Dangerous Dog: Related Statutes
|Statute by category||Citation||Summary|
|WY - Dog - Consolidated Dog Laws||W. S. 1977 § 6-5-211; § 11-31-101 - 108; § 11-31-201 - 214; § 11-31-301; § 15-1-103; § 23-3-109; § 33-30-215||
These Wyoming statutes comprise the state's dog laws. Among the provisions include damage done to livestock by dogs, rabies vaccination requirements, and municipal powers to regulate dogs.
|WY - Dangerous - Article 1. In General. (Dangerous Dog Provisions)||W. S. 1977 § 11-31-105 to 108||
This Wyoming statute provides that every person, firm, copartnership, corporation or company owning any dog, which to his knowledge has killed sheep or other livestock, shall exterminate and destroy the dog.
|WV - Dogs - Consolidated Dog Laws||W. Va. Code, §§ 5A-4-4; § 7-7-6d; § 19-9-1 - 40; § 19-20-1 - 26; § 19-20A-1 - 8; § 19-20B-1 - 6; § 19-20C-1 - 3; § 19-20D-1 - 3; § 20-2-5; § 20-2-5f; § 20-2-16; § 20-2-22a; § 20-2-56a||
These West Virginia statutes comprise the state's dog laws. Among the provisions include registration requirements, rabies control, and hunting laws that impact dogs.
|WV - Dangerous - § 20-2-16. Dogs chasing deer||W. Va. Code, § 20-2-16||
This West Virginia statute mandates that no person shall permit his dog to hunt or chase deer. A conservation officer shall take into possession any dog known to have hunted or chased deer and the director shall advertise that such dog is in his possession, giving a description of the dog and stating the circumstances under which it was taken. The owner then has ten days to reclaim the dog. If after a bona fide but unsuccessful effort to capture dogs detected chasing or pursuing deer, an officer may kill the offending dogs.
|WV - Dangerous - § 19-20-21. License fee for keeping vicious or dangerous dog.||W. Va. Code, § 19-20-9a; § 19-20-20 - 21||These West Virginia statutes provide that any person who owns or harbors any dog, cat or other domesticated animal, whether licensed or unlicensed, which bites any person, shall confine and quarantine the animal for a period of ten days for rabies observation. The state apparently has a prohibition against owning a dangerous dog, such that no person shall own, keep or harbor any dog known by him to be vicious, dangerous, or in the habit of biting or attacking other persons, whether or not such dog wears a tag or muzzle. However, another section provides that any person who keeps a dog which is generally considered to be vicious, for the purpose of protection, shall acquire a special license therefor from the county assessor and then keep the dog restrained/enclosed.|
|WI - Dog, licenses - Chapter 174. Dogs. 174.06. Listing||W. S. A. 174.06||
This Wisconsin statute provides that every town, village and city shall annually, by September 1, ascertain by diligent inquiry the dogs owned or kept within the assessment district. The listing official shall enter in the records for personal property assessments, or in a separate record, all dogs in the district subject to tax, to whom they are assessed, the name, number, sex, spayed or unspayed, neutered or unneutered, breed and color of each dog.
|WI - Dog Bite - Chapter 174. Dogs. 174.12. Actions against owners||W. S. A. 174.12||
This Wisconsin statute outlines the allowance procedure by counties for damage done by dogs after a claim is filed and the county sues to recover from the owner of the damaging dog. The claimant shall first be notified that such action is contemplated and shall have been given a reasonable opportunity to be heard and to offer further evidence in support of the claimant's claim. It also provides that this chapter shall not in any way limit the existing right or authority of any town, village or city to pass ordinances for the keeping and regulating of dogs, or repeal or annul any existing statute or ordinance or local regulation governing the keeping and regulating of dogs.
|WI - Dog - Consolidated Dog Laws||W. S. A. 1.10; 29.184; 29.921; 29.927; 29.971; 169.20 - 36; 173.01 - 40; 174.001 - 15||
These Wisconsin statutes comprise the state's dog laws. Among the provisions include dog licensing provisions, hunting laws impacting dogs, and seizure of dogs by humane officers.
