|Statute by category||Citation||Summary|
|US - Air travel, disability - § 41705. Discrimination against handicapped individuals||49 USCA § 41705||The Air Carrier Access Act (ACAA) was enacted in 1986. The law prohibits discrimination by commercial airlines on the basis of disability. An individual is considered "disabled" if he or she (1) has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.; (2) l has a record of such an impairment; or (3) is regarded as having such an impairment. This law requires that each complaint under this section are investigated and those data reviewed/reported. Regulations promulgated under the ACAA in 2008 set forth requirements for service brought animals aboard commercial flights.|
|US - Apes - Great Apes Conservation Act of 2000||16 USC 6301 - 6305||The law assists in the conservation of great apes by supporting and providing financial resources for the conservation programs of countries within the range of great apes. Under the law, Great apes include the chimpanzee, gorilla, bonobo, orangutan, and gibbon. The law authorizes the Secretary of the Interior, through the Director of the Fish and Wildlife Service, to award grants to entities that will promote the conservation of great apes in the wild. The authorization for appropriations is $5 million per year through 2005 with 3% or $80,000, whichever is greater, expended to administer the grants program.|
|US - AWA - 1966 Public Law 89-544||1966 PL 89-544||
As stated in Senate Report No. 1280 there were three main purposes for the proposed law in 1966: (1) to protect the owners of pet dogs and cats from the theft of their pets; (2) to prevent the use or sale of stolen dogs or cats for purposes of research or experimentation; and (3) to establish humane standards for the treatment of dogs, cats, and certain other animals by animal dealers and research facilities.
|US - AWA - 1970 Amendments to AWA, House Report No. 91-1651||House Report No. 91-1651||
By 1970 it was apparent that changes in the law would be required if the goal of humane treatment of animals was to be realized. There were four areas of significant change to the AWA in the 1970 amendments (definition of animal, expansion of who is subject to AWA, laboratory practices, and enforcement).
|US - AWA - 1970 Public Law 91-579||1970 PL 91-579||
There were four areas of significant change to the AWA in the 1970 amendments: (1) the definition of "animal" was expanded to include warm-blooded animals generally, (2) more human entities were brought under the regulatory provisions of the Act: animal exhibitors (i.e., circuses, zoos and roadside shows), and wholesale pet dealers, (3) the lab door of research facilities was opened more, requiring that certain humane standards be maintained at all times, (4) the Secretary's enforcement powers were strengthened and protection for government inspectors was provided from individuals who interfered with enforcement actions under the Act.
|US - AWA - 1976 Public Law 94-279||1976 PL 94-279||The 1976 Amendments of the AWA dealt with several new topics: (1) transportation carriers and intermediate handlers of animals were brought under the provisions of the Act, (2) a number of specific transportation problems were addressed by Congress, (3) a new provision was added which made it a crime to knowingly sponsor, participate in, transport, or use the mails to promote fights between live birds, live dogs or other mammals, (4) the penalty provisions were rewritten, allowing the broad use of civil fines.|
|US - AWA - 1985 Public Law 99-198||1985 PL 99-198||The set of amendments that Congress adopted in December of 1985 focused almost entirely on the issue of animal research, (1) the minimum level of care is stated with more specificity, (2) animal research facilities are required to create Institutional Animal Committees, which include the presence of a public member from outside the facility, (3) trade secrets of research facilities are protected by a new section of the AWA.|
|US - AWA - 1990 Public Law 101-624||1990 PL 101-624||Enacted November 28, 1990, this public law amends the Animal Welfare Act by establishing holding period for dogs and cats at shelters and other holding facilities before sale to dealers. It requires dealers to provide written certification regarding each animal's background to the recipient. Specific items included on the certificate are mechanisms of enforcement, injunctions, and penalties for violation.|
|US - AWA - 1995 Public Law 104-88||1995 PL 104-88||Public Law 104-88 amended the Animal Welfare act by striking Interstate Commerce Commission and adding Surface Transportation Board.|
