Statutes

Statute by categorysort ascending Citation Summary
MA - Hunting - Chapter 131. Inland Fisheries and Game and Other Natural Resources. M.G.L.A. 131 § 5C This law reflects Massachusetts' hunter harassment provision. Under the law, no person shall obstruct, interfere with or otherwise prevent the lawful taking of fish or wildlife by another at the locale where such activity is taking place. Acts prohibited include, but are not limited to, driving or disturbing wildlife, harassing another engaged in lawful taking of fish or wildlife, interjecting oneself into the line of fire, or erecting barriers to prevent access. A person may seek an injunction to prevent violation of this section and a person who sustains damages from any act in violation of the law may bring a civil action for punitive damages.
MA - Horse - § 3. Sleigh or sled; bells M.G.L.A. 89 § 3 This Massachusetts law states that no person shall travel on a way with a sleigh or sled drawn by a horse, unless there are at least three bells attached to some part of the harness.
MA - Fur, labeling - Chapter 94. Inspection and Sale of Food, Drugs and Various Articles. M.G.L.A. 94 § 277A This law represents Massachusetts' fur labelling law. Under the law, all natural, dyed or imitation furs, and all articles made wholly or partly therefrom, sold at retail within the commonwealth, shall be plainly marked or labelled with an accurate statement of the material which they contain, together with the name and address of the seller. Whoever violates any provision of this section shall be punished by a fine of not more than two hundred dollars.
MA - Fur - Chapter 131. Inland Fisheries and Game and Other Natural Resources. M.G.L.A. 131 § 80A Massachusetts law provides that a person may not use or possess any trap for capturing furbearing mammals except for common mouse and rat traps, nets, and box or cage traps. Traps designed to capture and hold a furbearing mammal by gripping the mammal's body, or body part are prohibited, including steel jaw leghold traps, padded leghold traps, and snares. This prohibition does not apply to federal, state, or municipal departments for the protection from threats to human health and safety (e.g., beaver or muskrat caused flooding or damage).
MA - Exotic Pets - Chapter 131. Inland Fisheries and Game and Other Natural Resources. M.G.L.A. 131 § 77A Massachusetts bans hybrid animals, those offspring of mating between a domestic animal and its wild counterpart, usually wolves and dogs. No individual may possess or own a hybrid as a pet.
MA - Exotic pet, breeding - Chapter 131. Inland Fisheries and Game and Other Natural Resources. M.G.L.A. 131 § 23 Massachusetts bans private possession of exotic pets, and requires licenses for those who deal and propagate wild species for other reasons. The Massachusetts director of the Division of Fisheries and Wildlife also issues a list of exempted species for which no permit is needed.
MA - Equine transport - License plates for vehicles transporting equine animals M.G.L.A. 129 § 46 - 48 This Massachusetts law provides that vehicles transporting equines must have a special license plate. Also, the use of multiple deck vehicles or the so-called "possum belly" vehicle used in the transportation of equine animals is prohibited.
MA - Equine Activity Liability Statute - Chapter 128. Agriculture. M.G.L.A. 128 § 2D This Massachusetts law provides that an equine activity sponsor, an equine professional, or any other person shall not be liable for an injury to or the death of a participant resulting from the inherent risks of equine activities. The statute sets out several definitions related to equine activities, but specifically notes that the term "engage in an equine activity" shall not include being a spectator at an equine activity, except in cases where the spectator places himself in an unauthorized area or in immediate proximity to the equine activity. Liability is not limited by this statute where the equine professional knowingly provided faulty tack or equipment, failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the equine activity, owns or otherwise is in lawful possession of the land or facilities upon which the participant sustained injuries because of a known, dangerous latent condition, or if he or she commits an act or omission that constitutes willful or wanton disregard for the safety of the participant or intentionally injures the participant.
MA - Endangered Species - Chapter 131A. Massachusetts Endangered Species Act M.G.L.A. 131A § 1 - 7 This Massachusetts statute comprises the state's endangered species act. "Endangered species", any species of plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range including those species listed under the federal ESA. The director shall conduct investigations and consult with the natural heritage and endangered species advisory committee in order to determine whether any species of plant or animal constitutes an endangered or threatened species or species of special concern. Habitat alteration permits are required under this act when any person undertakes a project that may alter a significant portion of habitat.
