United States

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US - Migratory Birds - Final List of Bird Species to Which the Migratory Bird Treaty Act Does Not Apply

We are publishing a final list of the nonnative bird species that have been introduced by humans into the United States or its territories and to which the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) does not apply. This action is required by the Migratory Bird Treaty Reform Act (MBTRA) of 2004. The MBTRA amends the MBTA by stating that it applies only to migratory bird species that are native to the United States or its territories, and that a native migratory bird is one that is present as a result of natural biological or ecological processes. This notice identifies those species that are not protected by the MBTA, even though they belong to biological families referred to in treaties that the MBTA implements, as their presence in the United States and its territories is solely the result of intentional or unintentional human-assisted introductions.

US - Migratory Birds - Migratory Bird Permits; Regulations for Double-Crested Cormorant Management

The purpose of this depredation order is to reduce the occurrence and/or minimize the risk of adverse impacts to public resources (fish, wildlife, plants, and their habitats) caused by double-crested cormorants.

US - MMPA - Legislative History of 1972

This document contains most of the legislative history surrounding the 1972 adoption of the Marine Mammal Protection Act.

US - Native American - American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIFRA)

This act created an executive policy of respect for Native American religious ideas and practices.  While it does not create any substantive right of action by a Native American, AIFRA has been used substantiate claims against federal acts that infringe the exercise of Native American religions (policy affirmed by a 1994 executive order).  For discussion of federal Eagle Act, see

Detailed Discussion


US - Native American - RFRA (Religious Freedom Restoration Act)

RFRA provides that the government may not substantially burden an individual's free exercise of religion unless it is in furtherance of a compelling government interest and it is done through the least restrictive means.  For discussion of federal Eagle Act, see Detailed Discussion .

US - Patent - Patentability of Inventions and Grant of Patents

The Patent Act governs the law of patents in the United States.  Currently, the Patent and Trademark Office functions to issue patents, for which genetically engineered animal species may legally be patented in the United States. For more, see the Topical Introduction to Genetic Engineering and Animals.

US - Permits - Subpart A. Introduction. § 13.4 Emergency variation from requirements.

This regulation provides that the Director of the USFWS may approve variations from the permit requirements if an emergency exists and it does not hinder the administration of other regulations.

US - Permits - Subpart C. Permit Administration. § 13.21 Issuance of permits.

This regulation describes the conditions under which a permit is issued to possess wildlife that is subject to restricted terms of possession.  It further outlines the disqualifying factors that will result in denial of a permit under this subchapter (i.e., conviction of a wildlife offense, failure to comply with reporting requirements, activities that threaten the particular plant or animal population, etc.).

US - Permits - Subpart C. Permit Administration. § 13.29 Review procedures.

This regulation outlines the procedure to seek administrative review of the denial for a permit to possess or otherwise take wildlife or plants.

US - Permits - Subpart D. Conditions. § 13.42 Permits are specific.

This regulation provides that permits issued to collect or otherwise take wildlife or plants are strictly construed.