Great Apes: Related Statutes

Statute by categorysort descending Citation Summary
KY - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes KRS § 525.125 - 135; KRS § 436.600 - 610

These Kentucky statutes represent the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  Under the law, animal cruelty in the first-degree (a class D felony) occurs when a person causes four-legged animals to fight for pleasure or profit.  Exclusions under this section include, among others, the killing of animals when hunting, fishing, or trapping; as incident to the processing as food or for other commercial purposes; or for veterinary, agricultural, spaying or neutering, or cosmetic purposes.

KY - Endangered Species - Chapter 150. Fish and Wildlife Resources. KRS § 150.180, 183, 260, 280, 990

Under Kentucky law, no person shall import, transport, possess for resale or sell any endangered species of wildlife.  The term "endangered species" means any species of wildlife seriously threatened with worldwide extinction or in danger of being extirpated from the Commonwealth of Kentucky.  Violation of the Act may result in fines or possible imprisonment depending on the statutory section violated, and license sanctions may also result.

KY - Exotic Animals - Chapter 65. General Provisions Applicable to Counties, Cities KRS § 65.877

This Kentucky statue authorizes counties and cities to regulate or prohibit the holding of inherently dangerous wildlife. For example, the Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources has identified some of the following animals as being dangerous: African buffalo, Hippopotamus, Hyenas, Old world badger, Lions, jaguars, leopards, or tigers, Clouded leopard, Cheetah, Elephants, Rhinoceroses, Gorillas, Baboons, drills, or mandrills, Crocodiles, Alligators or caimans, certain snakes, Gila monsters or beaded lizards, Komodo dragon, Wolverine, Bears, Wolf, mountain lion.

LA - Exotic animals - § 2796.2. Limitation of liability for loss connected LSA-R.S. 9:2796.2

This Louisiana law states that no person shall have a cause of action against any nonprofit organization which operates or maintains a tax-exempt animal sanctuary for any injury, death, loss, or damage in connection with the Chimp Haven Festival, Dixie Chimps art contest, Les Boutiques de Noel, SciPort and Chimp Haven events, Run Wild and Have a Field Day, Eye-20 Art Show Gala, Krewe of Barkus and Meow Paws parade, Krewe of Centaur parade, Krewe of Highland parade, garden tour, ChimpStock, and any other educational and public awareness activities in which the organization sponsors or participates, unless the loss or damage was caused by the deliberate and wanton act or gross negligence of the organization or any officer, employee, or volunteer thereof.

MA - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes M.G.L.A. 272 § 77- 95; M.G.L.A. 22C § 57; M.G.L.A. 272 § 34

These Massachusetts laws contain the state's anti-cruelty provisions.  § 77 is the operative anti-cruelty statute and provides that whoever overdrives, overloads, drives when overloaded, overworks, tortures, torments, deprives of necessary sustenance, cruelly beats, mutilates or kills an animal, and whoever uses in a cruel or inhuman manner in a race, game, or contest, or in training, as lure or bait a live animal (except as bait in fishing), or knowingly and willfully authorizes or permits it to be subjected to unnecessary torture, suffering or cruelty of any kind shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for not more than 7 years or imprisonment for not more than 2 1/2 years or by a fine of not more than $5,000, or by both such fine and imprisonment.  Other prohibitions include the dyeing of baby chicks, the docking of horse tails, and both felony and misdemeanor penalties for animal fighting, depending on conduct. In 2010, the state made non-medically necessary devocalization of dogs or cats illegal.

MA - Endangered Species - Chapter 131A. Massachusetts Endangered Species Act M.G.L.A. 131A § 1 - 7

This Massachusetts statute comprises the state's endangered species act.  "Endangered species", any species of plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range including those species listed under the federal ESA.  The director shall conduct investigations and consult with the natural heritage and endangered species advisory committee in order to determine whether any species of plant or animal constitutes an endangered or threatened species or species of special concern.  Habitat alteration permits are required under this act when any person undertakes a project that may alter a significant portion of habitat.

