|Statute by category||Citation||Summary|
|US - Civil Rights - Civil Action for Deprivation of Civil Rights||42 U.S.C.A. 1983||This law is the primary means by which a person can bring a violation of a constitutional right. To prevail in a claim under section 1983, the plaintiff must meet two elements: a person subjected the plaintiff to conduct that occurred under color of state law, and this conduct deprived the plaintiff of rights, privileges, or immunities guaranteed under federal law or the U.S. Constitution. The statute provides immunity for persons operating under "color of law" acting in their official capacities.|
|US - Chimpanzees - § 283m. Sanctuary system for surplus chimpanzees (CHIMP Act)||42 U.S.C.A. § 283m||This Act provides a system of sanctuaries to provide for the lifetime care of chimpanzees not needed for research that have been used, or were bred or purchased for use, in research conducted or supported by the National Institutes of Health, the Food and Drug Administration, or other agencies of the Federal Government. The Act lists, among other things, requirements for the sanctuaries, criteria for "acceptable" chimpanzees, restrictions on further research of these chimpanzees, and establishment of contracts to entities providing care in the system.|
|US - Cattle - Milk Income Loss Contract Program||7 U.S.C.A. § 7981 - 7984||Federal program that compensates dairy producers when domestic milk prices fall below a specified level.|
|US - AWA - Sectional History of AWA||7 USC 2131 - 2159||
This document gives legal history of the Animal Welfare Act on a section by section basis.
|US - AWA - Animal Welfare Act Decisions||
This document contains references to both court decisions and administrative proceedings under the Animal Welfare Act on a section by section basis.
|US - AWA - Animal Welfare Act||7 USC §§ 2131 - 2159; 18 USC § 49||The AWA is, in the main, a regulatory law that seeks to control who may possess or sell certain animals and the living conditions (for non-agricultural, domestic animals) under which the animals must be kept. The law provides for criminal penalties, civil penalties and revocation of permits for violations of the AWA.|
|US - AWA - 2014 Public Law113-79||2014 PL 113-79||The 2014 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act allows the Secretary of agriculture to define de minimis, as well as several grammatical changes. The public law also provides the prohibits anyone from allowing a person who has not attained the age of 16 from attending an animal fighting venture.|
|US - AWA - 2008 Public Law 110-246||2008 PL 110-246||The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, P.L. 110-246 amends the Animal Welfare Act by strengthening penalties related to animal fighting, including an increase in imprisonment. The 2008 bill also contained language prohibiting imports for resale of dogs unless they are at least six months of age, in good health, and have all necessary vaccinations, with some exemptions defined. Finally, fines for violations of the Animal Welfare Act increased from $2500 to $10,000 per violation, per animal, per day.|
|US - AWA - 2008 Public Law 110-234||2008 PL 110-234||2008 Amendments to the Animal Welfare Act concerning the importation of live dogs.|
|US - AWA - 2007 Public Law110-22||2007 PL 110-22||The Animal Fighting Prohibition Enforcement Act of 2007 was signed into law on May 3, 2007. The law upgrades current penalties by creating felony-level jail time (up to 3 years) for violations of the federal animal fighting law, and it also prohibits interstate and foreign commerce of cockfighting weapons (e.g., knife, gaff, etc.).|
|US - AWA - 2002 Public Law 107-171||2002 PL 107-171||Enacted January 23, 2002, the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act changed the definition of "animal" in the Animal Welfare Act to specifically exclude birds, rats of the genus Rattus, and mice of the genus Mus, bred for use in research. The law also addressed animal fighting ventures by making it a misdemeanor to ship a bird in interstate commerce for fighting purposes, or to sponsor to exhibit a bird in a fight that had been shipped for such purposes.|
|US - AWA - 1995 Public Law 104-88||1995 PL 104-88||Public Law 104-88 amended the Animal Welfare act by striking Interstate Commerce Commission and adding Surface Transportation Board.|
