Statutes

Statute by category Citationsort descending Summary
US - AWA - Animal Welfare Act 7 USC §§ 2131 - 2159; 18 USC § 49

The AWA is, in the main, a regulatory law that seeks to control who may possess or sell certain animals and the living conditions (for non-agricultural, domestic animals) under which the animals must be kept. The law provides for criminal penalties, civil penalties and revocation of permits for violations of the AWA. For more on the act, see the Topical Introduction to the AWA .

US - Agriculture - Animal Damage Control Act 7 USCA § 8351 - 8354 (formerly cited as 7 USC 426 - 426d)

Animal Damage Control Act of March 2, 1931, (46 Stat. 1468) provided broad authority for investigation, demonstrations and control of mammalian predators, rodents and birds.  Public Law 99-19, approved December 19, 1985, (99 Stat 1185) transferred administration of the Act from the Secretary of the Interior to the Secretary of Agriculture.  Pub. L. 102-190(Div. A, title III, Sec. 348, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1348) and P.L. 102-237 (Title X, Sec. 1013(d), 105 Stat. 1901, Dec. 13, 1991) added provisions directing the Secretaries of Defense and Agriculture, respectively, to take actions to prevent the introduction of brown tree snakes into other areas of the U.S. from Guam.

IL - Dog Fighting - Chapter 720. Criminal Offenses 720 I.L.C.S. 5/48-1

The following statute comprises Illinois' dogfighting law.  Under the law, it is a felony to promote or instigate a fight, or to train or sell a dog for dogfighting purposes.  Further, no person may solicit a minor to violate this Section. Providing equipment or aiding in providing equipment for a fight is also a felony.  Knowingly attending a dogfight is a Class 4 felony for a first violation. A second or subsequent violation of subsection (g) of this Section is a Class 3 felony.

IL - Exotic pets - 5/48-10. Dangerous animals 720 I.L.C.S. 5/48-10 This Illinois law states that no person shall have a right of property in, keep, harbor, care for, act as custodian of or maintain in his or her possession any dangerous animal or primate except at a properly maintained zoological park, federally licensed exhibit, circus, college or university, scientific institution, research laboratory, veterinary hospital, hound running area, or animal refuge in an escape-proof enclosure. A "dangerous animal" is defined as a lion, tiger, leopard, ocelot, jaguar, cheetah, margay, mountain lion, lynx, bobcat, jaguarundi, bear, hyena, wolf or coyote.This Section does not prohibit a person who had lawful possession of a primate before January 1, 2011, from continuing to possess that primate if the person registers the animal by providing written notification to the local animal control administrator on or before April 1, 2011. Violation is a Class C misdemeanor.
IL - Elephant - 5/48-11. Unlawful use of an elephant in a traveling animal act 720 I.L.C.S. 5/48-11 This Illinois law states that a person commits unlawful use of an elephant in a traveling animal act when he or she knowingly allows for the participation of an African elephant (Loxodonta Africana) or Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) protected under the federal Endangered Species Act of 1973 in a traveling animal act. Violation is a Class A misdemeanor. This Section does not apply to an exhibition of elephants at a non-mobile, permanent institution, or other facility.
IL - Ecoterrorism - 5/48-2. Animal research and production facilities protection 720 I.L.C.S. 5/48-2

This new law replaces the Illinois' Animal Research and Production Facilities Protection Act, which was repealed in 2013. Under the new law, it is unlawful for any person to release, steal, or injure an animal held at a facility; to damage or vandalize any property; to obtain access to an animal facility by false pretenses for the purpose of performing unauthorized acts; to enter into an animal facility with an intent to destroy, alter, duplicate, or obtain unauthorized possession of records; or to enter or remain on an animal facility with the intent to commit a prohibited act. Violation of any of these acts is a felony, with classification based on the amount of property damage.

IL - Hunting - 5/48-3. Hunter or fisherman interference 720 I.L.C.S. 5/48-3 A person commits hunter or fisherman interference when he or she intentionally or knowingly obstructs or interferes with the lawful taking of wildlife or aquatic life by another person with the specific intent to prevent that lawful taking. This includes things such as blocking or impeding the person hunting, using objects or barriers, using artificial or natural stimuli to hinder the lawful taking, or even using a drone in a way that interferes with another person's lawful taking of wildlife or aquatic life. A first violation is a Class B misdemeanor with enhacements for subsequent offenses.
IL - Cruelty - Horse Mutilation Act 720 ILCS 5/48-5

This act  text  prevents the docking of horses' tails. Violation results in a Class A misdemeanor.