MA - Exotic pet, breeding - Chapter 131. Inland Fisheries and Game and Other Natural Resources. M.G.L.A. 131 § 23

Massachusetts bans private possession of exotic pets, and requires licenses for those who deal and propagate wild species for other reasons. The Massachusetts director of the Division of Fisheries and Wildlife also issues a list of exempted species for which no permit is needed. (See also

MD - Endangered Species - Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act MD Code, Natural Resources, § 10-2A-01 - 09

These Maryland statutes comprise the Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act.  Under the Act, any species designated under the federal Endangered Species Act is deemed an endangered species as are other species designated by the state secretary based on habitat and population factors.  Violators of the Act shall be fined not more than $1,000 or be imprisoned not more than 1 year, or both and equipment used in the taking of designated species may be seized.

MD - Exotic pets - Subtitle 6. Crimes Relating to Animals. MD Code, Criminal Law, § 10-621

Under this Maryland law, a person may not import into the State, offer for sale, trade, barter, possess, breed, or exchange the following species of animals: foxes, skunks, raccoons, bears, caimans, alligators, crocodiles, wild cats, wolves, nonhuman primates, and venomous snakes. Animal sanctuaries, AWA licensed facilities, those holding valid permits from the Department of Natural Resources, and veterinarians are exempted. This section does not prohibit a person who had lawful possession of an animal listed above on or before May 31, 2006, from continuing to possess that animal if the person provided written notification to the local animal control authority on or before August 1, 2006. Violation results in a fine and seizure of the animal(s).

MD - Hunting - Subtitle 9. Captive Wildlife. MD Code, Natural Resources, § 10-901 - 911

This Maryland statute states that it is in the state's public interest to preserve native species by strictly regulating the possession, importation, exportation, breeding, raising, protection, rehabilitation, hunting, killing, trapping, capture, purchase, or sale of certain wildlife which pose a possibility of harm to native wildlife.

ME - Endangered Species - Subchapter 3. Endangered Species; Management and Research. 12 M. R. S. A. § 12801 - 12810

These Maine statutes set forth the legislative intent to protect vulnerable species and list the relevant species.  By statute, a person is guilty of "misuse of an endangered or threatened species" if he or she imports into the State, hunts, takes or possesses, or deliberately baits, feeds, or harasses a listed species.  A warning is issued for the first infraction while the second infraction constitutes a Class E crime. 

ME - Exotic Pets - Subchapter 15. Wildlife Importation and Possession, Permits and Requirements, 12 M. R. S. A. § 12151 - 12161

These Maine statutes prohibit keeping wildlife in captivity, importing, breeding or releasing wildlife into the wild, with exceptions for a person holding a license. Taking reptiles, amphibians, and certain nonmarine invertebrates from the wild is also prohibited without a license. Provisions for the disposition of wolf hybrids are included. Penalties for violations incur fines that range from $100 to $500. Three or more such violations are considered to be a Class E criminal offense.

MI - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes (MCL 750.49 - 70) M. C. L. A. 750.49 - 70; M.C.L.A. 750.158

The Michigan Legislature has designed three primary provisions related to cruelty to animals: intentional infliction of pain and suffering, duty to provide care, and anti-animal fighting.  The intentional infliction of pain and suffering provision carries the most severe penalties for animal cruelty and a violation is automatically a felony.  A violation of the duty to provide care provision is initially a misdemeanor, which becomes a felony for a second or subsequent violation.  A violation of the anti-animal fighting provision is either a misdemeanor or a felony, depending on the severity of conduct related to fighting.  The provision does not apply to the lawful killing of livestock or customary animal husbandry of livestock, or lawful fishing, hunting, trapping, wildlife control, pest or rodent control, and animal research.

MI - Endangered - Part 365. Endangered Species Protection M. C. L. A. 324.36501 - 07

The state of Michigan defines an endangered species as "any fish, plant life, or wildlife that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant part of its range, other than a species of insecta determined by the department or the Secretary of the United States Department of the Interior to constitute a pest whose protection under this part would present an overwhelming and overriding risk to humans."  Violation of the taking provision constitutes a misdemeanor punishable up to 90-days in jail and/or up to $1,0000 in fines.