|WI - Dangerous dog - 174.11. Claims for damage by dogs to domestic animals including ranch mink||W. S. A. 174.11||
This Wisconsin provides that the owner of any domestic animal, including a ranch mink, which is attacked, chased, injured or killed by a dog may, within 3 days after the owner has knowledge or notice thereof, file a written claim for damages with the clerk of the town, village or city in which the damage occurred. A hearing then occurs where witnesses may be subpoenaed under oath, and testimony relative to the claim is taken. The county board shall allow, as the amount of a claim for a domestic animal, including a ranch mink, injured by a dog, the amount determined to be the total of the costs resulting from the injury including a loss in fair market value but the total amount of the claim may not exceed the fair market value.
|WA - Dog - Consolidated Dog Laws||West's RCWA 4.24.410; 9.08.010 - 90; West's RCWA 9A.76.200; West's RCWA 9.91.170 - 175; 16.10.010 - 40; 16.54.010 - 40; 16.70.010 - 60; 36.49.020 - 070; 77.12.315; 77.15.240, 245, 440; 77.32.525; 77.32.540||
These Washington statutes comprise the state's dog laws. Among the provisions include vaccination requirements, dog control zones in municipalities, dangerous dog laws, and provisions concerning hunting with dogs.
|WA - Dangerous Dog - 16.08.090. Dangerous dogs--Requirements for restraint||West's RCWA 16.08.090||
This Washington statute outlines the state and local provisions related to dangerous or potentially dangerous dogs. It first provides that it is unlawful for an owner of a dangerous dog to permit the dog to be outside the proper enclosure unless the dog is muzzled and restrained by a substantial chain or leash and under physical restraint of a responsible person. Potentially dangerous dogs shall be regulated only by local, municipal, and county ordinances and nothing in this section limits restrictions local jurisdictions may place on owners of potentially dangerous dogs.
|WA - Dangerous Dog - 16.08.070. Dangerous dogs and related definitions||West's RCWA 16.08.070||
This Washington statute provides the definitions related to dangerous dogs, including dangerous dog, potentially dangerous dog, severe injury, and owner, among others.
|WA - Dangerous Dog - 16.08.040. Dog bites. Liability and Dangerous dogs and related provisions.||West's RCWA 16.08.010 - 100||
This Washington statute outlines the state's dangerous dog laws. Under the law, the owner or keeper of any dog shall be liable to the owner of any animal killed or injured by such dog for the amount of damages sustained in a civil action. Further, there is strict liability for the owner of any dog that bites any person while in a public place or lawfully on a private place including the property of the owner of such dog, regardless of the former viciousness of such dog or the owner's knowledge of such viciousness. However, proof of provocation of the attack by the injured person shall be a complete defense to an action for damages.
|VT - Lost dog - Article 2. Killing Unlicensed Dogs; Subchapter 5. Control of Rabies||20 V.S.A. § 3621 - 3626; 20 V.S.A. § 3806 - 3809||
These Vermont statute provide the law for seizure, confinement of, and destruction of dogs and domestic wolf-hybrids. It also includes a warrant form necessary for local authorities to seize and impound an offending dog or wolf-hybrid.
|VT - Hunting - § 4502 Uniform point system; revocation of license.||10 V.S.A. § 4708||Vermont has a point system for hunting licenses similar to that used for driver's licenses. Certain enumerated violations, including taking bear or deer with dogs, earn points which can result in the suspension or revocation of a hunting license. A game warden may shoot a dog who is pursuing a deer or moose close enough to endanger its life, or a fine may be issued.|
|VT - Dogs, Wolf-hybrids - Consolidated Dog Laws||20 V.S.A. § 3511 - 3513; 3541 - 3817, 3901 - 3915, 4301 - 4304; 10 V.S.A. § 5001 - 5007, § 4748||
These Vermont statutes comprise the state's dog laws. Among the provisions include licensing and control laws for both domestic dogs and wolf-hybrids, laws concerning the sale of dogs, and various wildlife/hunting laws that implicate dogs.