|US - AWA - 2002 Public Law 107-171||2002 PL 107-171||Enacted January 23, 2002, the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act changed the definition of "animal" in the Animal Welfare Act to specifically exclude birds, rats of the genus Rattus, and mice of the genus Mus, bred for use in research. The law also addressed animal fighting ventures by making it a misdemeanor to ship a bird in interstate commerce for fighting purposes, or to sponsor to exhibit a bird in a fight that had been shipped for such purposes.|
|US - AWA - 2007 Public Law110-22||2007 PL 110-22||The Animal Fighting Prohibition Enforcement Act of 2007 was signed into law on May 3, 2007. The law upgrades current penalties by creating felony-level jail time (up to 3 years) for violations of the federal animal fighting law, and it also prohibits interstate and foreign commerce of cockfighting weapons (e.g., knife, gaff, etc.).|
|US - AWA - 2008 Public Law 110-234||2008 PL 110-234||2008 Amendments to the Animal Welfare Act concerning the importation of live dogs.|
|US - AWA - 2008 Public Law 110-246||2008 PL 110-246||The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, P.L. 110-246 amends the Animal Welfare Act by strengthening penalties related to animal fighting, including an increase in imprisonment. The 2008 bill also contained language prohibiting imports for resale of dogs unless they are at least six months of age, in good health, and have all necessary vaccinations, with some exemptions defined. Finally, fines for violations of the Animal Welfare Act increased from $2500 to $10,000 per violation, per animal, per day.|
|US - AWA - 2014 Public Law113-79||2014 PL 113-79||The 2014 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act allows the Secretary of agriculture to define de minimis, as well as several grammatical changes. The public law also provides the prohibits anyone from allowing a person who has not attained the age of 16 from attending an animal fighting venture.|
|US - AWA - Animal Welfare Act||7 USC §§ 2131 - 2159; 18 USC § 49||The AWA is, in the main, a regulatory law that seeks to control who may possess or sell certain animals and the living conditions (for non-agricultural, domestic animals) under which the animals must be kept. The law provides for criminal penalties, civil penalties and revocation of permits for violations of the AWA.|
|US - AWA - Animal Welfare Act Decisions||
This document contains references to both court decisions and administrative proceedings under the Animal Welfare Act on a section by section basis.
|US - AWA - Sectional History of AWA||7 USC 2131 - 2159||
This document gives legal history of the Animal Welfare Act on a section by section basis.
|US - Cattle - Milk Income Loss Contract Program||7 U.S.C.A. § 7981 - 7984||Federal program that compensates dairy producers when domestic milk prices fall below a specified level.|
|US - Chimpanzees - § 283m. Sanctuary system for surplus chimpanzees (CHIMP Act)||42 U.S.C.A. § 283m||This Act provides a system of sanctuaries to provide for the lifetime care of chimpanzees not needed for research that have been used, or were bred or purchased for use, in research conducted or supported by the National Institutes of Health, the Food and Drug Administration, or other agencies of the Federal Government. The Act lists, among other things, requirements for the sanctuaries, criteria for "acceptable" chimpanzees, restrictions on further research of these chimpanzees, and establishment of contracts to entities providing care in the system.|
|US - Civil Rights - Civil Action for Deprivation of Civil Rights||42 U.S.C.A. 1983||This law is the primary means by which a person can bring a violation of a constitutional right. To prevail in a claim under section 1983, the plaintiff must meet two elements: a person subjected the plaintiff to conduct that occurred under color of state law, and this conduct deprived the plaintiff of rights, privileges, or immunities guaranteed under federal law or the U.S. Constitution. The statute provides immunity for persons operating under "color of law" acting in their official capacities.|
|US - Companion Animals - Federal Pet Theft Prevention Act (§ 2158. Protection of pets. )||7 USC 2158||This section of the AWA prohibits shelters from selling found pets within a period of five days to any random-source organization. The purpose of the Act is to prevent animals from being stolen and purchased from humane societies in order to use the animals for scientific testing or illegal purposes (such as fighting, etc.).|
