The Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742a-742j, not including 742 d-l; 70 Stat. 1119), establishes a comprehensive national fish, shellfish, and wildlife resources policy with emphasis on the commercial fishing industry but also with a direction to administer the Act with regard to the inherent right of every citizen and resident to fish for pleasure, enjoyment, and betterment and to maintain and increase public opportunities for recreational use of fish and wildlife resources. Among other things, it directs a program of continuing research, extension, and information services on fish and wildlife matters, both domestically and internationally.
§ 741. Repealed. Pub.L. 88-488, Title IV, § 402(a)(3), Aug. 19, 1964, 78 Stat. 492
§ 742. Omitted
§ 742a . Declaration of policy
§ 742b . United States Fish and Wildlife Service
§ 742b-1 . Assistant Director for Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Programs
§ 742c . Loans for financing or refinancing of cost of purchasing, constructing, equipping, maintaining, repairing, or operating commercial fishing vessels or gear
§ 742c-1 . Investment in obligations of the United States; proceeds to be used for fisheries
§ 742d . Investigations; preparation and dissemination of information; reports
§ 742d-1 . Studies of effects in use of chemicals
§ 742e . Transfer of functions to Secretary
§ 742f . Powers of Secretaries of the Interior and Commerce
§ 742f-1 . Projects
§ 742g . Cooperation with State Department
§ 742h . Reports on fishery products
§ 742i . Effect on rights of States and international commissions
§ 742j . Authorization of appropriations
§ 742j-1 . Airborne hunting
§ 742j-2 . Uniform allowance
§ 742k. Management and disposition of vessels and other property acquired and arising out of fishery loans or related type of activities
The Congress declares that the fish, shellfish, and wildlife resources of the Nation make a material contribution to our national economy and food supply, as well as a material contribution to the health, recreation, and well-being of our citizens; that such resources are a living, renewable form of national wealth that is capable of being maintained and greatly increased with proper management, but equally capable of destruction if neglected or unwisely exploited; that such resources afford outdoor recreation throughout the Nation and provide employment, directly or indirectly, to a substantial number of citizens; that the fishing industries strengthen the defense of the United States through the provision of a trained seafaring citizenry and action-ready fleets of seaworthy vessels; that the training and sport afforded by fish and wildlife resources strengthen the national defense by contributing to the general health and physical fitness of millions of citizens; and that properly developed, such fish and wildlife resources are capable of steadily increasing these valuable contributions to the life of the Nation.
The Congress further declares that the fishing industry, in its several branches, can prosper and thus fulfill its proper function in national life only if certain fundamental needs are satisfied by means that are consistent with the public interest and in accord with constitutional functions of governments. Among these needs are:
(1) Freedom of enterprise--freedom to develop new areas, methods, products, and markets in accordance with sound economic principles, as well as freedom from unnecessary administrative or legal restrictions that unreasonably conflict with or ignore economic needs;
(2) Protection of opportunity--maintenance of an economic atmosphere in which domestic production and processing can prosper; protection from subsidized competing products; protection of opportunity to fish on the high seas in accordance with international law;
(3) Assistance--assistance consistent with that provided by the Government for industry generally, such as is involved in promoting good industrial relations, fair trade standards, harmonious labor relations, better health standards and sanitation; and including, but not limited to--
(a) services to provide current information on production and trade, market promotion and development, and an extension service,
(b) research services for economic and technologic development and resource conservation, and
(c) resource management to assure the maximum sustainable production for the fisheries.
The Congress further declares that the provisions of this Act are necessary in order to accomplish the objective of proper resource development, and that this Act shall be administered with due regard to the inherent right of every citizen and resident of the United States to engage in fishing for his own pleasure, enjoyment, and betterment, and with the intent of maintaining and increasing the public opportunities for recreational use of our fish and wildlife resources, and stimulating the development of a strong, prosperous, and thriving fishery and fish processing industry.
(a) Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife
There is established within the Department of the Interior the position of Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife. Such Assistant Secretary shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall be compensated at the same rate as other Assistant Secretaries.
(b) Establishment; Director of United States Fish and Wildlife Service; appointment; qualifications
There is established within the Department of the Interior the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. The functions of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service shall be administered under the supervision of the Director, who shall be subject to the supervision of the Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife. The Director of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. No individual may be appointed as the Director unless he is, by reason of scientific education and experience, knowledgeable in the principles of fisheries and wildlife management.
