Wolves: Related Statutes
|Statute by category||Citation||Summary|
|AK - Initiatives - 05HUNT (shooting bears and wolves from aircraft)||05-HUNT (2008)||This 2008 measure was an initiated state statute presented to voters in August of 2008. The measure would have prohibited shooting of a free-ranging wolf, wolverine, or grizzly bear the same day that the person has been airborne. It was defeated by a margin of 44.4% for the measure and 55.6% against on August 26th.|
|AK - Initiatives - Ballot Measure 6 (hunters using airplanes)||Ballot Measure 6 (2000)||Voters are asked to either approve or reject a law allowing hunters to use airplanes to land and shoot wolves on the same day they fly. The law allows any person with a hunting or trapping license to land and shoot in areas established by the Board of Game. No additional permit may be required. The law also allows the Alaska Department of Fish and Game to use agents, as well as employees, to engage in same day airborne shooting of wolves. The measure passed with 53% of the vote.|
|AK - Initiatives - Ballot Measure 9 (wolf trapping)||Ballot Measure 9 (2000)||This bill would have prohibited a person from using a snare with the intent of trapping a wolf and appeared on the 2000 ballot. It would also have prohibited a person from possessing, buying, selling, or offering to sell the skin of a wolf known by the person to have been caught with a snare. Breaking the law would have been a Class A misdemeanor. The measure failed with only 37.3% of the vote.|
|AR - Breed - Wolf-Hybrid - Wolf-Hybrid Vaccination||A.C.A. § 20-19-406||
This Arkansas statute outlines the procedure for vaccination of wolf-hybrid dogs, including procedures for handling bites by these canines.
|AR - Exotic Pets - Subchapter 4. Ownership and Breeding of Wolves and Wolf-Dog Hybrids||A.C.A. § 20-19-401 - 408||
This chapter of Arkansas laws concerns the regulation of wolves and wolf-dog hybrids kept as companion animals. Under the law, a "wolf-dog hybrid” means any animal which is publicly acknowledged by its owner as being the offspring of a wolf and domestic dog; however, no animal may be judged to be a wolf or wolf-dog hybrid based strictly on its appearance. The specific rabies vaccination requirements for wolf-dog hybrids are detailed as well as confinement requirements (i.e, specific fence dimensions). If a wolf or wolf-dog hybrid bites a person or injures or destroys another animal while out of its confined area, the person responsible for the adequate confinement of the animal upon conviction shall be guilty of a Class A misdemeanor.
|CO - Exotic - Article 81. Hybrid Animals||C. R. S. A. § 35-81-101 to 102||
This Colorado statute authorized the commissioner of the department of agriculture to appoint and convene an advisory group to study the behavior of hybrid canids (wolf hybrids) and felines, including a review of any incidents involving property damage and personal injury caused by such animals. The department was to present its findings and proposals for legislation in January of 1998.
|ID - Predator - Chapter 58. Protection of Natural Resources (wolf declaration)||I.C. § 67-5801 - 5807||
The purpose of Chapter 58 is to provide an orderly, comprehensive plan for the protection of the natural resources of the state and for the suppression of dangers or threats. Section 5806 the Idaho legislature finds and declares that the state's citizens, businesses, hunting, tourism and agricultural industries, private property and wildlife, are immediately and continuously threatened and harmed by the sustained presence and growing population of Canadian gray wolves in the state of Idaho. The legislature states that "a disaster emergency is in existence as a result of the introduction of Canadian gray wolves, which have caused and continue to threaten vast devastation of Idaho's social culture, economy and natural resources."
|ID - Predators - Chapter 11. Protection of Animals and Birds||I.C. § 36-1101 to 1120||
This Idaho chapter deals with restrictions on the taking of wildlife, protection of wildlife, and control of predators. Migratory birds are protected under the chapter. The chapter also establishes the right of any person to control, trap, or remove any wild animal damaging private property, within limitations set forth. In particular, the chapter states that wolves may be disposed of by livestock or domestic animal owners, their employees, agents and animal damage control personnel when the same are molesting or attacking livestock or domestic animals and it shall not be necessary to obtain any permit from the department. The section also sets up procedures for damage caused by game animals such as deer and elk as well as predators like black bears, grizzly bears, and mountain lions.
|ME - Exotic Pets - Chapter 723. Facility Licenses.||ME ST T. 7 § 3931-B (§ 3931-B. Repealed. Laws 2011, c. 100, § 13, eff. May 19, 2011)||
This Maine statute outlines the requirements that apply to wolf hybrid kennels. A person who operates a wolf hybrid kennel must register with the department. The offspring of a wolf hybrid must be permanently identified prior to transferring ownership or care of the animal. Failure to comply with the provisions of this section results in a civil violation with a forfeiture not to exceed $1,000. (For other exotic pet laws in Maine, see Chapter 730-A. Breeding, Sale and Transportation of Small Mammals).