|US - AWA - 1990 Public Law 101-624||1990 PL 101-624||Enacted November 28, 1990, this public law amends the Animal Welfare Act by establishing holding period for dogs and cats at shelters and other holding facilities before sale to dealers. It requires dealers to provide written certification regarding each animal's background to the recipient. Specific items included on the certificate are mechanisms of enforcement, injunctions, and penalties for violation.|
|US - AWA - 1985 Public Law 99-198||1985 PL 99-198||The set of amendments that Congress adopted in December of 1985 focused almost entirely on the issue of animal research, (1) the minimum level of care is stated with more specificity, (2) animal research facilities are required to create Institutional Animal Committees, which include the presence of a public member from outside the facility, (3) trade secrets of research facilities are protected by a new section of the AWA.|
|US - AWA - 1976 Public Law 94-279||1976 PL 94-279||The 1976 Amendments of the AWA dealt with several new topics: (1) transportation carriers and intermediate handlers of animals were brought under the provisions of the Act, (2) a number of specific transportation problems were addressed by Congress, (3) a new provision was added which made it a crime to knowingly sponsor, participate in, transport, or use the mails to promote fights between live birds, live dogs or other mammals, (4) the penalty provisions were rewritten, allowing the broad use of civil fines.|
|US - AWA - 1970 Public Law 91-579||1970 PL 91-579||
There were four areas of significant change to the AWA in the 1970 amendments: (1) the definition of "animal" was expanded to include warm-blooded animals generally, (2) more human entities were brought under the regulatory provisions of the Act: animal exhibitors (i.e., circuses, zoos and roadside shows), and wholesale pet dealers, (3) the lab door of research facilities was opened more, requiring that certain humane standards be maintained at all times, (4) the Secretary's enforcement powers were strengthened and protection for government inspectors was provided from individuals who interfered with enforcement actions under the Act.
|US - AWA - 1970 Amendments to AWA, House Report No. 91-1651||House Report No. 91-1651||
By 1970 it was apparent that changes in the law would be required if the goal of humane treatment of animals was to be realized. There were four areas of significant change to the AWA in the 1970 amendments (definition of animal, expansion of who is subject to AWA, laboratory practices, and enforcement).
|US - AWA - 1966 Public Law 89-544||1966 PL 89-544||
As stated in Senate Report No. 1280 there were three main purposes for the proposed law in 1966: (1) to protect the owners of pet dogs and cats from the theft of their pets; (2) to prevent the use or sale of stolen dogs or cats for purposes of research or experimentation; and (3) to establish humane standards for the treatment of dogs, cats, and certain other animals by animal dealers and research facilities.
|US - Apes - Great Apes Conservation Act of 2000||16 USC 6301 - 6305||The law assists in the conservation of great apes by supporting and providing financial resources for the conservation programs of countries within the range of great apes. Under the law, Great apes include the chimpanzee, gorilla, bonobo, orangutan, and gibbon. The law authorizes the Secretary of the Interior, through the Director of the Fish and Wildlife Service, to award grants to entities that will promote the conservation of great apes in the wild. The authorization for appropriations is $5 million per year through 2005 with 3% or $80,000, whichever is greater, expended to administer the grants program.|
|US - Air travel, disability - § 41705. Discrimination against handicapped individuals||49 USCA § 41705||The Air Carrier Access Act (ACAA) was enacted in 1986. The law prohibits discrimination by commercial airlines on the basis of disability. An individual is considered "disabled" if he or she (1) has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.; (2) l has a record of such an impairment; or (3) is regarded as having such an impairment. This law requires that each complaint under this section are investigated and those data reviewed/reported. Regulations promulgated under the ACAA in 2008 set forth requirements for service brought animals aboard commercial flights.|