IL - Facility dog - 5/106B-10. Conditions for testimony by a victim who is a child or a moderately, 725 I.L.C.S. 5/106B-10 This Illinois law allows a "facility dog" - a dog that is a graduate of an assistance dog organization that is a member of Assistance Dogs International - to be present during the testimony of a victim who is a child or a moderately, severely, or profoundly intellectually disabled person or a person affected by a developmental disability. This occurs in the prosecution of criminal sexual assault, predatory criminal sexual assault of a child, aggravated criminal sexual assault, criminal sexual abuse, or aggravated criminal sexual abuse. When deciding whether to permit the child or person to testify with the assistance of a facility dog, the court shall take into consideration the age of the child or person, the rights of the parties to the litigation, and any other relevant factor that would facilitate the testimony by the child or the person.
IL - Domestic Violence - Article 112A. Domestic Violence 725 ILCS 5/112A-14 This Illinois law allows a court to issue an order of protection if the court finds that petitioner has been abused by a family or household member. It also allows for the protection of animals in domestic violence situations. Under Section (b)(11.5), the court can "[g]rant the petitioner the exclusive care, custody, or control of any animal owned, possessed, leased, kept, or held by either the petitioner or the respondent or a minor child residing in the residence or household of either the petitioner or the respondent and order the respondent to stay away from the animal and forbid the respondent from taking, transferring, encumbering, concealing, harming, or otherwise disposing of the animal."
PA - Pet Sales - § 201-9.3. Dog purchaser protection 73 P.S. § 201-9.3

This Pennsylvania statute comprises the state's Dog Purchaser Protection law.  The law mandates disclosure of a dog's health history by a seller (defined as pet shop operator or other individual who sells dogs to the public and who owns or operates a kennel or pet shop licensed by the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture or the United States Department of Agriculture).  If, within ten days after the date of purchase, a dog purchased from a seller is determined, through physical examination, diagnostic tests or necropsy by a veterinarian, to be clinically ill or dies from any contagious or infectious illness or any parasitic illness which renders it unfit for purchase or results in its death, the purchaser may exercise one of the described statutory elections.

PA - Fur - Dog and Cat Product Act 73 P.S. § 210-1 to 6

This set of laws represents the Dog and Cat Product Act. The act provides that no person shall sell or offer for sale, wholesale or retail, the fur, skin or hair of a dog or cat or any product or part of a product containing the fur, skin or hair of a dog or cat. Violation of the act commits a misdemeanor of the third degree. Subsequent offenses committed within five years of a prior conviction for the same offense constitutes a misdemeanor of the first degree.

OK - Leash - § 2217. Public access and use of state parks--Prohibitions (dog leash) 74 Okl.St.Ann. § 2217

No person may enter a state park with a dog, unless the dog is on a leash, or permit any dog to enter a state park or recreation area under the jurisdiction of the Commission. It is further provided that any authorized member of the Department or any authorized employee of the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation may kill any vicious dog found running loose in any state park which poses imminent threat to humans or other animals, or which may be chasing or running any game in the state park. Any such authorized employees of the Departments shall not be held liable for the killing of said dog,

IL - Service Animal - Chapter 740. Civil Liabilities. 740 I.L.C.S. 13/1 - 10

Under this Illinois statute, a physically impaired person may bring an action for both economic and noneconomic damages against a person who steals, injures, or attacks his or her assistance animal with hazardous chemicals (provided he or she reasonably knew the guide dog was present and the chemical was hazardous).  The economic damages recoverable include veterinary medical expenses, replacement costs, and temporary replacement assistance (provided by person or animal).  No cause of action lies where the physically impaired person was committing a civil or criminal trespass at the time of the attack or theft.