MI - Enforcement - Chapters 760 to 777 Code of Criminal Procedure. M. C. L. A. 764.16

This law authorizes private citizens to make arrests.

MI - Livestock - Chapter 287. Animal Industry. Animal Industry Act M. C. L. A. 287.701 - 747

This Michigan act is known as the “animal industry act." The act is intended to protect the health, safety, and welfare of humans and animals, by requiring disease testing of imported animals, certification, and reporting of infected animals. A newly amended section (287.746) also concerns the tethering or confinement of animals such as pregnant sows and veal calves in manners that restrict lying, standing, fully extending limbs, or turning freely.

MI - Research - Chapter 333. Health. Public Health Code. M.C.L.A. 333.2671 - 2678

This set of Michigan laws proclaims that "[t]he public health and welfare depend on the humane use of animals for the diagnosis and treatment of human and animal diseases." It also creates an animal research advisory board which may regulate and establish standards pursuant to section 2678 controlling the humane use of animals. Further, the department, its representative, or a member of the animal research advisory board may inspect any premises or property on or in which animals are kept for experimental purposes for the purpose of investigation of compliance with board standards. A person shall not keep or use animals for experimental purposes unless registered to do so by the department.

MN - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes M. S. A. § 343.01 - 40; 609.294

These Minnesota statute comprise the anti-cruelty laws in the state.  This section first allows the formation of private prevention of cruelty to animals societies and humane societies and sets forth their obligations by law.  "Animal" is defined by this section as every living creature except members of the human race.  No person shall overdrive, overload, torture, cruelly beat, neglect, or unjustifiably injure, maim, mutilate, or kill any animal, or cruelly work any animal when it is unfit for labor.  Under the neglect component, the statute states that no person shall deprive any animal over which the person has charge or control of necessary food, water, or shelter, among other things.

MN - Endangered Species - Natural Resources (Ch. 83A-84). Chapter 84. Department of Natural Resources M. S. A. §§ 84.0895, 84.944, 97A.245, 97A.501

This statute protects endangered and threatened species in Minnesota, as defined in the statute.  Under the law, a person may not take, import, transport, or sell any portion of an endangered species of wild animal or plant, or sell or possess with intent to sell an article made with any part of the skin, hide, or parts of an endangered species of wild animal or plant.  Violation of the statute is a misdemeanor.

MN - Exhibition - Chapter 97A. Game and Fish. General Provisions. M. S. A. § 97A.041

In Minnesota, a person may not possess wildlife in captivity for public exhibition purposes without a permit. The commissioner may issue a permit to an applicant qualified by education or experience in the care and treatment of wildlife. A permit shall include a condition that allows an enforcement officer to enter and inspect the facilities where the wildlife covered by the permit are held in captivity. A violation may result in the attorney general bringing an abatement action.

MN - Exotic pet - 346.155. Possessing regulated animals M. S. A. § 346.155

This Minnesota law defines "regulated animal" to mean all members of the Felidae family except the domestic cat, bears, and all non-human primates. Unless a person possessed a regulated animal on or before January 1, 2005, and came into compliance with AWA regulations, possession of the above-mentioned regulated animals is unlawful. A person who lawfully possessed a regulated animal before that date, must comply with registration, microchipping, fee, and inspection requirements.

MO - Endangered Species - Chapter 252. Department of Conservation--Fish and Game. V.A.M.S. 252.020, 252.235, 252.240

This Missouri statute provides that the importation, transportation, or sale of any endangered species of fish or wildlife, or hides or other parts thereof, or the sale or possession with intent to sell any article made in whole or in part from the skin, hide or other parts of any endangered species of fish or wildlife is prohibited.  Violation of the statute constitutes a Class B misdemeanor.