|US - Agriculture - Animal Damage Control Act||7 USCA § 8351 - 8356 (formerly cited as 7 USC 426 - 426d)||Animal Damage Control Act of March 2, 1931, (46 Stat. 1468) provided broad authority for investigation, demonstrations and control of mammalian predators, rodents and birds. Public Law 99-19, approved December 19, 1985, (99 Stat 1185) transferred administration of the Act from the Secretary of the Interior to the Secretary of Agriculture. Pub. L. 102-190(Div. A, title III, Sec. 348, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1348) and P.L. 102-237 (Title X, Sec. 1013(d), 105 Stat. 1901, Dec. 13, 1991) added provisions directing the Secretaries of Defense and Agriculture, respectively, to take actions to prevent the introduction of brown tree snakes into other areas of the U.S. from Guam.|
|UK- Wildlife - Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981||Chapter 69||An Act prohibiting and limiting actions involving wild animals, and the primary piece of legislation for wildlife protection in the UK. Prohibitions include taking, injuring, killing and disturbing. It is also an offence to disturb places used for shelter and protection. Provides protections for wild bird nests and eggs, as well as for animal species. Proof of intention is required for an offence under the Act.|
|UK - Zoos - Zoo Licensing Act 1981||1981 c. 37||
The Zoo Licensing Act 1981 is an Act to regulate by licence the conduct of zoos. The Act defines a zoo "[as] an establishment where wild animals are kept for exhibition to the public otherwise than for the purposes of a circus and otherwise than as a pet shop; and this Act applies to any zoo to which members of the public have access, with or without charge for admission, on more than seven days in any period of 12 consecutive months".
|UK - Wildlife Trade - Ivory Act 2018||Chapter 30||This Act prohibits commercial activities concerning ivory in the UK and the import and re-export of ivory for commercial purposes to and from the UK. This includes: buying, selling and hiring ivory; offering or arranging to buy, sell or hire ivory; keeping ivory for sale or hire; exporting ivory from, and importing ivory to the United Kingdom for sale or hire. Minor exemptions include: pre-1918 items of outstanding artistic etc value and importance; pre-1975 musical instruments; and acquisition of items by qualifying museums.|
|UK - Wildlife - The Humane Trapping Standards Regulations 2019||2019 No. 22||These Regulations amend the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 in order to implement requirements contained in the agreement on international humane trapping standards concluded between the European Community, the Government of Canada and the Government of the Russian Federation. They introduce a prohibition on using or setting in position any trap or snare for the purpose of killing or taking the Stoat or the European Beaver. The prohibitions in section 11(2)(a) and (b) (as revised) (relating to using or setting in position a trap or snare) do not apply in relation to any animal specified in Schedule 6ZA where the use or setting of the trap is under and in accordance with a Government issued license.|
|UK - Wildlife - Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2017||2017 No. 1012||These Regulations consolidated the Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2010, and made minor modifications. Part 3, regulation 43 makes it an offence (subject to exceptions) to deliberately capture, kill or disturb certain wild animals or to trade in them. Regulation 45 prohibits the use of certain methods of capturing or killing wild animals.|
|UK - Welfare - Protection of Animals (Anaesthetics) Act 1964||1964 c. 39||
For historical purposes only. Law has been repealed and/or replaced. An Act to amend the Protection of Animals (Anaesthetics) Act 1954.
|UK - Welfare - Protection of Animals (Anaesthetics) Act 1954||1954 c. 46||
For historical purposes only. Law has been repealed and/or replaced. An Act to extend the provisions of the Protection of Animals Acts in relation to the performance of operations on animals. The statute provides a list of operations that may only be performed with the use of anaesthetic.
|UK - Slaughter - The Welfare of Animals (Slaughter or Killing) Regulations 1995||1995 No. 731||Under these Regulations it is an offence to cause, or to permit, unavoidable excitement, pain or suffering to any animal during restraint, stunning, slaughter or killing.|
|UK - Riding - Riding Establishments Act 1970||1970 CHAPTER 32||
An Act to confer further powers on local authorities with respect to the licensing of riding establishments and to amend the Riding Establishments Act 1964.
|UK - Riding - Riding Establishments Act 1964||Riding Establishments Act 1964||
An Act to regulate the keeping of riding establishments; and for purposes connected therewith.