IL - Equine Liability Act - Equine Activity Liability Act 745 I.L.C.S. 47/1 - 47/999 This act stipulates that an equine sponsor or professional, or any other person, is immune from liability for the death or injury of a participant, which resulted from the inherent risks of equine activities. However, there are exceptions to this rule; a person will be held liable for injuries of an equine activity participant if he or she displays a willful and wanton or intentional disregard for the safety of the participant and if he or she fails to make reasonable and prudent efforts in ensuring the safety of the participant. In addition, a person will also be held liable for the injury of an equine activity participant if he or she is injured on the land or at a facility due to a dangerous latent condition of which was known to the equine sponsor, professional or other person.
IL - Divorce - Act 5. Illinois Marriage and Dissolution of Marriage Act 750 I.L.C.S. 5/452; 750 ILCS 5/501 - 503 Effective January 1, 2018, the Illinois Legislature amended several provisions under Act 5, the Illinois Marriage and Dissolution of Marriage Act. Under the Joint Simplified Dissolution Procedure, the amendments added the following requirement to the conditions that must be present to do a simplified dissolution: (k) The parties have executed a written agreement allocating ownership of and responsibility for any companion animals owned by the parties. As used in this Section, “companion animal” does not include a service animal as defined in Section 2.01c of the Humane Care for Animals Act." Under Part V, "Property, Support and Attorney Fees," three sections were amended. Section 5/501 deals with temporary relief and amendments in 2018 added subsection (f): "Companion animals. Either party may petition or move for the temporary allocation of sole or joint possession of and responsibility for a companion animal jointly owned by the parties. In issuing an order under this subsection, the court shall take into consideration the well-being of the companion animal." In Section 5/502 on amicable settlement agreements between parties, the following provision was added to subsection (a): "The parties may also enter into an agreement allocating the sole or joint ownership of or responsibility for a companion animal. As used in this Section, “companion animal” does not include a service animal as defined in Section 2.01c of the Humane Care for Animals Act. Any agreement pursuant to this Section must be in writing, except for good cause shown with the approval of the court, before proceeding to an oral prove up." Finally, under § 503 on "Disposition of property and debts," amendments added this subsection: "(n) If the court finds that a companion animal of the parties is a marital asset, it shall allocate the sole or joint ownership of and responsibility for a companion animal of the parties. In issuing an order under this subsection, the court shall take into consideration the well-being of the companion animal. As used in this Section, “companion animal” does not include a service animal as defined in Section 2.01c of the Humane Care for Animals Act."
OK - Equine Activity Liability - Title 76. Torts. Livestock Activities Liability Limitation Act. 76 Okl. St. Ann. § 50.1 - 50.4

The Oklahoma Livestock Activities Liability Limitation Act provides that it is the intent of the Oklahoma Legislature to encourage livestock activities by limiting the civil liability of livestock activities sponsors, participants and livestock professionals involved in such activities.  A livestock activity sponsor, a participant or a livestock professional acting in good faith and pursuant to the standards of the livestock industry shall not be liable for injuries to any person engaged in livestock activities when such injuries result from the inherent risks of livestock activities.  Oklahoma also has a unique provision that explicitly states that two or more persons may agree, in writing, to extend the waiver of liability pursuant to the provisions of the Oklahoma Livestock Activities Liability Limitation Act.

IL - Pet Trusts - Chapter 760. Trusts and Fiduciaries. 760 I.L.C.S. 5/15.2; 760 I.L.C.S. 5/4.26

This Illinois law represents the state's pet trust law.  The law states that a trust to care for one or more designated domestic animals is valid and terminates upon the death of the last named animal.  Such trusts are to be liberally construed under the law and extrinsic evidence is admissible to prove a transferor's intent.

IL - Lost Property - Estrays and Lost Property Act 765 I.L.C.S. 1020/0.01 - 36

These Illinois' statutes comprise the state's Estrays and Lost Property Act.

IL - Lein - 40/50. Agisters 770 I.L.C.S. 40/50 Agisters and persons keeping, yarding, feeding or pasturing domestic animals, shall have a lien upon the animals agistered, kept, yarded or fed, for the proper charges due for the agisting, keeping, yarding or feeding thereof.
EU - Farming - 78/923/EEC: Council Decision of 19 June 1978 concerning the conclusion of the European Convention for the protect 78/923/EEC

This EU council decision approves the European Convention for the protection of animals kept for farming purposes on behalf of the European Economic Community. It has the aim of protecting animals kept for farming purposes, particularly in modem intensive production systems.