MO - Exotic pet - 578.023. Keeping a dangerous wild animal, penalty V. A. M. S. 578.023

This Missouri law states that no person may keep any lion, tiger, leopard, ocelot, jaguar, cheetah, margay, mountain lion, Canada lynx, bobcat, jaguarundi, hyena, wolf, bear, nonhuman primate, coyote, any deadly, dangerous, or poisonous reptile, or any deadly or dangerous reptile over eight feet long, in any place other than a properly maintained zoological park, circus, scientific, or educational institution, research laboratory, veterinary hospital, or animal refuge, unless such person has registered such animals with the local law enforcement agency in the county in which the animal is kept. Violation is a class C misdemeanor.

MO - Fish and Game - Chapter 252 (The Wildlife and Forestry Law) V.A.M.S. 252.002 - 252.333

This chapter establishes the Missouri Department of Conservation, outlines the agency's scope of authority, and includes all of the state's wildlife and endangered species statutes.

MO - Ordinances - Chapter 77. Third Class Cities V. A. M. S. 77.590, 79.110, 80.090, 82.300

This set of statutes authorizes municipal governments to regulate animals and animal-related nuisances.

MS - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes Miss. Code Ann. § 97-41-1 - 23; Miss. Code Ann. § 97-29-59

This section constitutes Mississippi's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions, which were recently amended in 2011. The pertinent anti-cruelty law, § 97-41-1, states that any person who intentionally or with criminal negligence overrides, overdrives, overloads, tortures, torments, unjustifiably injures, deprives of necessary sustenance, food, or drink, cruelly beats, or needlessly mutilates any living creature , is guilty of a misdemeanor. The cat and dog cruelty provision, § 97-41-16, was significantly amended in 2011. This section, known as the "Mississippi Dog and Cat Pet Protection Law of 2011," makes it a misdemeanor to intentionally or with criminal negligence wound, deprive of adequate food, water, or shelter, or carry or confine in a cruel manner, any domesticated cat or dog. Aggravated cruelty occurs when a person with malice intentionally tortures, mutilates, maims, burns, starves or disfigures any domesticated dog or cat.

MS - Endangered Species - Chapter 5. Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act Miss. Code Ann. § 49-5-101 to 49-5-119

These Mississippi statutes provide the short title for the Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act, the definitions for the Act, the legislative findings, and the associated regulations of the Act.  Violations under the Act may incur up to a $1,000 fine and/or one-year term of imprisonment as well as equipment confiscation.

MS - Exotic pet - Chapter 8. Importation, Sale and Possession of Inherently Dangerous Wild Animals. Miss. Code Ann. § 49-8-1 to 49-8-19

This Mississippi chapter states that it is in the public interest to ensure the public health, safety and welfare by strictly regulating the importation, sale, transfer and possession of those wild animals inherently dangerous to humans. Several species are listed under this section as inherently dangerous to humans, including non-human primates, wolves, bears, hyenas, big cats, and hippopotamus, among others. It is unlawful for a person to import, transfer, sell, purchase or possess any wild animal classified inherently dangerous by law or regulation unless that person holds a permit. Those persons who were in possession of such animals on or before May 1, 1997 were able to continue possession provided that they complied with the permit process. Prior to the issuance of a permit, the applicant must have provided proof of liability insurance in the amount of $100,000.00 for each wild animal up to a maximum of $1,000,000.00.

MT - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes MCA 45-8-209 - 211; 45-8- 217; 45-8-218; 7-23-4104

This section comprises Montana's anti-cruelty and dogfighting laws.  A person commits the offense of cruelty to animals if he or she knowingly or negligently subjects an animal to mistreatment or neglect; fails to provide an animal in the person's custody with food and water of sufficient quantity or minimum protection for the animal from adverse weather conditions; or, in cases of immediate, obvious, serious illness or injury, fails to provide licensed veterinary or other appropriate medical care.  Animal abandonment of a "helpless animal" or abandoning any animal on any highway, railroad, or in any other place where it may suffer is also considered cruelty.  A first conviction results in a possible $1,000/1 year imprisonment with graduating penalty enhancements for subsequent convictions.  This section does not prohibit a person humanely destroying an animal for just cause or the use of commonly accepted agricultural and livestock practices on livestock (among other things). Section 217 defines aggravated cruelty as either knowingly or purposely killing or inflicting cruelty to an animal with the purpose of terrifying, torturing, or mutilating the animal, or inflicting cruelty to animals on a collection, kennel, or herd of 10 or more animals.