MA - Eggs - Ch. 129 Prevention of Farm Animal Cruelty Act M.G.L.A. 129 §§ 1-1 - 1-12 This collection of laws was created by Massachusetts voters when they approved Question 3 and the 2016 ballot. These laws prevent the inhumane confinement of pregnant pigs, calves raised for veal, and egg-laying hens in the state of Massachusetts. These laws also prohibit the sale of products in Massachusetts made from animals confined in violation of these laws.
MA - Domestic Violence - § 11. Possession, care and control of domesticated animal owned by persons involved in certain protecti M.G.L.A. 209A § 11 This Massachusetts law, effective October of 2012, allows the court to order the possession, care and control of any domesticated animal owned, possessed, leased, kept or held by either party or a minor child residing in the household to the plaintiff or petitioner in a no contact or restraining order. The court may order the defendant to refrain from abusing, threatening, taking, interfering with, transferring, encumbering, concealing, harming or otherwise disposing of such animal.
MA - Dog - Consolidated Dog Laws M.G.L.A. 2 § 14; M.G.L.A. 112 § 12Z; M.G.L.A. 128A § 14E; M.G.L.A. 266 § 47; M.G.L.A. 140 § 136A - § 174F; M.G.L.A. 129 § 39G; M.G.L.A. 131 § 20, 21, 21A, 82 These Massachusetts statutes comprise the state's dog laws. Among the provisions include licensing laws, dangerous dog laws, and rabies vaccination provisions.
MA - Cruelty, reporting - § 85. Department employees reporting animal cruelty, abuse or neglect; immunity from liability M.G.L.A. 119 § 85 This Massachusetts statute provides that a state employee acting within the scope of his or her employment, who has knowledge of or observes an animal whom he knows or reasonably suspects has been the victim of animal cruelty, abuse or neglect may report it to the entities that investigate these reports or any local animal control. The statute describes how to make the report, timing to submit, and who can make the report if 2 or more employees witness the abuse. The statute also makes clear that no person who makes a report shall be liable in any civil or criminal action if the report was made in good faith.
MA - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes M.G.L.A. 272 § 77 - 95; M.G.L.A. 22C § 57; M.G.L.A. 272 § 34 These Massachusetts laws contain the state's anti-cruelty provisions. Sec. 77 is the operative anti-cruelty statute and provides that whoever overdrives, overloads, drives when overloaded, overworks, tortures, torments, deprives of necessary sustenance, cruelly beats, mutilates or kills an animal, and whoever uses in a cruel or inhuman manner in a race, game, or contest, or in training, as lure or bait a live animal (except as bait in fishing), or knowingly and willfully authorizes or permits it to be subjected to unnecessary torture, suffering or cruelty of any kind shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for not more than 7 years or imprisonment for not more than 2 1/2 years or by a fine of not more than $5,000, or by both such fine and imprisonment. Other laws prohibit the dyeing of baby chicks, the docking of horse tails, and animal fighting, among other provisions. In 2010, the state made non-medically necessary devocalization of dogs or cats illegal.
MA - Cat of commonwealth - Chapter 2. Arms, Great Seal and Other Emblems of the Commonwealth. M.G.L.A. 2 § 30 The Tabby cat shall be the official cat of the Massachusetts commonwealth.
MA - Assistance Animal - Assistance Animal/Guide Dog Laws M.G.L.A. 90 § 14A; M.G.L.A. 129 § 1, 39C, 39D, 39F, 43; M.G.L.A. 272 § 98A; M.G.L.A. 272 § 85B; M.G.L.A. 140 § 139 The following statutes comprise the state's relevant assistance animal and service dog laws.
Ley N° 371 de 2023 Law 371, 2023 Ley 371, enacted in March 2023, is the law by which Panama promotes the conservation and protection of Sea Turtles and their habitat. Relying on Law 287, 2022 (which recognized Nature as a subject of Rights), this law recognizes sea turtles are subjects of rights in Panama. More specifically, Article 29, "Protection of the Rights of Turtles and their Habitat," establishes that sea turtles have "the right to live and have free passage in a healthy environment, free of pollution and other anthropocentric impacts that cause physical damage and damage to their health, such as climate change, contamination incidental capture, coastal development, and unregulated tourism, among others."
Ley General de Pesca y Acuacultura Sustentables Ley General de Pesca y Acuacultura Sustentables This law aims to regulate, encourage, and manage the use of fishing and aquaculture resources in the national territory and the areas over which the nation exercises its sovereignty and jurisdiction.