|ME - Exotic Pets - Subchapter 15. Wildlife Importation and Possession, Permits and Requirements,||12 M. R. S. A. § 12151 - 12161||
These Maine statutes prohibit keeping wildlife in captivity, importing, breeding or releasing wildlife into the wild, with exceptions for a person holding a license. Taking reptiles, amphibians, and certain nonmarine invertebrates from the wild is also prohibited without a license. Provisions for the disposition of wolf hybrids are included. Penalties for violations incur fines that range from $100 to $500. Three or more such violations are considered to be a Class E criminal offense.
|MI - Dog Bite - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code.||M. C. L. A. 750.66a||
This Michigan law, which becomes effective January of 2009, provides that a person 18 years of age or older who is responsible for controlling the actions of a dog or wolf-dog cross and the person knows or has reason to know that the dog or wolf-dog cross has bitten another person shall remain on the scene. A person who violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than 93 days or a fine of not more than $500.00, or both.
|MI - Exotic pets - CHAPTER 287. ANIMAL INDUSTRY. WOLF-DOG CROSS ACT.||M. C. L. A. 287.1004||
This Michigan statute provides the requirements for ownership of wolf-dog hybrids in the state.
|MI - Exotic pets - CHAPTER 287. ANIMAL INDUSTRY. WOLF-DOG CROSS ACT.||M. C. L. A. 287.1021||
Under this Michigan statute, a local unit is empowered to adopt an ordinance governing wolf-dog crosses that is more restrictive than this act, provided it fulfills the requirements of this act in addition to any other requirements governing a wolf-dog cross under state and federal law.
|MI - Exotic Pets - Chapter 287. Animal Industry; Wolf-dog Cross Act||MCLA 287.1001 - 1023||
This Michigan law bans acquisition and possession of wolf-dog hybrids, though it “grandfathered” animals already owned as pets at the time of the law's enactments. In order to maintain public safety and animal welfare, the state created a strict permit system for those owners who were allowed to keep their already-existing pets. (See also link to Chapter 287. Animal Industry; Large Carnivore Act ; link to 287.731- Importation of species having potential to endanger life or property prohibited; importation of wild or exotic animals; requirements and prohibitions ).
|MI - Initiatives - Proposal 14-1, Keep Michigan Wolves Protected||Proposal 14-1 (2014)||This proposal for 2014 is a referendum of Public Act 520 of 2012, which authorizes the establishment of the first open hunting season for wolves. It will appear on the November 4, 2014 ballot. The measure will UPHOLD Public Act 520, which allows the authorization of wolf hunting seasons in Michigan. In Michigan, a "Yes" vote on a veto referendum upholds the law and a "No" vote rejects the law. As a result, the referendum's supporters are campaigning for a "No" vote.|
|MI - Initiatives - Proposal 14-2, A REFERENDUM OF PUBLIC ACT 520 OF 2012, ESTABLISHING A HUNTING SEASON FOR WOLVES AND AUTHORIZING ANNUAL WOLF HUNTING SEASONS||Proposal 14-2 (2014)||This is the second wolf-related ballot measure for the November 4, 2014 election that also operates as a veto referendum. If the proposal is approved, it would uphold Public Act 21 of 2013, which authorizes the Natural Resources Commission to directly designate game species (including wolves) and determine hunting seasons. In Michigan, a "Yes" vote on a veto referendum upholds the law and a "No" vote rejects the law. As a result, the referendum's supporters are campaigning for a "No" vote.|
|MI - Wolves - Control of gray wolves, § 324.95151 to 324.95167||M.C.L.A. 324.95151; M.C.L.A. 324.95153; M.C.L.A. 324.95155; M.C.L.A. 324.95161; M.C.L.A. 324.95163; M.C.L.A. 324.95165; M.C.L.A. 324.95167||This chapter of Michigan laws deals with the removal, capture, or destruction of gray wolves. According to the laws, a landowner is able to use any means necessary to remove a gray wolf from its property, including lethal force, if the gray wolf is threatening the landowners livestock or dog(s). Once a landowner has removed, captured, or destroyed a gray wolf, the landowner must report it to a department official no later than 12 hours after the removal, capture, or destruction. According to Section 324.95167, the act is not operative until final appellate court issues a decision overruling the decision of The Humane Society of the United States v Dirk Kempthorne that allows removal of wolves from the federal ESA list, or the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service promulgates a final rule dated after March 12, 2007 that removes gray wolves located in this state from the list of endangered and threatened wildlife established under the federal endangered species act of 1973 and that final rule takes effect.|
|MN - Wolves - 97B.645. Gray wolves, Gray wolf management plan||M.S.A. § 97B.645 - 97B.647||
These Minnesota statutes deal with hunting and management of gray wolves. The gray wolf management plan is meant to ensure the long-term survival of the gray wolf in Minnesota, to reduce conflicts between gray wolves and humans, to minimize depredation of livestock and domestic pets, and to manage the ecological impact of wolves on prey species and other predators. If a gray wolf is posing an immediate threat to livestock or a domestic animal, it may be permissible to kill the wolf. Under 97B-647, a person may not take a wolf without a wolf hunting or wolf trapping license. In 2014, these statutes were amended to make a person who unlawfully takes, transports, or possesses a wolf in violation of the game and fish laws, and has one or more prior convictions involving the taking of wolves, is liable for a civil penalty equal to the restitution value for the wolf; the statutes also require the Commissioner of Natural Resources to compile a list that is updated quarterly on known wolf deaths, based on reporting by conservation officers. The list must specify the date and location of each wolf death and must be available on the department Web site.