|US - Conservation - Fish & Wildlife Conservation Act||16 USC 2901 - 2912||The Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act, approved September 29, 1980, authorizes financial and technical assistance to the States for the development, revision, and implementation of conservation plans and programs for nongame fish and wildlife. The original Act authorized $5 million for each of Fiscal Years 1982 through 1985, for grants for development and implementation of comprehensive State nongame fish and wildlife plans and for administration of the Act. It also required the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to study potential mechanisms for funding these activities and report to Congress by March 1984.|
|US - Conservation - Fish & Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978||16 U.S.C. 742l||The Fish and Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978 authorizes the Secretaries of the Interior and Commerce to establish, conduct, and assist with national training programs for State fish and wildlife law enforcement personnel. It also authorized funding for research and development of new or improved methods to support fish and wildlife law enforcement. The law provides authority to the Secretaries to enter into law enforcement cooperative agreements with State or other Federal agencies, and authorizes the disposal of abandoned or forfeited items under the fish, wildlife, and plant jurisdictions of these Secretaries.|
|US - Conservation - Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956||16 USC 742a - 742j||The Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742a-742j, not including 742 d-l; 70 Stat. 1119), establishes a comprehensive national fish, shellfish, and wildlife resources policy with emphasis on the commercial fishing industry but also with a direction to administer the Act with regard to the inherent right of every citizen and resident to fish for pleasure, enjoyment, and betterment and to maintain and increase public opportunities for recreational use of fish and wildlife resources. Among other things, it directs a program of continuing research, extension, and information services on fish and wildlife matters, both domestically and internationally.|
|US - Conservation - Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act||16 USC 661 - 667e||The Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act (16 U.S.C. 661-667e) of 1934 authorizes the Secretaries of Agriculture and Commerce to provide assistance to and cooperate with Federal and State agencies to protect, rear, stock, and increase the supply of game and fur-bearing animals, as well as to study the effects of domestic sewage, trade wastes, and other polluting substances on wildlife. In addition, this Act authorizes the preparation of plans to protect wildlife resources, the completion of wildlife surveys on public lands, and the acceptance by the Federal agencies of funds or lands for related purposes provided that land donations received the consent of the State in which they are located.|
|US - Crimes - Chapter 3. Animals, Birds, Fish, and Plants.||18 USCA § 43||This federal law provides for crime and penalties for animal enterprise terrorism.|
|US - Cruelty - § 48. Animal crush videos||18 U.S.C.A. § 48||This federal law was amended in November 2019 to expand its prohibition on "animal crush videos" to "crushing" that affects interstate or foreign commerce or occurs within the special maritime or territorial jurisdiction of the U.S. "Crushing" is defined as "actual conduct in which one or more living non-human mammals, birds, reptiles, or amphibians is purposely crushed, burned, drowned, suffocated, impaled, or otherwise subjected to serious bodily injury (as defined in section 1365 and including conduct that, if committed against a person and in the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, would violate section 2241 or 2242." Exceptions exist for things like veterinary care, animal husbandry, animal slaughter, hunting and fishing, medical or scientific research, personal protection, and animal euthanasia. Violation incurs a fine or imprisonment for not more than 7 years or both fine and imprisonment.|
|US - Disability - Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)||42 U.S.C.A. § 12101, 12102, 12132; 2 U.S.C.A. § 1311||Following are excerpted sections from the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 that relate to assistance animals. Also included is § 1311 of the Civil Rights Act that defines discriminatory practices and outlines the remedies for such violations.|
|US - Divorce/Custody - Uniform Marriage & Divorce Act. Section 307. Part III Dissolution. Section 307 Disposition of Property.||ULA Marr & Divorce s 307||Uniform act created to address division of marital property upon divorce in equitable distribution jurisdiction. Two alternatives are given, directing equitable apportionment in one and division in just proportions in the other.|