|UK - Research Animals - The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 Amendment Regulations 2012||2012 No.||Protected animals are extended under the 1986 Act to include cephalopods (i.e., octopus or squid). The principles of replacement, reduction and refinement (the 3Rs), are encompassed in section 2A of the amendment; The Secretary of State must be satisfied that a scientific objective could not be achieved without using animals, by using fewer animals, or by causing less suffering.|
|UK - Research Animals - Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986||1986 CHAPTER 14||An Act to regulate the use of live vertebrate animals in research. Before a test on animals is given permission to proceed various licenses are required. These include: a personal license for each person carrying out the procedure, a project license for the programme of work, and an establishment license for the place in which the work is carried out. Each project must undergo a harm/ benefit analysis. This considers the potential benefits for humankind, the environment or other animals, against the pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm which the experimental animals may experience. Licence holders who lawfully use animals under the Act are exempted from the provisions of the Animal Welfare Act 2006, the Animal Health and Welfare (Scotland) Act 2006, and the Welfare of Animals Act (Northern Ireland) 2011. Section 24 of the Act makes it an offence to disclose any information relating to a regulated animal experiment which has been, or is reasonably believed to have been, given in confidence.|
|UK - Pets - Pet Animals Act 1951||UK ST 1951 c 35||
An Act establishing a licensing structure for pet shops in the United Kingdom . The Act sets forth certain conditions that local authorities may consider in determining whether or not to grant someone a pet shop license. In determining whether or not to grant a license, local authorities may investigate applicants and confirm that animals will be kept in a sanitary and suitable physical environment, that they will be fed and watered regularly, and that they will not be sold before they reach an appropriate age, among other factors.
|UK - Pets - Abandonment of Animals Act 1960||1960 c. 43||
For historical purposes only. Law has been repealed and/or replaced. An Act to prohibit the abandonment of animals in circumstances likely to cause unnecessary suffering thereto.
|UK - Fur - Fur Farming (Prohibition) Act 2000||2000 CHAPTER 33||
An Act to prohibit the keeping of animals solely or primarily for slaughter for the value of their fur; to provide for the making of payments in respect of the related closure of certain businesses; and for connected purposes.
|UK - Fighting - Cockfighting Act 1952||1952 c.52||
For historical purposes only. Law has been repealed and/or replaced. The Cockfighting Act, 1952 makes it unlawful to have possession of any instrument or appliance designed or adapted for use in connection with the fighting of a domestic fowl. A person guilty of an offence under this section and shall be liable, on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three months, or to a fine not exceeding twenty-five pounds, or to both such imprisonment and such fine.
|UK - Farming - UK Welfare of Farmed Animals (Amend.)||Statutory Instrument 2002 No. 1646||
For historical purposes only. Law has been repealed and/or replaced. These Regulations may be cited as the Welfare of Farmed Animals (England) (Amendment) Regulations 2002. The provisions mainly concern egg-laying hens.
|UK - Farming - UK General Welfare of Farmed Animals Regs. 2000||Statutory Instrument 2000 No. 1870||
For historical purposes only. Law has been repealed and/or replaced. The UK's general animal welfare legislation affecting any animal (including fish, reptiles or amphibians) bred or kept for the production of food, wool, skin or fur or for other farming purposes.
|UK - Dog - Breeding of Dogs Act 1991||1991 c. 64||
This Act extends the powers of inspection for the purposes of the Breeding of Dogs Act 1973 to premises not covered by a licence under that Act, thereby enabling local authorities to investigate suspicions that a dog breeding establishment is operating without the necessary license
|UK - Dog - Breeding of Dogs Act 1973||1973 c. 60||
This Act establishes a regime of local authority licensing and inspection of dog breeding establishments.