|NH - Exotic Pets - Chapter 466-A. Wolf Hybrids||N.H. Rev. Stat. § 466-A:1 to 466-A:6||
This section of laws comprises New Hampshire's wolf-dog hybrid act. Under the law, no person shall sell or resell, offer for sale or resale, or release or cause to be released a wolf hybrid in the state of New Hampshire. A person may temporarily import a wolf hybrid provided that he or she shows proof of spaying or neutering and has accurate vaccination records. Each wolf hybrid shall be under the physical control of the owner or confined in an enclosure or structure sufficient to prohibit escape. Any person in violation of this chapter or any rule adopted under this chapter shall be guilty of a class A misdemeanor. (See also link to 207:14 Import, Possession, or Release of Wildlife ).
|NH - Wolf - Chapter 207. General Provisions as to Fish and Game.||N.H. Rev. Stat. § 207:61||
This New Hampshire statute prohibits the introduction of wolf populations into the state by a person or state agency.
|OR - Predator Control - Chapter 610. Predatory Animals.||O. R. S. § 610.002 - 990||
These Oregon statutes pertain to the control of predatory animals, which are defined as feral swine, coyotes, rabbits, rodents, and certain birds, and establish the Predatory Animal, Rabbit and Rodent Control Fund. The State Department of Agriculture may employ hunters and trappers to control and eradicate harmful predatory animals.
|SC - Exotic Pets - Chapter 16. Importation of Wildlife.||Code 1976 § 50-11-1700 - 1950; § 50-16-10 - 70||
This South Carolina law states that it is unlawful for a person to import, possess, or transport for the purpose of release or to introduce or bring into this State the following live wildlife: a furbearer which includes but is not limited to, red and gray fox, raccoon, opossum, muskrat, mink, skunk, otter, bobcat, weasel, and beaver; a member of the family Cervidae, a nondomestic member of the families Suidae (pigs), Tayassuidae (peccaries), Bovidae (bison, mountain goat, mountain sheep), coyote, bear, or turkey (genus Meleagris); or a non-native species of fish, crustacean, mollusk, or invertebrate. A permit may be granted only after the investigations and inspections of the wildlife have been made as the department considers necessary and the department approves the possession, transportation, or importation into the State. § 50-11-1765 provides that it is unlawful to sell live wolves or to ship, import, or possess live wolves into this State without a permit.
|SC - Wildlife - Chapter 16. Importation of Wildlife.||Code 1976 § 50-16-10 to 70; § 50-11-1765||
This set of South Carolina laws relates to the possession of live wildlife. A permit is required for the following: the family Cervidae, a nondomestic member of the families Suidae (pigs), Tayassuidae (peccaries), Bovidae (bison, mountain goat, mountain sheep), coyote, bear, or turkey (genus Meleagris), and a "furbearer," which includes, but is not limited to, red and gray fox, raccoon, opossum, muskrat, mink, skunk, otter, bobcat, weasel, and beaver. However, wildlife imported for exhibition purposes only by state wildlife departments, municipal zoos or parks, public museums, public zoological parks, and public scientific or educational institutions operated not for profit, and transient circuses are not required to procure a permit. Under another section, release of a member of the family Suidae (pig) into the wild is prohibited except as provided by law. Further, it is unlawful for a person to possess, transport, or otherwise bring into the state or release or introduce into the state any diseased wildlife or other animal that reasonably might be expected to pose a public health or safety hazard. Violating any permitting requirement under the chapter results in a misdemeanor with a mandatory fine of not more than $1,000 or up to 6 months imprisonment, or both.