|US - Divorce/Custody - United States. Uniform Marital Property Act. Section 4. Classification of Property of Spouses.||ULA Marital Property Act s 4||Uniform act created to address division of marital property upon divorce in community property jurisdictions.|
|US - Eagle - Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act||16 U.S.C. 668 - 668d||The BGEPA prohibits any form of possession or taking of both bald and golden eagles through criminal and civil sanctions as well as an enhanced penalty provision for subsequent offenses. Further, the BGEPA provides for the forfeiture of anything used to acquire eagles in violation of the statute. The statute excepts from its prohibitions on possession the use of eagles or eagle parts for exhibition, scientific, and Indian religious uses.|
|US - Elephant - African Elephant Conservation Act||16 USC 4201 - 4246||A U.S. federal law that reaffirms the endangered status of African elephants and allocates money toward conservation efforts.|
|US - Elephant - Asian Elephant Conservation Act||16 USC 4261 - 4266||A U.S. federal law that reaffirms the endangered status of Asian elephants and allocates money toward conservation efforts.|
|US - Endangered Species - Chapter 35. Endangered Species.||16 USC 1531 - 1544||This is key law at the national level for the listing and protecting of endangered species and their critical habitat. It also implements the US obligations under the treaty CITES.|
|US - Environmental - National Environmental Policy Act of 1969||42 USC 4321 - 4370j||The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires federal agencies to integrate environmental values into their decision making processes by considering the environmental impacts of their proposed actions and reasonable alternatives to those actions. To meet this requirement, federal agencies prepare a detailed statement known as an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). EPA reviews and comments on EISs prepared by other federal agencies, maintains a national filing system for all EISs, and assures that its own actions comply with NEPA.|
|US - Exotic Birds - Wild Exotic Bird Conservation Act||16 USC 4901 - 4916||The Wild Exotic Bird Conservation Act addresses the population threat to non-indigenous wild birds due to the demand the from U.S. as the number one importer of exotic birds (e.g., the "pet" bird trade). Exceptions under the statute include qualified breeding facilities, scientific or zoological study, and people returning the U.S. who have been out of the country for more than a year (limited to two birds).|
|US - Fisheries - Packwood-Magnuson Amendment||16 USC 1801 - 1803||The aim of this statute is the development of United States' controlled fishing conservation and management program designed to prevent overfishing and to rebuild depleted stock.|
|US - Fisheries - Pelly Amendment (§ 1978)||22 USC 1978||The Pelly Amendment provides restrictions on importation of fishery or wildlife products from countries which violate international fishery or endangered or threatened species programs.|
|US - Food Animal - Humane Methods of Livestock Slaughter||7 USC 1901 - 1907||These statutory sections comprise what is commonly termed the Humane Slaughter Act. Included in these sections are Congress' statement that livestock must be slaughtered in a humane manner to prevent needless suffering, research methods on humane methods of slaughter, the nonapplicability of these statutes to religious or ritual slaughter, and the investigation into the care of nonambulatory livestock.|
|US - Food Animal - Twenty Eight Hour Law||49 USC 80502||This Federal law addresses the transportation of animals, including those raised for food or in food production, across state lines. The statute provides that animals cannot be transported by "rail carrier, express carrier or common carrier" (except by air or water) for more than 28 consecutive hours without being unloaded for five hours for rest, water and food.|
|US - Funding State - Pittman-Roberson Act (Chapter 5B. Wildlife Restoration)||16 USC 669 - 669l||The Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to cooperate with the States, through their respective State fish and game departments, in wildlife-restoration projects. However, no money shall be expended until the state in question assents to the provisions of this chapter and has passed laws for the conservation of wildlife, which includes a prohibition against the diversion of license fees paid by hunters for any other purpose than the administration of the fish and game department.|