(c) Succession to United States Fish and Wildlife Service and Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife
The United States Fish and Wildlife Service established by subsection (b) of this section shall succeed to and replace the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (as constituted on June 30, 1974) and the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife (as constituted on such date). All laws and regulations in effect on June 30, 1974, which relate to matters administered by the Department of the Interior through the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (as constituted on such date) and the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife (as constituted on such date) shall remain in effect.
(d) Functions and responsibilities of Secretary of the Interior
All functions and responsibilities placed in the Department of the Interior or any official thereof by this Act shall be included among the functions and responsibilities of the Secretary of the Interior, as the head of the Department, and shall be carried out under his direction pursuant to such procedures or delegations of authority as he may deem advisable and in the public interest.
(Aug. 8, 1956, c. 1036, § 3, 70 Stat. 1120; Oct. 4, 1961, Pub.L. 87-367, Title I, § 103(14), 75 Stat. 788; Oct. 11, 1962, Pub.L. 87-793, § 607(a)(5), 76 Stat. 849; Apr. 22, 1974, Pub.L. 93-271, § 1, 88 Stat. 92.)
There is established in the United States Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior the position of Assistant Director for Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Programs.
The Assistant Director for Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Programs shall report directly to the Director of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
The Assistant Director for Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Programs shall be responsible for the administration, management, and oversight of the Federal Assistance Program for State Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration under the Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act (16 U.S.C. 669 et seq.) and the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act (16 U.S.C. 777 et seq.).
(Pub.L. 106-408, Title I, § 132, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1775.)
The Secretary of the Interior is authorized, under such rules and regulations and under such terms and conditions as he may prescribe, to make loans for financing or refinancing of the cost of purchasing, constructing, equipping, maintaining, repairing, or operating new or used commercial fishing vessels or gear.
Any loans made under the provisions of this section shall be subject to the following restrictions:
(1) Bear an interest rate of not less than (a) a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, taking into consideration the average market yield on outstanding Treasury obligations of comparable maturity, plus (b) such additional charge, if any, toward covering other costs of the program as the Secretary may determine to be consistent with its purpose.
(2) Mature in not more than ten years, except that where a loan is for all or part of the costs of constructing a new fishing vessel, such period may be fourteen years.
(3) No financial assistance shall be extended pursuant to this section unless reasonable financial assistance applied for is not otherwise available on reasonable terms.
(4) Loans shall be approved only upon the furnishing of such security or other reasonable assurance of repayment as the Secretary may require considering the objectives of this section which are to upgrade commercial fishing vessels and gear and to provide reasonable financial assistance not otherwise available to commercial fishermen. The proposed collateral for a loan must be of such a nature that, when considered with the integrity and ability of the management, and the applicant's past and prospective earnings, repayment of the loan will be reasonably assured.
(5) The applicant shall possess the ability, experience, resources, and other qualifications necessary to enable him to operate and maintain new or used commercial fishing vessels or gear.
(6) Before the Secretary approves a loan for the purchase or construction of a new or used vessel which will not replace an existing commercial fishing vessel, he shall determine that the applicant's contemplated operation of such vessel in a fishery will not cause economic hardship or injury to the efficient vessel operators already operating in that fishery.
(7) An applicant for a fishery loan must be a citizen or national of the United States.
(8) Within the meaning of this section, a corporation, partnership, or association shall not be deemed to be a citizen of the United States unless the Secretary determines that it satisfactorily meets all of the requirements set forth in section 802 of Title 46, Appendix, for determining the United States citizenship of a corporation, partnership, or association operating a vessel in the coastwise trade.
(9)(A) The nationality of an applicant shall be established to the satisfaction of the Secretary. Within the meaning of this section, no corporation, partnership, or association organized under the laws of American Samoa shall be deemed a national of the United States unless 75 per centum of the interest therein is owned by nationals of the United States, citizens of the United States, or both, and in the case of a corporation, unless its president or other chief executive officer and the chairman of its board are nationals or citizens of the United States and unless no more of its directors than a minority of the number necessary to constitute a quorum are nonnationals and noncitizens.