Ley Federal de Responsabilidad Ambiental Ley Federal de Responsabilidad Ambiental This law governs environmental responsibility arising from environmental harm and addresses the legal damages and consequences resulting from such harm. It recognizes damages caused to the environment regardless of the damages caused to the owner of the land and the natural resources.
Ley Federal Apícola de Mexico Ley Federal Apícola de Mexico, OFICIO No.: D.G.P.L. 64-Il-6-2694. EXPEDIENTE No. 6197. It serves as a comprehensive framework for treating and protecting bees, encompassing all activities related to this vital species, explicitly designating apiculture (or beekeeping) as a prioritized activity of public interest. The objectives of this law extend beyond the aforementioned points: 1) Recognizing Bees as Priority Species: The law aims to acknowledge bees as a species of paramount importance in biodiversity preservation, highlighting the need for their protection; 2) Promoting Education and Awareness: An essential aspect of this legislation is promoting education and awareness regarding the importance of respecting, caring for, protecting, conserving, and fostering a deep appreciation for bees; 3) Equal Status with Livestock: The law seeks to elevate their status to the same level as cattle. Consequently, stealing bees would be considered a rustling crime under the Federal Penal Code; and 4) Recognizing Honey's Nutritional Value: The law also aims to establish honey as a perfect food, recognizing its exceptional nutritional properties. It advocates for honey to be considered an essential component of a balanced diet to safeguard the health of society. Furthermore, this law contains provisions to enhance the regulation and support of apiculture, including the rights and obligations of beekeepers; it creates the National Council of the Beekeeping Product System, outlines the responsibilities and attributions of relevant authorities, and sets forth specific standards, reporting procedures, and licensing requirements for various aspects of beekeeping, including the establishment of apiaries, the movement of hives or their products, and other relevant activities.
Ley de Protección y Bienestar Animal de Tlaxcala-Mexico Ley de Protección y Bienestar Animal de Tlaxcala-Mexico This law seeks to promote animal welfare by providing proper care, suitable living conditions, fostering their natural development, and maintaining their health. It also seeks to protect their natural behavior, guaranteeing public health. Article 3, IV defines animal as a “multicellular living being with a developed nervous system, which feels and moves voluntarily or by instinct.” It includes various definitions, but it does not define animal cruelty.
Ley de Protección y Bienestar Animal de Tlaxcala Ley de Protección y Bienestar Animal de Tlaxcala This law seeks to promote animal welfare by providing proper care, suitable living conditions, fostering their natural development, and maintaining their health. It also seeks to protect their natural behavior, guaranteeing public health. Article 3, IV defines animal as a “Multicellular living being with a developed nervous system, which feels and moves voluntarily or by instinct.” It includes various definitions, but it does not define animal cruelty.
Ley de Protección para la Fauna en el Estado de Chiapas Ley de Protección para la Fauna en el Estado de Chiapas The Wildlife Protection Law in the State of Chiapas primarily emphasizes the protection and responsible use of "fauna" to ensure the welfare of both wild and domestic animals. Noteworthy provisions of this law include the prohibition of circuses, animal fighting, and the use of animals for teaching purposes and experiments at all educational levels throughout the state, except for higher education levels when such practices are necessary for their educational objectives. This law also defines "animal cruelty" as suffering, torture, or mistreatment.
Ley de Protección Animal del Estado de Querétaro Ley de Protección Animal del Estado de Querétaro This law seeks to guarantee dignified and respectful treatment for all animal species. As stated in Article 1, its primary objectives include: 1) the regulation of the possession, procreation, development, use, transportation, and slaughter of species, populations, and animal specimens in the state; 2) to implement compliance with the state's environmental policy regarding wildlife and biotic resources; and 3) to promote a culture of protection and respect for nature.
Ley de Protección a los Animales de la Ciudad de México Ley de Protección Animal This law seeks to protect animals, ensure their welfare, and provide attention, good treatment, maintenance, lodging, natural development, and health. Furthermore, it aims to avoid mistreatment, cruelty, suffering, bestiality, and deformation of their physical characteristics, as well as to ensure animal health, public health, and the five freedoms of the animal.
Ley Constitucional de Derechos Humanos y sus Garantías de la Ciudad de México Ley Constitucional de Derechos Humanos y sus Garantías de la Ciudad de México This 2019 law is a secondary law that regulates the application of the constitutional mandate that the Mexico City government guarantees the fulfillment of the more than fifty fundamental rights established in the Constitution. This law addresses the issue of animal protection, specifically in Article 95. Article 95 states that animal protection shall be guaranteed in the broadest way to provide a livable city and seek people's fulfillment of the right to a healthy environment. Even though the focus of this article is human-centric and not the well-being of animals per se, it provides a list of eleven principles tailored around the protection of animals and their interests.