MT - Endangered Species - Chapter 5. Wildlife Protection. MCA 87-5-101 to 87-5-132

These Montana statutes provide the short title for the Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act, the definitions associated with the Act, and the legislative policy behind the Act.

MT - Exotic pets - Chapter 4. Commercial Activities. MCA 87-4-801 to 87-4-808

This set of Montana laws covers both "roadside menagerie" (any place where one or more wild animals are kept in captivity for the evident purpose of exhibition or attracting trade, excluding an educational institution or a traveling theatrical exhibition or circus based outside of Montana) and "wild animal menagerie" (any place where one or more bears or large cats, including cougars, lions, tigers, jaguars, leopards, pumas, cheetahs, ocelots, and hybrids of those large cats are kept in captivity for use other than public exhibition). The latter definition seems to cover the keeping of those listed species as exotic pets. Under the section, it is unlawful for any person to operate a roadside menagerie or wild animal menagerie without a permit. The annual permit fee for five or less animals is $10. The annual permit fee for more than five animals is $25.

MT - Exotic wildlife - Part 7. Importation, Introduction, and Transplantation of Wildlife MCA 87-5-701 to 87-5-725

These Montana statutes control the importation, introduction, and transplantation of exotic wildlife into the state. The importation of any wildlife is prohibited unless the species poses no threat of harm to native wildlife and plants or to agricultural production and that the introduction has significant public benefits. Violations may result in a fine or imprisonment.

NC - Commerce - Chapter 113. Conservation and Development. N.C.G.S.A. § 113-294

North Carolina law makes it a Class 2 misdemeanor to sell, possess for sale, or buy any wildlife. Further, the law specifically makes it a greater transgression (a Class 1 misdemeanor) to unlawfully take, possess, transport, sell, or buy any dead or alive bald or golden eagle, nest or egg.  The taking of other animals listed like bears and cougars also incurs greater penalty.

NC - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Laws (Article 47) N.C.G.S.A.§ 14-360 to 14-363.3; § 19A-1 - 70; § 19A-45 - 59; § 114-8.7; § 160A-182, § 14-177

This section comprises the relevant North Carolina animal cruelty statutes.  The anti-cruelty statute provides that if any person shall maliciously kill, or cause or procure to be killed, any animal by intentional deprivation of necessary sustenance, that person shall be guilty of a Class H felony .  If any person shall maliciously torture, mutilate, maim, cruelly beat, disfigure, poison, or kill, or cause or procure to be tortured, mutilated, maimed, cruelly beaten, disfigured, poisoned, or killed, any animal , every such offender shall for every such offense be guilty of a Class H felony. This section also makes promoting or conducting a cock fight a misdemeanor and promoting or conducting a dogfight a felony. Other prohibited acts include abandoning an animal, conveying any animal in a cruel manner, and restraining a dog in a cruel manner. This section also includes the civil remedy provisions.

NC - Endangered Species - Subchapter IV. Conservation of Marine and Estuarine and Wildlife Resources. Article 25. Endangered an N.C.G.S.A. § 113-331 to 113-350

This North Carolina statutory section comprises the state's endangered species provisions.  Endangered species is defined as any native or once-native species of wild animal whose continued existence as a viable component of the State's fauna is determined by the Wildlife Resources Commission to be in jeopardy or any species of wild animal determined to be an "endangered species" pursuant to the Endangered Species Act.  The statute empowers the Wildlife Resources Commission to list species and also outlines the criteria for listing.

NC - Exotic pets - Chapter 153A. Counties. N.C.G.S.A. § 153A-131; N.C.G.S.A. § 160A-187

These two North Carolina statutes provide that a city or county may by ordinance regulate, restrict, or prohibit the possession or harboring of animals which are dangerous to persons or property.

