|International Comparative Animal Cruelty Laws (2003)||Paige Tomaselli||
Brief Summary of US-EU International Comparative Animal Cruelty Laws
|Jippes v. van Landbouw||Case C-189/01(ECJ)||
Jippes, an ECJ case from 2001, involved a legal dispute over the hoof and mouth pandemic ravaging Europe at the time. To stem spread of the disease, the EU passed a community directive banning the use of preventative vaccinations and mandating compulsory slaughter. The plaintiff—or “applicant,” as plaintiffs are referred to in Europe—owned a variety of farm animals, and, loathe to kill them, argued that European law embraced a general principle that animals were shielded from physical pain and suffering. Such a principle, the applicant argued, could only be overridden when absolutely necessary; and the compulsory slaughter directive was in direct conflict with this principle. The ECJ, however, rejected the applicant’s argument, holding that the Animal Welfare Protocol of 1997 did not delineate any new important animal-friendly principles in European law, but merely codified old ones.
|Legal Protections for Chickens||Veronica Hirsch||
Brief Summary of the Legal Protections for the Domestic Chicken in the United States and Europe
|Protocol on Animal Welfare Under Amsterdam Treaty||
Short Section added to the treaty which created the European Union, the Amsterdam Treaty, which acknowledges animal welfare as a factor when creating policy positions.
|PROTOCOLO RELATIVO À PROTECÇÃO E AO BEM-ESTAR DOS ANIMAIS||
Tratado de Amsterdão
Protocolo anexo ao Tratado que institui a Comunidade Europeia
|Review of animal welfare legislation in the beef, pork, and poultry industries||Peter Stevenson, Daniela Battaglia, Carmen Bullon, Arianna Carita||Stevenson, Peter et al. (2014). Review of animal welfare legislation in the beef, pork, and poultry industries. Food and Agriculture Organization United Nations.||This study aims to give an overview of the legal framework that applies to animal welfare in the EU and a group of non-EU countries. It focuses specifcally on beef cattle, pigs, broilers (the chickens reared for meat) and egg-laying hens while they are on the farm, in transit and at slaughter. Animal welfare standards of four international organizations, as well as a number of private standards established by major food businesses and animal welfare organizations are also analyzed.||Article|
|Scent Identification Procedures in the U.S. Have Different History and Different Procedures From Those Conducted in Europe||John Ensminger||Animal Legal & Historical Center||Scent lineups, designed to use a dog’s behavior to establish that two scents, one from a crime scene and one from a suspect, derive from the same person, have been conducted in radically different ways in the U.S. and Europe. In the U.S., scent lineups are often performed outdoors, in fields or parking lots, while in Europe they have for decades only been conducted indoors, often in canine forensic laboratories. In the U.S., lineups of individuals, as opposed to scents taken from individuals, have been part of standard practice in some jurisdictions until recently, but this has not been done in Europe for decades. Tracking of a suspect through a police station has been accepted as a formal identification procedure in the U.S., but not in Europe.||Article|