(B) Seventy-five per centum of the interest in a corporation shall not be deemed to be owned by nationals of the United States, citizens of the United States, or both, (i) if the title to 75 per centum of its stock is not vested in such nationals and citizens free from any trust or fiduciary obligation in favor of any person not a national or citizen of the United States; or (ii) if 75 per centum of the voting power in such corporation is not vested in nationals of the United States, citizens of the United States, or both; or (iii) if through any contract or understanding it is so arranged that more than 25 per centum of the voting power may be exercised, directly or indirectly, in behalf of any person who is not a national or citizen of the United States; or (iv) if by any other means whatsoever control of any interest in the corporation in excess of 25 per centum is conferred upon or permitted to be exercised by any person who is not a national or citizen of the United States.
(c) Fisheries loan fund; interest payments on appropriations available as capital to fund less average undispersed cash balance
There is created a fisheries loan fund, which shall be used by the Secretary as a revolving fund to make loans for financing and refinancing under this section. Any funds received by the Secretary on or before September 30, 1986, in payment of principal or interest on any loans so made shall be deposited in the fund and be available for making additional loans under this section. Any funds received in the fisheries loan fund after September 30, 1986, shall be covered into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts. There is authorized to be appropriated to the fisheries loan fund the sum of $20,000,000 to provide initial capital.
(d) Modification of loan contract
The Secretary, subject to the specific limitations in this section, may consent to the modification, with respect to the rate of interest, time of payment of any installment of principal, or security, of any loan contract to which he is a party.
(e) Chartering vessels; loans to Alaskan earthquake victims; termination date
The Secretary is authorized under such terms and conditions and pursuant to regulations prescribed by him to use the funds appropriated under this section to make loans to commercial fishermen for the purpose of chartering fishing vessels pending the construction or repair of vessels lost, destroyed, or damaged by the earthquake of March 27, 1964, and subsequent tidal waves related thereto: Provided, That any loans made under this subsection shall only be repaid from the net profits of the operations of such chartered vessels, which profits shall be reduced by such reasonable amount as determined by the Secretary for the salary of the fishermen chartering such vessels. The funds authorized herein shall not be available for such loans after June 30, 1966.
(Aug. 8, 1956, c. 1036, § 4, 70 Stat. 1121; Sept. 2, 1958, Pub.L. 85-888, 72 Stat. 1710; May 20, 1964, Pub.L. 88-309, § 9, 78 Stat. 199; July 24, 1965, Pub.L. 89-85, §§ 1-4, 79 Stat. 262; June 12, 1970, Pub.L. 91-279, § 9, 84 Stat. 309; Aug. 24, 1970, Pub.L. 91-387, §§ 1, 2, 84 Stat. 829; Apr. 21, 1976, Pub.L. 94-273, § 2(8), 90 Stat. 375; Oct. 21, 1980, Pub.L. 96-478, § 16(a), 94 Stat. 2303; Oct. 18, 1982, Pub.L. 97-347, § 1, 96 Stat. 1652; July 12, 1983, Pub.L. 98-44, Title I, § 103(a)(1), 97 Stat. 216; Oct. 19, 1984, Pub.L. 98-498, Title IV, § 430(1), 98 Stat. 2310; Nov. 14, 1986, Pub.L. 99-659, Title IV, § 409, 100 Stat. 3740.)
All moneys in the Fisheries Loan Fund established under Section [FN1] 742c of this title shall be invested by the Secretary of Commerce in obligations of the United States, except so much as shall be currently needed for loans or administrative expenses authorized under the Fisheries Loan Fund. All accrued proceeds from such investment shall be, subject to amounts provided in advance by appropriations, credited by the Secretary of the Treasury to the debt of the Secretary of Commerce incurred under section 1105(d) of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (46 U.S.C. 1275), as amended, in connection with fisheries financing under title XI of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (46 U.S.C. 1271 to 1280), as amended, for so long as such debt exists. All accrued proceeds from such investment, after such debt has been liquidated, shall be, subject to amounts provided in advance by appropriations, credited to the fisheries portion of the Federal Ship Financing Fund established under section 1102 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (46 U.S.C. 1272), as amended, and used for the fisheries purposes provided in title XI of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 (46 U.S.C. 1271 to 1280), as amended.
[FN1] So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.