VT - Lien - § 2075. Lien for keeping or pasturing animals 9 V.S.A. § 2075 A person to whom charges are due for pasturing, boarding, or keeping domestic animals placed with the consent of the owner thereof in his or her care, if the charges become due while such animals remain in his or her possession, may retain the same until such charges are paid. After 30 days when the charges are due, he or she may sell the animals in the manner provided for the sale of property under a lien for repairs, if such charges remain unpaid.
Portugal - Cruelty - Portugal Animal Welfare Law 92/95 (Protection of Animals Act)

This is general national legislation of Portugal for the protection and regulation of animal welfare. There is delegation of authority to grant or deny the use of animals in many commercial settings. Standards are minimal within the act itself.

EU - Farming - Council Directive concerning the protection of animals kept for farming purposes 98/58/EC; Official Journal L 221 , 08/08/1998 P. 0023 - 0027

This Directive applies to animals (including fish, reptiles and amphibians) reared or kept for the production of food, wool, skin or fur or for other farming purposes. It does not apply to wild animals, animals intended for use in sporting or cultural events (shows), experimental or laboratory animals or invertebrate animals. The Member States must adopt provisions to ensure that the owners or keepers of animals look after the welfare of their animals and see that they are not caused any unnecessary pain, suffering or injury.

AZ - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty/Animal Fighting Statutes A. R. S. § 12-1011; § 13-2910 - 09; § 13-1411

The Arizona section contains the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  A person commits cruelty to animals if he or she intentionally, knowingly or recklessly subjects any animal under the person's custody or control to cruel neglect or abandonment, fails to provide medical attention necessary to prevent protracted suffering to any animal under the person's custody or control, inflicts unnecessary physical injury to any animal, or recklessly subjects any animal to cruel mistreatment, among other things.  Animal is defined as a mammal, bird, reptile or amphibian.  Exclusions include hunting and agricultural activities in accordance with those laws and regulations in Arizona.  Intentionally attending a dogfight is a felony under this provision whereas attendance at a cockfight is a misdemeanor.

AZ - Pet Sales - Title 44. Trade and Commerce. Chapter 11. Regulations Concerning Particular Businesses. A. R. S. 44-1799 - 1799.11

This Arizona statutory section comprises the state's pet shop laws.  The section requires that retail pet sellers provide purchasers a notice of rights that includes a statement of good health signed by a veterinarian.  Purchasers have fifteen days to return unhealthy or diseased dogs and receive a refund or compensation for reasonable veterinary expenses.

AZ - Dog - Arizona Consolidated Dog Laws A. R. S. § 11-1001 - 1029; § 28-2422 - 2422.02; § 17-309

These Arizona statutes comprise the laws relating to dogs and animal bites.  Included are provisions related to registration, collaring, and vaccination of dogs.  With regard to dangerous dogs, Arizona law provides that a person with knowledge of a dog's vicious propensity must also keep the dog in an enclosed yard or confined area with a sign indicating the dog's vicious tendencies.

AZ - Dog Ordinances - Powers and duties of board of supervisors (dogs/animals) A. R. S. § 11-1005 This Arizona statute provides that each county board of supervisors may regulate dogs, including the designation of a county enforcement agent, contracting with any city or town to enforce the provisions of any ordinance enacted by such city or town for the control of dogs, and for the unincorporated areas of the county, by ordinance, regulate, restrain and prohibit the running at large of dogs and the excessive and unrestrained barking of dogs. They may also establish either civil or criminal penalties for violations of the above ordinances and establish a rabies quarantine zone.
AZ - Assistance Animal - Arizona's Assistance Animal/Guide Dog Laws A. R. S. § 11-1008; § 11-1024, § 13-2910; § 9-500.32

The following statutes comprise the state's relevant assistance animal and guide dog laws.

AZ - Leash Laws - Article 6. Animal Control. A. R. S. § 11-1012

This Arizona laws provides generally that no female dog in her breeding season or vicious dog may be allowed to go at large.  It further delineates the state's leash requirements for dogs, including during times of rabies quarantines, in state parks, and at public schools.  Exceptions under the law include the training of livestock dogs and hunting dogs, among others.