|TX - Wildlife, wolves - Subchapter B. Nongame Animals||V. T. C. A., Parks & Wildlife Code § 63.101 - 104||
Under these Texas statutes, no person may hunt, sell, buy or possess a live or dead bat, with exceptions. A violation is a Class C misdemeanor. It is a felony to possess, transport, receive, or release a live wolf in Texas (with exceptions). It is a class B misdemeanor to sell a living armadillo in Texas (with exceptions).
|UT - Wolves - Chapter 29. Wolf Management Act||U.C.A. 1953 § 23-29-101 - 202||
Under the Utah Wolf Management Act, wolves must be managed so as to prevent the establishment of a viable pack anywhere in the state where the wolf is not listed as threatened or endangered until the wolf is delisted. If a wolf is discovered in an area where wolves are listed as threatened or endangered, the division must request its immediate removal from the state by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
|VA - Dog Breed - Article 11. Hybrid Canines.||Va. Code Ann. § 3.2-6581 - 6584||
This Virginia section provides three definitions related to hybrid dogs (wolf or coyote crossbreeds), including, adequate confinement, hybrid canine, responsible ownership. The section also allows any locality may, by ordinance, establish a permit system to ensure the adequate confinement and responsible ownership of hybrid canines. Violation of an ordinance enacted pursuant to this section is a Class 3 misdemeanor for the first violation and a Class 1 misdemeanor for any subsequent violation.
|VA - Exotic Pets - Article 11. Hybrid Canines||Va. Code Ann. § 3.2-6581 - 6584||
This section provides Virginia's hybrid canine laws (registered or described to a veterinarian, animal control, or other listed authority as a wolf or coyote-dog cross) . Under the section, any locality may, by ordinance, establish a permit system to ensure the adequate confinement and responsible ownership of hybrid canines. Violation of an ordinance enacted pursuant to this section is a Class 3 misdemeanor for the first violation and a Class 1 misdemeanor for any subsequent violation. Further, it is the duty of any animal control officer or other officer who may find a hybrid canine in the act of killing or injuring livestock or poultry to kill such hybrid canine forthwith, whether such hybrid canine bears a tag or not.
|VT - Dogs, Wolf-hybrids - Consolidated Dog Laws||20 V.S.A. § 3511 - 3513; 3541 - 3817, 3901 - 3915, 4301 - 4304; 10 V.S.A. § 5001 - 5007, § 4748||
These Vermont statutes comprise the state's dog laws. Among the provisions include licensing and control laws for both domestic dogs and wolf-hybrids, laws concerning the sale of dogs, and various wildlife/hunting laws that implicate dogs.
|VT - Lost dog - Article 2. Killing Unlicensed Dogs; Subchapter 5. Control of Rabies||20 V.S.A. § 3621 - 3626; 20 V.S.A. § 3806 - 3809||
These Vermont statute provide the law for seizure, confinement of, and destruction of dogs and domestic wolf-hybrids. It also includes a warrant form necessary for local authorities to seize and impound an offending dog or wolf-hybrid.
|WY - Hunting - § 23-3-304. Certain trapping devices unlawful; game for bait prohibited; baiting big game animals prohibited; pen||W. S. 1977 § 23-3-304||
This Wyoming statute prohibits certain trapping devices, such as pit, pitfall, net, trap, deadfall, poison, etc. It is illegal to take or use a game animal to bait a trap or to poison any wildlife. A violation is a high misdemeanor.
|WY - Predatory Animals - Chapter 6. Predatory Animals.||W. S. 1977 § 11-6-101 - 313||
This first article of the chapter allows owners of livestock to fill out an application with the board of county commissioners to receive permission to eradicate predatory animals. The second article of the chapter outlines the composition and function of the state predator management advisory board. Article 3 outlines the Wyoming animal damage management program. In that section, "predatory animal” is defined as any coyote, jackrabbit, porcupine, raccoon, red fox, skunk or stray cat; and gray wolves except where they are designated as trophy game animals.
|WY - Wildlife, exotic hybrid - Chapter 1. Game and Fish Administration.||W. S. 1977 §§ 23-1-101 to 109||
This section of Wyoming statutes states that all wildlife in the state is considered the property of the state. It further provides that there is no private ownership of live animals classified in this act as big or trophy game animals. “Exotic species” means any wild animals, including amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, crustaceans or birds not found in a wild, free or unconfined status in Wyoming. This section also contains the management laws for delisted gray wolves that were repealed in 2012.