(a) [FN1] The Secretary shall conduct continuing investigations, prepare and disseminate information, and make periodical reports to the public, to the President, and to Congress, with respect to the following matters:
(1) The production and flow to market of fish and fishery products domestically produced, and also those produced by foreign producers which affect the domestic fisheries;
(2) The availability and abundance and the biological requirements of the fish and wildlife resources;
(3) The competitive economic position of the various fish and fishery products with respect to each other, and with respect to competitive domestic and foreign-produced commodities;
(4) The collection and dissemination of statistics on commercial and sport fishing;
(5) The collection and dissemination of statistics on the nature and availability of wildlife, progress in acquisition of additional refuges and measures being taken to foster a coordinated program to encourage and develop wildlife values;
(6) The improvement of production and marketing practices in regard to commercial species and the conduct of educational and extension services relative to commercial and sport fishing, and wildlife matters;
(7) Any other matters which in the judgment of the Secretary are of public interest in connection with any phases of fish and wildlife operations.
[FN1] So in original. Section was enacted without a subsec. (b).
(Aug. 8, 1956, c. 1036, § 5, 70 Stat. 1121.)
The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency is authorized and directed to undertake comprehensive continuing studies on the effects of insecticides, herbicides, fungicides and pesticides, upon the fish and wildlife resources of the United States, for the purpose of determining the amounts, percentages, and formulations of such chemicals that are lethal to or injurious to fish and wildlife and the amounts, percentages, mixtures, or formulations that can be used safely, and thereby prevent losses of fish and wildlife from such spraying, dusting, or other treatment.
(Pub.L. 85-582, § 1, Aug. 1, 1958, 72 Stat. 479; 1970 Reorg. Plan No. 3, § 2(a)(2)(i), eff. Dec. 2, 1970, 35 F.R. 15623, 84 Stat. 2086.)
(a) Functions of Secretaries of Agriculture, Commerce, etc.
There shall be transferred to the Secretary all functions of the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, and the head of any other department or agency, as determined by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget to relate primarily to the development, advancement, management, conservation, and protection of commercial fisheries; but nothing in this section shall be construed to modify the authority of the Department of State or the Secretary of State to negotiate or enter into any international agreements, or conventions with respect to the development, management, or protection of any fisheries and wildlife resources or with respect to international commissions operating under conventions to which the United States is a party.
(b) Transfer of personnel, property, records, etc.
There shall be transferred to the Department of the Interior so much of the personnel, property, facilities, records, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds (available or to be made available) as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget determines to be necessary in connection with the exercise of any functions transferred to the Secretary pursuant to subsection (a) of this section.
(c) Cooperation of other departments and agencies
The Secretary may request and secure the advice or assistance of any department or agency of the Government in carrying out the provisions of this Act, and any such department or agency which furnishes advice or assistance to the Secretary may expend its own funds for such purposes, with or without reimbursement from the Secretary as may be agreed upon between the Secretary and the department or agency.
(Aug. 8, 1956, c. 1036, § 6, 70 Stat. 1122; 1970 Reorg. Plan No. 2, § 102, eff. July 1, 1970, 35 F.R. 7959, 84 Stat. 2085.)
(a) Policies, procedures, and recommendations
The Secretary of the Interior, with such advice and assistance as he may require from the Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife, shall consider and determine the policies and procedures that are necessary and desirable in carrying out efficiently and in the public interest the laws relating to fish and wildlife. The Secretary, with the assistance of the departmental staff herein authorized, shall--
(1) develop and recommend measures which are appropriate to assure the maximum sustainable production of fish and fishery products and to prevent unnecessary and excessive fluctuations in such production;
(2) study the economic condition of the industry, and whenever he determines that any segment of the domestic fisheries has been seriously disturbed either by wide fluctuation in the abundance of the resource supporting it, or by unstable market or fishing conditions or due to any other factors he shall make such recommendations to the President and the Congress as he deems appropriate to aid in stabilizing the domestic fisheries;
(3) develop and recommend special promotional and informational activities with a view to stimulating the consumption of fishery products whenever he determines that there is a prospective or actual surplus of such products; and
(4) take such steps as may be required for the development, advancement, management, conservation, and protection of fish and wildlife resources including, but not limited to, research, development of existing facilities, and acquisition by purchase or exchange of land and water, or interests therein.