AZ - License and Vaccination Ordinances - Exemption of cities, towns and counties (dogs/animals) A. R. S. § 11-1018 This Arizona statute exempts cities or towns from the provisions of this article if they impose a license fee and vaccination on dogs by ordinance, provided that such ordinance is equal to or more stringent than the provisions of this article. Further, the provisions of this article shall not apply to counties which regulate the running at large of dogs in the unincorporated areas of the county by ordinance provided that such ordinance is equal to or more stringent than the provisions of this article.
AZ - Ordinances - Lawful presence on private property defined (dogs) A. R. S. § 11-1026

This Arizona statute provides that a person is lawfully on a dog owner's property when he or she is there as an invitee or guest, or when in the performance of a duty imposed upon him by law of the state or United States, or by ordinances of a municipality in which such property is located.

AZ - Equine Activity Liability Statute A. R. S. § 12-553

This Arizona statute provides that an equine agent or owner is not liable for injury if the participant took control of the equine prior to injury, if a parent or guardian signed a release on behalf of a minor, if the owner or agent has properly installed suitable tack or the participant has personally tacked the equine, or the owner or agent assigns a suitable equine based on a reasonable interpretation of the person's representation of his or her skills, health and experience with and knowledge of equines.  Liability is not limited, however, when an equine owner or agent is grossly negligent or commits willful, wanton or intentional acts or omissions.

AZ - Motor vehicle - 12-558.02. Limited liability; removing minor or confined animal from motor vehicle; definition A. R. S. § 12-558.02 This Arizona law insulates a person from liability for civil damages when he or she uses reasonable force to enter a locked and unattended motor vehicle to remove a minor or confined domestic animal if certain factors apply. The person first must determine that the motor vehicle is locked or there is no reasonable manner in which the person can remove the minor or domestic animal from the vehicle. Before entering the vehicle, the person must notify law enforcement or first responders. No more force than is necessary to remove the animal or minor may be used and the person must remain with the minor or domestic animal until first responders arrive. For the purposes of this section, “domestic animal” means a dog, a cat or another animal that is domesticated and kept as a household pet.
AZ - Domestic Violence - Chapter 36. Family Offenses. A. R. S. § 13-3602

This Arizona law provides that, if a court issues an order of protection, the court may grant the petitioner the exclusive care, custody or control of any animal that is owned, possessed, leased, kept or held by the petitioner, the respondent or a minor child residing in the residence or household of the petitioner or the respondent, and order the respondent to stay away from the animal and forbid the respondent from taking, transferring, encumbering, concealing, committing an act of cruelty or neglect in violation of section 13- 2910 or otherwise disposing of the animal.

AZ - Pet Trusts - Honorary trusts; trusts A. R. S. § 14-2907; A. R. S. § 14-10408

This Arizona statute allows for the creation of a trust for a designated domestic or pet animal, and must be performed in 21 years or less.  The trust terminates when no living animal is covered by the trust; the remaining property is distributed according to statute and cannot be converted by the trustee.

AZ - Fish and Wildlife - Title 17. Game and Fish (enforcement sections) A. R. S. § 17-101; § 17-104; § 17-201; § 17-231; § 17-238; § 17-306; § 17-309

This set of statutes is comprised of the sections within Arizona's Game and Fish Code that are relevant to the possession of wildlife, including: the authority of the Department of Game and Fish and the Game and Fish Commission to regulate wildlife, enforcement authority and duties, definitions, restrictions on the possession of wildlife, licenses, and violations.

AZ - Endangered, nongame - Illegal Taking or Wounding of Wildlife A. R. S. § 17-268, § 17-296, § 17-298, § 17-298.01, § 17-314, § 17-401 - 407

Arizona assesses a monetary civil penalty for the possession or taking of listed species of wildlife and endangered/nongame wildlife (including eagles).  This fine goes to the state wildlife theft prevention fund and is in addition to any other fine or penalty assessed by law.

AZ - Wildlife - Taking and Handling of Wildlife. Article 1. General Regulations A. R. S. § 17-301 to 320

The following statutes comprise Arizona's wildlife code. Among the provisions include methods of taking wildlife, hunting restrictions, the state's hunter interference laws, and laws specific to mountain lions, bears, and jaguars.