Ley Ambiental de Protección a la Tierra en la Ciudad De México Ley Ambiental de Protección a la Tierra This law aims to achieve several objectives, including the preservation and restoration of ecological balance, the prevention of environmental harm, and the promotion of sustainable development. This sustainable development approach is intended to foster economic advantages and support various social activities. Article 2.V establishes that one of the cases in which this law would be applied In the conservation, protection, and preservation of flora and fauna under the jurisdiction of the Federal District. In addition, Article 4.IV deems the prevention and control of environmental pollution in the air, water, and soil, along with the protection, restoration, and responsible utilization of vital natural elements and habitats essential for preserving and promoting biodiversity, as matters of public utility.
Law 287 of 2022 Ley 287 de 2022 Law 287, 2022 is the Panama's law that recognizes the Rights of Nature and the State's related obligations with such rights.
LA - Veterinary - Veterinarians. LSA-R.S. 37:1511 - 70 These are the state's veterinary practice laws. Among the provisions include licensing requirements, laws concerning the state veterinary board, veterinary records laws, and the laws governing disciplinary actions for impaired or incompetent practitioners.
LA - Veterinarian Immnity - Chapter 20. Miscellaneous Provisions Common to Certain Professions. LA R.S. 37:1731 This law reflects Louisiana's good Samaritan provision. Under the law, a licensed veterinarian licensed under who in good faith gratuitously (without payment) renders emergency care or services or assistance at the scene of an emergency to an animal is not liable for any civil damages as a result of any act or omission in rendering the care or services or assistance.
LA - Vehicle, animal - § 1738.1. Immunity from liability; gratuitous emergency care to domestic animal LSA-R.S. 37:1738.1 This 2018 Louisiana law states that there shall be no liability on the part of a person for property damage or trespass to a motor vehicle, if the damage was caused while the person was rescuing an animal in distress. The person must first do the following: (1) make a good-faith attempt to locate the owner before forcibly entering the vehicle (based on the circumstances); (2) contact local law enforcement/911 before forcibly entering; (3) determine the vehicle is locked and has a good-faith belief there is no other reasonable means for the animal to be removed; (3) believe that removal of the animal is necessary because the animal is in imminent danger of death; (4) use no more force than necessary to rescue the animal; (5) place a notice on the windshield providing details including contact information and the location of the animal; and (6) remain with the animal in a safe location reasonably close to the vehicle until first responders arrive. For purposes of the law, "animal” means any cat or dog kept for pleasure, companionship, or other purposes that are not purely commercial.
LA - Trust - § 2263. Trust for the care of an animal LSA-R.S. 9:2263 This law enacted in 2015 allows the creation of a trust may to provide for the care of one or more animals that are "in being and ascertainable" on the date of the creation of the trust. The trust may designate a caregiver for each animal. The trust terminates on the death of the last surviving animal named in the trust. The "comments" that follow the statutory language provide some interesting explanation of several provisions of the new law.
LA - Research - LSA-R.S. 51:771 LSA-R.S. 51:771 - 777 This Louisiana set of laws, enacted in 2022, makes it unlawful for a manufacturer to sell or offer for sale in this state a cosmetic that utilized cosmetic animal testing during the development or manufacture of the cosmetic, if the cosmetic animal testing was conducted by the manufacturer, any supplier of the manufacturer, or any person or business hired or contracted by the manufacturer. Limited exemptions exist. A manufacturer that sells or offers for sale a cosmetic in violation commits a civil violation punishable by a fine of not more than $1,000 for the first day of each violation and an additional fine of $500 for each day that each violation continues.
LA - Reptiles - § 632.5.1. Constrictors and poisonous snakes LSA-R.S. 56:632.5.1 This Louisiana law provides that certain species of constrictor snakes in excess of eight feet long and venomous snakes shall only be allowed by permit issued by the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries except for animals kept by animal sanctuaries, zoos, aquariums, wildlife research centers, scientific organizations, and medical research facilities as defined in the Animal Welfare Act. Violation of the provisions of this Section or rules adopted pursuant thereto shall constitute a class three violation.
LA - Ordinances - CHAPTER 18. ANIMALS RUNNING AT LARGE. LA R.S. 3:2731 This Louisiana statute provides that the governing bodies of all parishes and municipalities may impose license taxes on all dogs, enact ordinances for the regulation of dogs running at large, and maintain pounds for the impounding of dogs.