(b) Gifts, devises, or bequests for performance of activities and services of United States Fish and Wildlife Service; restrictive or affirmative covenants or conditions of servitude; separate account in Treasury; disbursement orders; gifts or bequests to United States for Federal tax purposes
(1) In furtherance of the purposes of this Act, the Secretary of the Interior is authorized to accept any gifts, devises, or bequests of real and personal property, or proceeds therefrom, or interests therein, for the benefit of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, in performing its activities and services. Such acceptance may be subject to the terms of any restrictive or affirmative covenant, or condition of servitude, if such terms are deemed by the Secretary to be in accordance with law and compatible with the purpose for which acceptance is sought.
(2) Use of gifts, devises, and bequests
(A) In general
Any gifts and bequests of money and proceeds from the sales of other property received as gifts or bequests pursuant to this subsection shall be deposited in a separate account in the Treasury and shall be disbursed upon order of the Secretary for the benefit of programs administered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
(B) Gifts, devises, and bequests to particular refuges
Any gift, devise, or bequest made for the benefit of a particular national wildlife refuge or complex of geographically related refuges shall be disbursed only for the benefit of that refuge or complex of refuges and without further appropriations.
Subject to the availability of appropriations and the requirements of the National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C.A. § 668dd et seq.) and other applicable law, the Secretary may provide funds to match gifts, devises, and bequests made for the benefit of a particular national wildlife refuge or complex of geographically related refuges. With respect to each gift, devise, or bequest, the amount of Federal funds may not exceed the amount (or, in the case of property or in-kind services, the fair market value) of the gift, devise, or bequest.
(3) For the purpose of Federal income, estate, and gift taxes, property, or proceeds therefrom, or interests therein, accepted under this subsection shall be considered as a gift or bequest to the United States.
(c) Volunteer services; incidental expenses; Federal employee status; authorization of appropriations
(1) The Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Commerce may each recruit, train, and accept, without regard to the provisions of Title 5, the services of individuals without compensation as volunteers for, or in aid of programs conducted by either Secretary through the United States Fish and Wildlife Service or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
(2) The Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Commerce are each authorized to provide for incidental expenses such as transportation, uniforms, lodging, awards (including nominal cash awards) and recognition, and subsistence of such volunteers without regard to their places of residence.
(3) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, a volunteer shall not be deemed a Federal employee and shall not be subject to the provisions of law relating to Federal employment, including those relative to hours of work, rates of compensation, leave, unemployment compensation, and Federal employee benefits.
(4) For the purpose of the tort claim provisions of Title 28, a volunteer under this subsection shall be considered a Federal employee.
(5) For the purposes of subchapter I of chapter 81 of Title 5, relating to compensation to Federal employees for work injuries, volunteers under this subsection shall be deemed employees of the United States within the meaning of the term “employees” as defined in section 8101 of Title 5, and the provisions of that subchapter shall apply.
(6) Senior Volunteer Corps
The Secretary of the Interior may establish a Senior Volunteer Corps, consisting of volunteers over the age of 50. To assist in the recruitment and retention of the volunteers, the Secretary may provide for additional incidental expenses to members of the Corps beyond the incidental expenses otherwise provided to volunteers under this subsection. The members of the Corps shall be subject to the other provisions of this subsection.
(d) Community partnership enhancement
(1) Definition of partner organization
In this subsection, the term “partner organization” means an organization that--
(A) draws its membership from private individuals, organizations, corporations, academic institutions, or State or local governments;
(B) is established to promote the understanding of, education relating to, and the conservation of the fish, wildlife, plants, and cultural and historical resources of a particular refuge or complex of geographically related refuges; and
(C) is described in section 501(c)(3) of Title 26 and is exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of that title.
(2) Cooperative agreements
(A) In general
Notwithstanding chapter 63 of Title 31, the Secretary of the Interior may negotiate and enter into a cooperative agreement with a partner organization, academic institution, State or local government agency, or other person to implement one or more projects or programs for a refuge or complex of geographically related refuges in accordance with the purposes of this subsection and in compliance with the policies of other relevant authorities, regulations, and policy guidance.
(B) Projects and programs
Subject to the requirements of the National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C.A. § 668dd et seq.) and other applicable law, and such terms and conditions as the Secretary determines to be appropriate, the Secretary may approve projects and programs for a refuge or complex of geographically related refuges that--
(i) promote the stewardship of resources of the refuge through habitat maintenance, restoration, and improvement, biological monitoring, or research;
(ii) support the operation and maintenance of the refuge through constructing, operating, maintaining, or improving the facilities and services of the refuge;
(iii) increase awareness and understanding of the refuge and the National Wildlife Refuge System through the development, publication, or distribution of educational materials and products;
(iv) advance education concerning the purposes of the refuge and the mission of the System through the use of the refuge as an outdoor classroom and development of other educational programs; or
(v) contribute financial resources to the refuge, under terms that require that the net revenues be used exclusively for the benefit of the refuge, through donation of net revenues from the sale of educational materials and products and through encouragement of gifts, devises, and bequests.