AZ - Hunting - § 17-316. Interference with rights of hunters; classification; civil action; exceptions A. R. S. § 17-316

This law represents Arizona's hunter harassment law. Under the law, it is a class 2 misdemeanor for a person while in a hunting area to intentionally interfere with, prevent or disrupt the lawful taking of wildlife as defined under the law. It is a class 3 misdemeanor for a person to enter or remain on a designated hunting area on any public or private lands or waters or state lands including state trust lands with the intent to interfere with, prevent or disrupt the lawful taking of wildlife. "Incidental interference" arising from lawful activity by public land users is not unlawful under this section.

AZ - Equine Transport - Transporting equine in a cruel manner; violation; A. R. S. § 3-1312; § 28-912

These Arizona laws provide the requirements for transporting equines to slaughter. A vehicle used to transport equine for slaughter may have no more than one level or tier in the compartment containing the equine. Violation of the laws constitutes a misdemeanor.

AZ - Humane Slaughter - Slaughter of Animals A. R. S. § 3-2001 to 2017

This Arizona statutory section covers the slaughter of animals.  Among its provisions include license requirements for the slaughter meat, recordkeeping requirements, and a section relating to humane slaughter.  The humane slaughter law requires that a livestock animal is rendered insensible to pain prior to being hoisted or shackled; however, none of the provisions apply to one who slaughters an animal for his or her own uses.  Interestingly, while the other provisions relating to adulterated meat and licensing requirements describe the penalty for violation, no penalty is listed under the humane slaughter statute.

AZ - Veterinary - Chapter 21. Veterinarians. A. R. S. § 32-2201 - 2296

These are the state's veterinary practice laws.  Among the provisions include licensing requirements, laws concerning the state veterinary board, veterinary records laws, and the laws governing disciplinary actions for impaired or incompetent practitioners.

AZ - Facility Dog - § 8-422. Use of a facility dog in court proceedings; definition A. R. S. § 8-422 This Arizona law states that a court shall allow a facility dog to accompany a victim who is under 18 while he or she is testifying in court. A party seeking the use of a facility dog must file a notice with the court that includes the certification of the facility dog, the name of the person or entity who certified the dog and evidence that the facility dog is insured. It is discretionary for the court to allow a facility dog for a victim over the age of 18.
AZ - Ordinances - Article 2. Board of Trustees Government After Disincorporation. A. R. S. § 9-219 (repealed 2017) This Arizona statute provides that the board of trustees of a city may p ass ordinances not inconsistent or in conflict with the laws of this state.  More specifically, this statute provides that the board may restrain , under penalties, the running at large of cattle or other animals, and provide rules for impounding them, and provide for taxing dogs and penalties for the nonpayment of such taxes, or the killing of dogs running at large in the corporate limits.  However, before exercising these powers, the board shall cause a resolution of intention to be recorded in minutes and then published in some daily or weekly newspaper at least two
AK - Assistance Animal - Alaska's Assistance Animal/Guide Dog Laws A. S. § 09.65.150; 11.76.130; 11.76.133, 28.23.120

The following statutes comprise the state's relevant assistance animal and guide dog laws.

AR - Ordinances - § 14-16-701. River and improvement district A.C.A. § 14-16-701

This Arkansas statute provides that, upon the written request of the governing body of a suburban improvement district (as defined by statute), a county may by ordinance control and regulate dogs and cats within all or any part of the suburban improvement district.  This statute does not elaborate on the confines of such ordinances, so it is assumed the subject matter is constrained only through preemption.

AR - Ordinances - § 14-54-1102. Dogs running astray. A.C.A. § 14-54-1102

This Arkansas statute provides that municipal corporations have the power to prevent the running at large of dogs and the injuries and annoyances associated with them.  Further, this statute allows municipalities to authorize the destruction or impoundment of dogs if found in violation of ordinance.  However, prior  to destroying the dog, the municipality shall give the dog's owner at least five (5) days' notice of the date of the proposed destruction of the dog by certified mail if the dog carries the owner's address.

AR - Hunting - Title 15. Arkansas Hunting Heritage Protection Act A.C.A. § 15-41-301 - 304

This Arkansas statute affirms that hunting is an important recreational and economic activity in the state.

AR - Endangered Species - Endangered, Threatened, and Nongame Species Preservation A.C.A. § 15-45-301 to 306

Arkansas law provides that it is the intent of the State to protect rare, threatened, and endangered species.  This policy also provides for the protection of critical habitat for these species. 

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