LA - Lien, veterinary - § 4661. Feed, medicine, and veterinary services for horses LSA-R.S. 9:4661 This Louisiana law comprises the state's veterinary lien law, which relates only to services provided on horses. Any person who furnishes feed or medicines for a horse or horses, or any licensed veterinarian who furnishes medical services for a horse or horses, to or upon the order of the owner, has a privilege for the unpaid portion of the price thereof upon the horse or horses of the owner, which received the feed, medicine, or medical services.
LA - Leash - Chapter 18. Animals Running at Large LSA-R.S. 3:2771 This Louisiana law states that no person shall permit any dog in his or her possession to run at large on any unenclosed land, or trespass upon any enclosed or unenclosed lands of another.
LA - Initiatives - Ballot Issue 1 (right to hunt) Ballot Issue 1 (2004) This Louisiana ballot measure amended the state constitution after it was resoundingly approved in November of 2004 (by 81% of voters). The measure was initiated by the state legislature in Senate Bill 2 and was sent to the electors of the state for a vote. The measure on the official ballot stated that citizens were to vote FOR or AGAINST to amend the Constitution of Louisiana with the following proposition: "To guarantee the right of every citizen to hunt, fish and trap, subject to regulation, restriction, or prohibition as provided by law. (Adds Article I, 14 Section 27)."
LA - Hunting, Trapping, and Fishing - Chapter 1. General Provisions for Wildlife and Fisheries. LSA-R.S. 56:648 - 56:648.3 This section comprises Louisiana's hunter harassment laws. Under R.S. 56:648.1, no person may engage in such activities as interfering with the lawful taking of wildlife, disturbing a wild animal or otherwise affecting its behavior with the intent to prevent or hinder lawful taking, disturb any hunter, trapper, or fisherman who is engaged in lawful taking, or enter or remain on state-managed lands/water or private lands/water with the intent to violate this section. Violation of the provisions of R.S. 56:648.1 constitutes a class two violation. The section allows the issuance of an injunction and recovery of actual damages by persons affected by such conduct.
LA - Hunting - § 116.5. Computer-assisted remote hunting prohibited; penalties LSA-R.S. 56:116.5 This Louisiana law provides that it is a class six violation for any person to engage in computer-assisted remote hunting or provide or operate a facility or provide services that allow others to engage in computer-assisted remote hunting.
LA - Horses - § 2851. Livestock not to go on paved, black-topped and asphalt treated highways LSA-R.S. 3:2851 Under this Louisiana law, it is unlawful for lawful for horses, mules, donkeys, or asses to go on the paved, black-topped and asphalt treated highways of the state.
LA - Feral pigs - § 102.28. Transporting live feral swine prohibited; penalties LSA-R.S. 14:102.28 This 2018 Louisiana law makes it unlawful to transport live feral swine by any person not in possession of proof of registration as a feral swine authorized transporter with the Louisiana Board of Animal Health within the Department of Agriculture and Forestry. Whoever violates the provisions of this Section shall be fined not more than nine hundred dollars, or imprisoned for not more than six months, or both. Note that a subsection states, "[t]he provisions of this Section shall not apply to “Uncle Earl's Hog Dog Trials”'
LA - Facility dog - § 284. Facility dogs; use in court; procedure LSA-R.S. 15:284 This 2018 Louisiana law allows a witness who is under 18 or who has a developmental disability (as defined) to have a facility dog, if available, accompany him or her while testifying in court. Additionally, the court may allow any witness who does not meet those criteria to have a facility dog, if available, while testifying in court. Under this section, a "facility dog" means a dog that is certified and a graduate of an assistance dog organization that is accredited by Assistance Dogs International or a similar internationally recognized organization whose main purpose is to grant accreditation to assistance dog organizations based on standards of excellence in all areas of assistance dog acquisition, training, and placement.
LA - Exotic animals - § 2796.2. Limitation of liability for loss connected LSA-R.S. 9:2796.2 This Louisiana law states that no person shall have a cause of action against any nonprofit organization which operates or maintains a tax-exempt animal sanctuary for any injury, death, loss, or damage in connection with the Chimp Haven Festival, Dixie Chimps art contest, Les Boutiques de Noel, SciPort and Chimp Haven events, Run Wild and Have a Field Day, Eye-20 Art Show Gala, Krewe of Barkus and Meow Paws parade, Krewe of Centaur parade, Krewe of Highland parade, garden tour, ChimpStock, and any other educational and public awareness activities in which the organization sponsors or participates, unless the loss or damage was caused by the deliberate and wanton act or gross negligence of the organization or any officer, employee, or volunteer thereof.