|US - Fur - Subchapter IV. Labeling of Fur Products||15 USCA § 69 et seq.||The Fur Products Labeling Act, 15 U.S.C. Sec. 69, declares that fur products will be considered misbranded if falsely or deceptively labeled or identified, and/or if the product does not contain a label that legibly shows the name(s) of the animals from which the fur was taken, the name or other identification of the person(s) who manufactured the fur, and the country of origin of the fur. The label must also state, if true, that the fur product contains used or artificially colored fur, and/or if it is composed in whole or in substantial part of paws, tails, bellies, or waste fur. However, the law defines fur product as an article of clothing that is made in whole or in part by fur, but states that the Commission can exempt articles because of the small quantity of fur they contain. The Federal Trade Commission has deemed relatively small quantity or value to equal $150, which means multiple animal pelts [can exist] on a garment without a label.|
|US - Fur, dog and cat fur products - Chapter 4. Tariff Act of 1930.||19 U.S.C.A. § 1308||This federal statute prohibits commerce in dog or cat fur. Specifically, the statute forbids import into, or export from, the United States of any dog or cat fur product; or the introduction into interstate commerce, manufacture for introduction into interstate commerce, sell, trade, or advertise in interstate commerce, offer to sell, or transport or distribute in interstate commerce in the United States, any dog or cat fur product. The exception under the act is for the importation, exportation, or transportation, for noncommercial purposes, of a personal pet that is deceased, including a pet preserved through taxidermy.|
|US - Golden Eagle - Protection||Public Law 87-884; 76 Stat. 1246 (1962)||
This public law amended the Eagle Protection Act by adding golden eagles as a protected species under the Act. The Joint Resolution states that the golden eagle was added under the Act not only because it too faced extinction, but its listing would further protect the bald eagle, as the two species are sometimes mistaken for each other. For further discussion, see the Eagle Act Detailed Discussion.
|US - Grazing - Taylor Grazing Act||43 USC 315 - 315r||Statute empowers Secretary of the Interior to establish and oversee grazing districts on federal land via a system of permits.|
|US - Horse - Chapter 44. Protection of Horses.||15 U.S.C.A. § 1821 - 1831||The Federal Horse Protection Act of December 2, 1970, states that causing horses to be "sore" or to suffer physical pain and distress for the purpose of improving the horse's performance is cruel and inhumane. This set of statutes describes both lawful and unlawful conduct against horses as well as the civil and criminal penalties that are in place for violating this Act.|
|US - Horse - Wild Horses and Burros Act||16 USC 1331 - 1340||The Wild Horses and Burros Act approved December 15, 1971, provides for protection of wild, free-roaming horses and burros. It directs the Bureau of Land Management of the Department of the Interior and Forest Service of the Department of Agriculture to manage such animals on public lands under their jurisdiction.|
|US - Horses - Sale of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros||PL 108-447||
These amendments to the Wild Horses Act, 16 U.S.C.A. § 1333, amended by Public Law 108-447, allow for the sale of animals for commercial purposes in some circumstances, specifically when the excess animal is more than 10 years old, or has been unsuccessfully offered for adoption on at least 3 occasions. Once the excess animal is sold, it will no longer be considered a wild free-roaming horse or burro according to this Act.
|US - Housing - Fair Housing. Subchapter I. Generally. Section 3602. Definitions.||42 U.S.C.A. 3601 - 3604||The following sections of the Fair Housing Act relate to "reasonable accommodations" for persons with a handicap or disability. In Section 3602, the definition of "handicap" includes a person with: (1) a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more of such person's major life activities; (2) a record of having such an impairment, or (3) being regarded as having such an impairment. Section 3604 is the operative part of the law that makes it unlawful to discriminate because of a handicap in the sale or rental of a dwelling. Under subsection (3)(B), the law states that discrimination includes the refusal to make "reasonable accommodations in rules, policies, practices, or services, when such accommodations may be necessary to afford such person equal opportunity to use and enjoy a dwelling."|
|US - Housing - FHA Definitions ( Section 705. Definitions)||29 USC 705(20)(B)||Sec. 504 provides the federal definition of "disability" (part 9) and "handicap" (part 20).|