(C) Federal funding and ownership
Subject to the availability of appropriations and the requirements of the National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C.A. § 668dd et seq.) and other applicable law, the Secretary may provide funds to match non-Federal funds donated under a cooperative agreement under this paragraph. With respect to each project or program, the amount of funds provided by the Secretary may not exceed the amount of the non-Federal funds donated through the project or program.
(ii) Use of Federal funds
Any Federal funds used to fund a project or program under a cooperative agreement may be used only for expenses directly related to the project or program and may not be used for operation or administration of any non-Federal entity.
(iii) Ownership of facilities
Any new facility, improvement to an existing facility, or other permanent improvement to a refuge constructed under this subsection shall be the property of the United States Government.
(D) Treasury account
Amounts received by the Secretary of the Interior as a result of projects and programs under subparagraph (B) shall be deposited in a separate account in the Treasury. Amounts in the account that are attributable to activities at a particular refuge or complex of geographically related refuges shall be available to the Secretary of the Interior, without further appropriation, to pay the costs of incidental expenses related to volunteer activities, and to carry out cooperative agreements for the refuge or complex of refuges.
(e) Refuge education program enhancement
Not later than 1 year after October 5, 1998, the Secretary of the Interior shall develop guidance for refuge education programs to further the mission of the National Wildlife Refuge System and the purposes of individual refuges through--
(A) providing outdoor classroom opportunities for students on national wildlife refuges that combine educational curricula with the personal experiences of students relating to fish, wildlife, and plants and their habitat and to the cultural and historical resources of the refuges;
(B) promoting understanding and conservation of fish, wildlife, and plants and cultural and historical resources of the refuges; and
(C) improving scientific literacy in conjunction with both formal and nonformal education programs.
(2) Refuge programs
Based on the guidance developed under paragraph (1), the Secretary of the Interior may develop or enhance refuge education programs as appropriate, based on the resources of individual refuges and the opportunities available for such programs in State, local, and private schools. In developing and implementing each program, the Secretary should cooperate with State and local education authorities, and may cooperate with partner organizations in accordance with subsection (d) of this section.
Not later than 1 year after January 4, 2011, and every 5 years thereafter, the Secretary of the Interior shall submit a report to the Committee on Natural Resources of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate--
(1) evaluating the accomplishments of the volunteer program, the community partnerships program, and the refuge education programs authorized under this section, and of the National Volunteer Coordination Program and volunteer coordination strategy under section 742f-1(a) of this title; and
(2) making recommendations to improve the effectiveness of such programs, including regarding implementing subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (1) of subsection (e).
(g) Authorization of appropriations
There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of the Interior to carry out subsections (b), (c), (d), (e), and (f), $2,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2011 through 2014.
(Aug. 8, 1956, c. 1036, § 7, 70 Stat. 1122; Nov. 8, 1978, Pub.L. 95-616, § 4, 92 Stat. 3112; Oct. 18, 1982, Pub.L. 97-347, § 2, 96 Stat. 1652; July 12, 1983, Pub.L. 98-44, Title I, § 103(a)(2), 97 Stat. 216; Oct. 19, 1984, Pub.L. 98-498, Title IV, § 430(2), 98 Stat. 2310; Oct. 5, 1998, Pub.L. 105-242, §§ 3, 4(b), (c), 5 to 7, 112 Stat. 1574 to 1578; Oct. 16, 2004, Pub.L. 108-327, §§ 2, 4, 118 Stat. 1271, 1272; Jan. 4, 2011, Pub.L. 111-357, §§ 2, 4(a), 124 Stat. 3979, 3980.)