ND - Endangered Species - Chapter 20.1-09. Propagation of Protected Birds and Animals NDCC 20.1-01-02, NDCC 20.1-09-01 - 05

This North Dakota statute provides a state definition for endangered species.

ND - Livestock - State Board of Animal Health NDCC 36-01-00.1 - 35

This Chapter of North Dakota laws deals with the state board of animal health, state veterinarian, and special provisions for keeping certain non-traditional livestock. Section 36-01-08.2 states that any person who keeps a mountain lion, wolf, or wolf hybrid in captivity must obtain an identification number from the state board. Section 36-01-08.4 also provides that a person may not keep a skunk or raccoon in captivity, and that the state board must adopt rules concerning the keeping of a primate, wolf, or wolf-hybrid in captivity. The remainder of the chapter deals primary with infectious disease control in livestock, although section 36-01-31 contains a ban on the keeping of a live venomous reptile. 

NE - Endangered Species - Article 8. Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act Neb. Rev. St. § 37-801 to 811

These statutes comprise the Nebraska Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act.  Included are the definitions used in the Act, the legislative intent behind the Act, and the duty of the commission that oversees the Act.  Violation of the Act constitutes a Class II misdemeanor.

NE - Exotic pets - Chapter 37. Game and Parks. Article 4. Permits and Licenses. (B) Special Permits and Licenses. Neb. Rev. St. § 37-477 to 37-482

This set of Nebraska laws provides that no person shall keep in captivity any wild bird or mammal that is either in need of conservation or listed as an endangered or threatened species. Further, no person shall keep in captivity in this state any wolf, any skunk, or any member of the families Felidae (except the domestic cat) and Ursidae (the bear family). Any person legally holding in captivity, on March 1, 1986, any such animal subject to the prohibition shall be allowed to keep the animal for the duration of its life. The section also outlines the legal requirements for obtaining and maintaining captive wildlife. (See also Chapter 37. Game and Parks. Article 2. Game Law General Provisions ).

NH - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Laws N.H. Rev. Stat. § 644:8 - 644:8-f; N.H. Rev. Stat. § 105:14 - 18

These New Hampshire statutes provide the animals anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions for the state.  Included are general anti-cruelty laws for any animal (including domestic and wild animals), exhibitions of fighting animals, provisions for protection of animals riding in motor vehicles, restrictions related to docking the tail of a horse, provisions for the use of animals in science classes or fairs, laws against maiming or willfully interfering with police dogs or horses,  laws related to the willful interference with organizations or projects involving animals, and provisions related to dogs riding in pick-up trucks.

NH - Endangered - Chapter 212-A. Endangered Species Conservation Act N.H. Rev. Stat. § 212-A:1 to 212-A:15

These New Hampshire statutes outline the Endangered Species Conservation Act.  The definitions of the terms used in the Act are described especially with regard to what constitutes endangered and threatened species.  Violation of the Act is accomplished by taking a protected species and incurs a misdemeanor penalty.

NH - Exotic Pets, Wildlife - Chapter 207. Import, Possession, or Release of Wildlife. N.H. Rev. Stat. § 207:14 - 207:15-a

This New Hampshire section states that no person shall import, possess, sell, exhibit, or release any live marine species or wildlife, or the eggs or progeny thereof, without first obtaining a permit from the executive director except as otherwise permitted. The executive director has the authority to determine the time period and any other conditions governing the issuance of such permit. The executive director may refuse to issue a permit if he determines that such issuance may pose significant disease, genetic, ecological, environmental, health, safety, or welfare risks to persons, marine species or wildlife. Any wildlife release or imported contrary to these provisions are subject to seizure.

NJ - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes NJSA 4:22-10 to 4:22-60

These New Jersey statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty provisions.  According to the definitional section, "animal" or "creature" includes the whole brute creation.  Exclusions under the act include state regulated scientific experiments, state sanctioned killing of animals, hunting of game, training of dogs, normal livestock operations, and the killing of rats and mice.  With regard to livestock practices, no person may be cited or arrested for a first offense involving a minor or incidental violation of any provision of this title involving alleged cruelty to domestic livestock unless that person has first been issued a written warning. 