|UK - Dog - Breeding and Sale of Dogs (Welfare) Act 1999||1999 c. 11||
This Act amends and extends certain enactments relating to the commercial breeding and sale of dogs; regulates the welfare of dogs kept in commercial breeding establishments; extends powers of inspection; and establishes records of dogs kept at such establishments. This Act substantially amended the Breeding of Dogs Acts 1973 and 1991.
|UK - Dangerous Dogs - Dangerous Dogs Act 1991||1991 CHAPTER 65||
An Act to prohibit persons from having in their possession or custody dogs belonging to types bred for fighting; to impose restrictions in respect of such dogs pending the coming into force of the prohibition; to enable restrictions to be imposed in relation to other types of dog which present a serious danger to the public; to make further provision for securing that dogs are kept under proper control; and for connected purposes.
|UK - Dangerous Dogs - Dangerous Dogs (Amendment) Act 1997||1997 CHAPTER 53||
This amendment affects the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991. The Amendment Act allows a court to exercise discretion in deciding whether to destroy a prohibited dog (e.g., a "pit bull" type dog, Japanese Tosa, Fila Brasileiro, Dogo Argentino, or any dog with the physical appearance, not necessarily breed, of a fighting dog).
|UK - Dangerous - Dangerous Wild Animals Act 1976 ("DWAA")||1976 c. 38||
The Dangerous Wild Animals Act ("DWAA") was originally enacted in 1976 and amended in 2010. The act ensures that individuals who keep wild animals do so in a way that minimizes the risk to the public. In particular, the act provides that no person may keep any dangerous wild animal except under the authority of a licence granted by a local authority. The local authority that holds the licence may enter the premises where the animal is being kept at all reasonable times to determine whether an offence has been committed in violation of the act. Zoos, circuses, and pet shops are exempt from the act. The act has an accompanying Schedule that specifies the kinds of dangerous wild animals for which a person must obtain a licence under the act.
|UK - Cruelty - Protection of Animals Act 1911||1911 Ch 27||
For historical purposes only. Law has been repealed and/or replaced. The main piece of anti-cruelty legislation applicable to England and Wales. The law was replaced by the 2006 Amendments to this Act.
|UK - Cruelty - Protection against Cruel Tethering Act 1988||1988 c.31||
For historical purposes only. Law has been repealed and/or replaced. The Protection against Cruel Tethering Act 1988 is an act to protect horses, asses and mules against cruel tethering. This means in such conditions or such a manner to cause that animal unnecessary suffering.
|UK - Circus - Performing Animals (Regulation) Act 1925||1925 CHAPTER 38||
The Performing Animals Act 1925 requires any person who exhibits or trains any performing (vertebrate) animal to be registered with a local authority. This information is kept in the local register. The law also gives power to local authorities to prohibit animal training or exhibition where it is accompanied by cruelty. Any officer of a local authority duly authorised in that behalf by the local authority and any constable may inspect performance premises during reasonable hours. Failure to become properly registered or concealing an animal to avoid inspection makes a person guilty of an offence.
|UK - Boarding - Animal Boarding Establishments Act 1963||1963 c. 43||
The 1963 Animal Boarding Establishments Act deals with places where the boarding of animals is being carried on as a business. This act requires such establishments to be licensed by the local authority. The act defines "boarding establishments" as those premises, including private dwellings, where the business consists of providing accommodation for other people’s cats and dogs. When deciding to issue a license, the local authority shall consider the suitability of the conditions (e.g., size of quarters, lighting, food, water, disease control, etc.) present at the boarding establishment.
|UK - Animal Welfare - Animal Welfare (Sentencing) Act 2021||2021 c.21||This Act increased the period that judges may impose prison sentences on those that breach the Animal Welfare Act 2006 (applicable in England and Wales). The Act came into force on 29 June 2021. Imprisonment has increased to 5 years (and/or an unlimited fine) for certain offences where a defendant is convicted on indictment at the Crown Court. This includes the offences of unnecessary suffering and dog fighting. Imprisonment on summary conviction for these offences at the Magistrates' Court is increased to 12 months, or a fine, or both.|