (including the tail) at sea; to have custody, control, or possession of any such fin aboard a fishing vessel unless it is naturally attached to the corresponding carcass; to transfer any such fin from one vessel to another vessel at sea, or to receive any such fin in such transfer, without the fin naturally attached to the corresponding carcass; or to land any such fin that is not naturally attached to the corresponding carcass, or to land any shark carcass without such fins naturally attached. Essentially, all sharks must be brought aboard with their fins attached. There is a rebuttable presumption under the Act that if any shark fin (including the tail) is found aboard a vessel, other than a fishing vessel, without being naturally attached to the corresponding carcass, such fin was transferred in violation of the Act.
|US - Seal - Chapter 24. Conservation and Protection of North Pacific Fur Seals.||16 USC 1151 - 1187||
The Fur Seal Act of 1966 prohibited, except under specified conditions, the taking, including transportation, importing or possession, of fur seals and sea otters. Exceptions are authorized for Indians, Aleuts, and Eskimos who dwell on the coasts of the North Pacific Ocean, who are permitted to take fur seals and dispose of their skins. The statute also authorized the Secretary of Interior to conduct scientific research on the fur seal resources of the North Pacific Ocean.
|US - Rodent - Nutria Eradication and Control Act of 2003||2004 P.L. 108-16; 2004 P.L. 105-322||
Nutria are large, semi-aquatic rodents that are native to South America and have invaded the marshland of certain U.S. states. There are no natural predators to control nutria, no market for their fur, and private trappers have failed to keep pace with the animals' ability to reproduce. P.L. 108-16 of 2003 and P.L. 105-322 of 1998 authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to provide financial assistance to the States of Maryland and Louisiana for a program to implement measures to: (1)eradicate nutria in Maryland; (2)eradicate or control nutria in Louisiana and other States; and (3) restore marshland damaged by nutria.
|US - Rhinoceros - Chapter 73. Rhinoceros and Tiger Conservation.||16 USC 5301 - 5306||
The purpose of the Act is to assist in the conservation of rhinoceros and tigers by supporting the conservation programs of nations whose activities affect rhinoceros and tiger populations, as well as those of the Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The Act also provides financial resources for those programs.
|US - Poultry Products Inspection Act (PPIA)||21 U.S.C.A. § 451 - 472||
PPIA regulates the processing and distribution of poultry products. To ensure that poultry is fit for human consumption, it forbids the buying, selling, transporting and importing of dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry and products made from poultry that died other than by slaughter. PPIA requires certain sanitary, labeling and container standards to prevent the sale of adulterated or misbranded poultry products. Violations may result in a fine and/or imprisoned.
|US - Pets Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act of 2006 - Chapter 68. Disaster Relief||42 U.S.C.A. § 5196 - 5196d||
The FEMA Administrator is directed to develop emergency preparedness plans that take into account the needs of individuals with pets and service animals prior to, during, and following a major disaster or emergency. The Administrator must also ensure that state and local emergency preparedness plans take into account the needs of such individuals. The Administrator may make financial contributions to the States and local authorities for animal emergency preparedness purposes to accommodate people with pets and service animals.
|US - Patent - Patentability of Inventions and Grant of Patents||35 USC 103||
The Patent Act governs the law of patents in the United States. Currently, the Patent and Trademark Office functions to issue patents, for which genetically engineered animal species may legally be patented in the United States. For more, see the Topical Introduction to Genetic Engineering and Animals.
|US - Native American - RFRA (Religious Freedom Restoration Act)||42 USC 2000bb-1||
RFRA provides that the government may not substantially burden an individual's free exercise of religion unless it is in furtherance of a compelling government interest and it is done through the least restrictive means. For discussion of federal Eagle Act, see Detailed Discussion .
|US - Native American - American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIFRA)||42 USC 1996||
This act created an executive policy of respect for Native American religious ideas and practices. While it does not create any substantive right of action by a Native American, AIFRA has been used substantiate claims against federal acts that infringe the exercise of Native American religions (policy affirmed by a 1994 executive order). For discussion of federal Eagle Act, see Detailed Discussion .
|US - MMPA - Legislative History of 1972||U.S.C.C.A.N. 4144, 1971 WL 11285 (Leg.Hist.)||
This document contains most of the legislative history surrounding the 1972 adoption of the Marine Mammal Protection Act.