(1) In general
Subject to the availability of appropriations, and in conformance with the strategy developed under paragraph (2) and consistent with the authorities regarding gifts, volunteer services, community partnerships, and refuge education enhancement under section 742 of this title, the Secretary of the Interior, through the Director of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, shall carry out a National Volunteer Coordination Program within the National Wildlife Refuge System to--
(A) augment and support the capabilities and efforts of Federal employees to implement resource management, conservation, and public education programs and activities across the National Wildlife Refuge System;
(B) provide meaningful opportunities for volunteers to support the resource management, conservation, and public education programs and activities of national wildlife refuges or complexes of geographically related national wildlife refuges in each United States Fish and Wildlife Service region; and
(C) fulfill the purpose and mission of the National Wildlife Refuge System under the National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C. 668dd et seq.).
(2) Volunteer coordination strategy
(A) In general
No later than one year after January 4, 2011, the Director shall publish in the Federal Register a national strategy for the coordination and utilization of volunteers within the National Wildlife Refuge System.
(B) Consultation required
The strategy shall be developed in consultation with State fish and wildlife agencies, Indian tribes, refuge friends groups or similar volunteer organizations, and other relevant stakeholders.
(C) Volunteer coordinators
The Director shall provide, subject to the availability of appropriations, no less than one regional volunteer coordinator for each United States Fish and Wildlife Service region to implement the strategy published under this paragraph. Such coordinators may be responsible for assisting partner organizations in developing and implementing volunteer projects and activities under cooperative agreements under section 742(d) of this title.
(3) Authorization of appropriations
There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subsection $2,000,000 for each fiscal year through fiscal year 2014.
(4) Redesignated (3)
(Pub.L. 105-242, § 4(a), Oct. 5, 1998, 112 Stat. 1575; Pub.L. 108-327, § 3, Oct. 16, 2004, 118 Stat. 1271; Pub.L. 111-357, §§ 3, 4(b), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3980, 3981.)
(a) Representation at international meetings
The Secretary shall cooperate to the fullest practicable extent with the Secretary of State in providing representation at all meetings and conferences relating to fish and wildlife in which representatives of the United States and foreign countries participate.
The Secretary of State shall designate the Secretary of the Interior or the Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife, or a person designated by the Secretary of the Interior to represent the Department of the Interior, as a member of the United States delegation attending such meetings and conferences and also as a member of the negotiating team of any such delegation.
(b) Consultation with officials responsible for technical and economic aid
The Secretary of State and all other officials having responsibilities in the fields of technical and economic aid to foreign nations shall consult with the Secretary in all cases in which the interests of fish and wildlife are involved, with a view to assuring that such interests are adequately represented at all times.
(c) International negotiations
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary shall be represented in all international negotiations conducted by the United States pursuant to section 1351 of Title 19, in any case in which fish products are directly affected by such negotiations.
(d) Consultation with governmental, private nonprofit, and other organizations
The Secretary shall consult periodically with the various governmental, private nonprofit, and other organizations and agencies which have to do with any phase of fish and wildlife with respect to any problems that may arise in connection with such fish and wildlife.
(a) Repealed. Pub.L. 96-470, Title I, § 103(a), Oct. 19, 1980, 94 Stat. 2237.
(b) The Secretary is authorized to make a report to the President and the Congress, and, when requested by the United States International Trade Commission in connection with section 1364 of Title 19, or when an investigation is made under the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1332), the Secretary is authorized to make a report to such Commission, concerning the following matters with respect to any fishery product which is imported into the United States, or such reports may be made upon a request from any segment of the domestic industry producing a like or directly competitive product--
(1) whether there has been a downward trend in the production, employment in the production, or prices, or a decline in the sales, of the like or directly competitive product by the domestic industry; and
(2) whether there has been an increase in the imports of the fishery products into the United States, either actual or relative to the production of the like or directly competitive product produced by the domestic industry.
Nothing in this Act shall be construed (1) to interfere in any manner with the rights of any State under the Submerged Lands Act [43 U.S.C.A. § 1301 et seq.] or otherwise provided by law, or to supersede any regulatory authority over fisheries exercised by the States either individually or under interstate compacts; or (2) to interfere in any manner with the authority exercised by any International Commission established under any treaty or convention to which the United States is a party.
There are hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act.
(a) Prohibition; penalty
Any person who--
(1) while airborne in an aircraft shoots or attempts to shoot for the purpose of capturing or killing any bird, fish, or other animal; or
(2) uses an aircraft to harass any bird, fish, or other animal; or
(3) knowingly participates in using an aircraft for any purpose referred to in paragraph (1) or (2);
shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.
