Angie Vega (2018)
Argentina is a country located in the southern side of South America. It is the second largest country in South America and the eighth largest country in the world. It is organized under a federal system, divided into 23 provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, which is the country’s capital. Buenos Aires and the 23 provinces have their own constitutions. Argentina is a civil law country, which means that codes are the main source of law. These codes contain all the principles that judges have to abide by when making a decision. Judges do not have to follow judicial precedent, as prior decisions are not considered binding for all.
Article 41 of the National Constitution establishes that everyone has the right to enjoy a healthy environment. Natural and cultural heritage, as well as biological diversity, are part of it, and the authorities and all citizens have the duty to protect it.
Argentina was the first country to grant rights of personhood to an orangutan and a chimpanzee. Animal mistreatment and cruelty are considered misdemeanors under the criminal code and Ley 14346, and can be reported to the police or to the prosecutor’s office by any person. Activities such as cetacean hunting and dog races are prohibited in the entire territory.
Argentina has special legislation protecting specific species. It has a statute for the protection of wild fauna, and statutes granting special protection to cetaceans, Andean deer, and jaguars. It is part of various international treaties and conventions such as the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals, Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterbird Habitat, Inter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles, and CITES.
Argentina has the considered one of the biggest red meat producers in the world. There is an extensive list of laws and regulations that aim to regulate subjects such as animal health, cattle production, humane transport, slaughter facilities, and stunning methods. It also has the National Program of Organic Production and the National Police for animal health. Animal health is considered a topic of national interest.