LA - Equine Activity Liability - § 2795.1. Limitation of liability of farm animal activity LSA-R.S. 9:2795.1 - 9:2795.3 The Louisiana law regarding equine activity liability is divided into two sections; one related to "farm animal activity" and one specific to "equine activity sponsors." Both statutes have identical terms, save for the animal to which the statute pertains. Under both, engaging in the farm animal or equine activity does not include being a spectator at a farm animal activity, except in cases where the spectator places himself in an unauthorized area and in immediate proximity to the farm animal or equine activity. The statute also requires the visible displaying of warning signs that alert participants to the limitation of liability by law and any written contracts must include the statutory language provided. Failure to comply with the requirements concerning warning notices provided prevents a farm animal activity sponsor or equine sponsor from invoking the privilege of immunity provided by this section.
LA - Endangered Species - THREATENED AND ENDANGERED SPECIES CONSERVATION LSA-R.S. 56:1901 - 07 These Louisiana statutes set forth the legislative policy, definitions, and factors for listing endangered species. Additionally, the commission is authorized to issue and promote the sale to the general public of "endangered species" stamps as an additional source of funding for implementation of programs under these statutes. Violation of these provisions may result in a class four or class six violation.
LA - Ecoterrorism - Chapter 2. Miscellaneous Crimes and Offenses. LA R.S. 14:228, 228.1 This law is Louisiana's interference with animal research facilities or animal management facilities law. It is unlawful for any person to: intentionally release, steal, or otherwise cause the loss of any animal from an animal research facility or an animal management facility. to damage, vandalize, or steal any property from or on an animal research facility or an animal management facility to obtain access by false pretenses for the purpose of performing prohibited acts; to break and enter with the intent to destroy, alter, duplicate, or obtain unauthorized possession of records, data, materials, equipment, or animals; to enter or remain on an animal research facility or an animal management facility with the intent to commit prohibited acts; or to knowingly obtain or exert unauthorized control, by theft or deception, over records, data, material, equipment, or animals. A person violating this law shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned, with or without hard labor, for not more than one year, or both. A companion section (228.1) prohibits the unauthorized release of any animal, bird, or aquatic species which has been lawfully confined for agriculture, science, research, commerce, public propagation, protective custody, or education.
LA - Domestic Violence - Chapter 28. Protection from Family Violence Act. LSA-R.S. 46:2135 This Louisiana law allows a court to enter a temporary restraining order, without bond, as it deems necessary to protect from abuse the petitioner. Among the provisions is subsection (A)(7) that allows the court to grant ". . . to the petitioner the exclusive care, possession, or control of any pets belonging to or under the care of the petitioner or minor children residing in the residence or household of either party, and directing the defendant to refrain from harassing, interfering with, abusing or injuring any pet, without legal justification, known to be owned, possessed, leased, kept, or held by either party or a minor child residing in the residence or household of either party." In 2015, the state allowed the court shall consider any and all past history of abuse, or threats thereof, in determining the existence of an immediate and present danger of abuse.
LA - Dog Dangerous - Chapter 1. Criminal Code. LA R.S. 14:102.14 This Louisiana statute defines a "dangerous dog" as any dog which when unprovoked, on two separate occasions within the prior thirty-six-month period, engages in any behavior that requires a defensive action by any person to prevent bodily injury when the person and the dog are off the property of the owner of the dog; or any dog which, when unprovoked, bites a person causing an injury; or any dog which, when unprovoked, on two separate occasions within the prior thirty-six-month period, has killed, seriously bitten, inflicted injury, or otherwise caused injury to a domestic animal off the property of the owner of the dog. It is unlawful for any person to own a dangerous dog without properly restraining or confining the dog.
LA - Dog Bite - Art. 2321. Damage caused by animals. LA C.C. Art. 2321 This Louisiana civil code statute provides that an owner of any animal is liable for damages caused by that animal only upon a showing that he or she knew or should have known that his or her animal's behavior would cause damage, that the damage could have been prevented by the exercise of reasonable care, and that he or she failed to exercise such reasonable care. However, the owner of a dog is strictly liable for injuries to persons or property caused by the dog and which the owner could have prevented and which did not result from the injured person's provocation of the dog.

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