NJ - Endangered - Chapter 2A. Wildlife Generally NJSA 23:2A-1 to 23:2A-1:15

These statutes comprise the New Jersey Endangered and Nongame Species Conservation Act.  The definitions used in the Act are described as well as the rules for listing species, the powers and duties of the supervising department, and the designation of funding.  Under the statute, violation of the Act incurs a civil penalty of $250-5,000. In 2014, provisions were added for the prohibition on import, sale, or purchase of ivory products.

NM - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes NMSA 1978, § 30-18-1 to 30-18-15

This section comprises the New Mexico anti-animal cruelty provisions.  As used in this section, "animal" does not include insects or reptiles.  Cruelty to animals occurs when person negligently mistreats, injures, kills without lawful justification or torments an animal or abandons or fails to provide necessary sustenance to an animal under that person's custody or control.  Extreme cruelty to animals, a fourth-degree felony, consists of a person intentionally or maliciously torturing, mutilating, injuring or poisoning an animal or maliciously killing an animal.  Upon conviction, the court may order a person to participate in an animal cruelty prevention program or an animal cruelty education program, or to obtain psychological counseling for treatment of a mental health disorder.

NM - Endangered Species - Chapter 17. Game and Fish and Outdoor Recreation. N. M. S. A. 1978, § 17-2-37 to 17-2-46

These statutes comprise the New Mexico Wildlife Conservation Act.  Included in the provisions are definitions related to the statute, legislative policies, and regulations for listing or delisting species.  Violation of the Act constitutes a misdemeanor and can incur a penalty from $50 - 1,000 depending on the categorization of the species taken.

NV - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes N. R. S. 574.010 to 574.550

This comprehensive section comprises the Nevada anti-cruelty statutes.  The section first empowers private prevention of cruelty to animals societies and outlines their powers and responsibilities, including the power to arrest.  Under this section, "animal" does not include the human race, but includes every other living creature.  Animal cruelty, as described in Section 574.100, prohibits the overdriving, overloading, torture, cruel beating or unjustifiable injuring, maiming, mutilation or killing of an animal, as well as the deprivation of necessary sustenance, food or drink.  The first offense under this section is a misdemeanor with enhancement to a felony for a third or subsequent convictions.  Animals fighting is also prohibited under the section, with enhanced sentences for subsequent convictions.  Other specific crimes include mistreatment of dogs, abandonment of animals, poisoning (although the section does not prohibit the destruction of "noxious animals"), and basic requirements for the care of dogs and cats kept in kennels or sold by pounds or pet shops.

NV - Endangered Species - Protection and Propagation of Native Fauna (Chapter 503) N. R. S. 503.584 - 503.589

These statutes provide that the Legislature of Nevada has an interest in protecting native species from extinction and sets forth the authority to establish programs to protect designated species.  However, if a native species is found to be destructive under the statute, the statute provides for removal if appropriate.  Under statute, the ultimate responsibility for management rests with the governor for reviewing state programs and entering into interstate and federal agreements.

NY - Dangerous animal - § 209-cc. Notification of presence of wild animals and dangerous dogs McKinney's General Municipal Law § 209-cc

New York state law requires anyone in possession of dangerous dogs and dangerous wild animals (which include non-human primates, non-domesticated dogs and cats, bears, venomous, constrictors and python snakes, and certain crocodiles) to report the presence of that animal to the clerk of the city, town, or village in which the animal resides. The report must be filed by April 1st every year and must list all of the physical locations where the animal may be kept. The clerk must then notify all local police, fire, and emergency medical service departments of the presence of that animal. Any person who fails to report the presence may be fined up to $250 dollars for the first offense and $1,000 dollars for each subsequent offense. Zoos and other U.S. Department of Agriculture-licensed exhibitors are exempt from the reporting requirement.

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