(b) Exception; report of State to Secretary
(1) This section shall not apply to any person if such person is employed by, or is an authorized agent of or is operating under a license or permit of, any State or the United States to administer or protect or aid in the administration or protection of land, water, wildlife, livestock, domesticated animals, human life, or crops, and each such person so operating under a license or permit shall report to the applicable issuing authority each calendar quarter the number and type of animals so taken.
(2) In any case in which a State, or any agency thereof, issues a permit referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection, it shall file with the Secretary of the Interior an annual report containing such information as the Secretary shall prescribe, including but not limited to--
(A) the name and address of each person to whom a permit was issued;
(B) a description of the animals authorized to be taken thereunder, the number of animals authorized to be taken, and a description of the area from which the animals are authorized to be taken;
(C) the number and type of animals taken by such person to whom a permit was issued; and
(D) the reason for issuing the permit.
(c) “Aircraft” defined
As used in this section, the term “aircraft” means any contrivance used for flight in the air.
(d) Enforcement; regulations; arrest; search; issuance and execution of warrants and process; cooperative agreements
The Secretary of the Interior shall enforce the provisions of this section and shall promulgate such regulations as he deems necessary and appropriate to carry out such enforcement. Any employee of the Department of the Interior authorized by the Secretary of the Interior to enforce the provisions of this section may, without warrant, arrest any person committing in his presence or view a violation of this section or of any regulation issued hereunder and take such person immediately for examination or trial before an officer or court of competent jurisdiction; may execute any warrant or other process issued by an officer or court of competent jurisdiction for the enforcement of the provisions of this section; and may, with or without a warrant, as authorized by law, search any place. The Secretary of the Interior is authorized to enter into cooperative agreements with State fish and wildlife agencies or other appropriate State authorities to facilitate enforcement of this section, and by such agreements to delegate such enforcement authority to State law enforcement personnel as he deems appropriate for effective enforcement of this section. Any judge of any court established under the laws of the United States, and any United States magistrate may, within his respective jurisdiction, upon proper oath or affirmation showing probable cause, issue warrants in all such cases.
All birds, fish, or other animals shot or captured contrary to the provisions of this section, or of any regulation issued hereunder, and all guns, aircraft, and other equipment used to aid in the shooting, attempting to shoot, capturing, or harassing of any bird, fish, or other animal in violation of this section or of any regulation issued hereunder shall be subject to forfeiture to the United States.
(f) Certain customs laws applied
All provisions of law relating to the seizure, forfeiture, and condemnation of a vessel for violation of the customs laws, the disposition of such vessel or the proceeds from the sale thereof, and the remission or mitigation of such forfeitures, shall apply to the seizures and forfeitures incurred, or alleged to have been incurred, under the provisions of this section, insofar as such provisions of law are applicable and not inconsistent with the provisions of this section; except that all powers, rights, and duties conferred or imposed by the customs laws upon any officer or employee of the Treasury Department shall, for the purposes of this section, be exercised or performed by the Secretary of the Interior or by such persons as he may designate.
(Aug. 8, 1956, c. 1036, § 13, as added Nov. 18, 1971, Pub.L. 92-159, § 1, 85 Stat. 480, and amended Oct. 18, 1972, Pub.L. 92-502, 86 Stat. 905.)
Notwithstanding subsection1 5901(a) of Title 5, the uniform allowance for each uniformed employee of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service may be up to $400 annually.
(Aug. 8, 1956, c. 1036, § 14, as added June 28, 1980, Pub.L. 96-291, § 2, 94 Stat. 608.)
For the purpose of facilitating administration of, and protecting the interest of the Government in, the fishery loan fund established by section 742c of this title and any related type of activities relating to fisheries for which the Department of the Interior is now or may hereafter be responsible, the Secretary of the Interior, notwithstanding any other provisions of law, may hereafter administer, complete, recondition, reconstruct, renovate, repair, maintain, operate, charter, assign, or sell upon such terms and conditions as he may deem most advantageous to the United States, any vessel, plant, or other property acquired by him on behalf of the United States and arising out of any fishery loan or any related type of activity by the Secretary of the Interior. The Secretary may use any of the applicable funds in each particular instance for the aforesaid purposes.
(Pub.L. 87-219, Sept. 13, 1961, 75 Stat. 493.)