|VA - Exotic Pets - Article 11. Hybrid Canines||Va. Code Ann. § 3.2-6581 - 6584||
This section provides Virginia's hybrid canine laws (registered or described to a veterinarian, animal control, or other listed authority as a wolf or coyote-dog cross) . Under the section, any locality may, by ordinance, establish a permit system to ensure the adequate confinement and responsible ownership of hybrid canines. Violation of an ordinance enacted pursuant to this section is a Class 3 misdemeanor for the first violation and a Class 1 misdemeanor for any subsequent violation. Further, it is the duty of any animal control officer or other officer who may find a hybrid canine in the act of killing or injuring livestock or poultry to kill such hybrid canine forthwith, whether such hybrid canine bears a tag or not.
|VA - Dogs - Consolidated Dog Laws||Va. Code Ann. § 3.2-5900 - 6590; § 15.2-981; § 18.2-97, 97.1; § 18.2-313.1; § 18.2-403.3; § 29.1-422; § 29.1-516.1; § 32.1-48.1 - .4||
These Virginia statutes comprise the state's dog laws. Among the provisions include laws on the sale of dogs, rabies control laws, and sections concerning damage done by dogs.
|VA - Dangerous - § 3.2-6553. Compensation for livestock and poultry killed by dogs||Va. Code Ann. § 3.2-6553||This Virginia statute states that any person who has any livestock or poultry killed or injured by any dog not his or her own shall be entitled to receive the fair market value of such livestock or poultry not to exceed $750 per animal or $10 per fowl, provided that the claimant has furnished evidence, the animal control officer was notified within seventy-two hours after discovery of the damage, and the claimant has exhausted other legal remedies. However, local jurisdictions may by ordinance waive the last two requirements provided that the ordinance adopted requires that the animal control officer has conducted an investigation and that his investigation supports the claim.|
|VA - Dangerous - § 3.2-6541. Authority to prohibit training of attack dogs||Va. Code Ann. § 3.2-6541||
This Virginia statute provides that Fairfax County may enact an ordinance that prohibits persons from training dogs on residential property to attack.
|VA - Dangerous - § 3.2-6540. Control of dangerous or vicious dogs; penalties||Va. Code Ann. § 3.2-6540 - 6542||
These Virginia statutes amended in 2013 provide the state's dangerous dog laws. The first law outlines control procedures for a dangerous dog, defined as a canine or canine crossbreed that has bitten, attacked, or inflicted injury on a person or companion animal that is a dog or cat, or killed a companion animal that is a dog or cat.. The new section deals with a "vicious dog," defined as a canine or canine crossbreed that has (i) killed a person, (ii) inflicted serious injury to a person, or (iii) continued to exhibit the behavior that resulted in a previous finding by a court or, on or before July 1, 2006, by an animal control officer as authorized by ordinance that it is a dangerous dog, provided that its owner has been given notice of that finding.
|UT - Dog Bite - Title 18. Dogs. Chapter 1. Injuries by Dogs.||U.C.A. 1953 § 18-1-1 to 4||
This Utah statute provides that every person owning or keeping a dog shall be liable in damages for injury committed by such dog, and it shall not be necessary in any action brought therefor to allege or prove that such dog was of a vicious or mischievous disposition or that the owner or keeper thereof knew that it was vicious or mischievous. This does not apply to dogs used by law enforcement officials. In 2014, a provision for the use of arbitration in personal injury from dog bite cases was added.
|UT - Dog - Consolidated Dog Laws||U.C.A. 1953 § 10-8-65; § 4-40-101 - 102; § 18-1-1 - 4; § 18-2-101; § 23-17-8 - 9; § 23-20-3; § 26-6-1 - 15; § 26-26-1 - 7; § 58-28-601||
These Utah statutes comprise the state's dog laws. Among the provisions include municipal pound pet sterilization provisions, rabies control laws, hunting laws that impact dogs, and laws concerning injuries caused by dogs.
|UK - Dangerous Dogs - Dangerous Dogs Act 1991||1991 CHAPTER 65||
An Act to prohibit persons from having in their possession or custody dogs belonging to types bred for fighting; to impose restrictions in respect of such dogs pending the coming into force of the prohibition; to enable restrictions to be imposed in relation to other types of dog which present a serious danger to the public; to make further provision for securing that dogs are kept under proper control; and for connected purposes.
|UK - Dangerous Dogs - Dangerous Dogs (Amendment) Act 1997||1997 CHAPTER 53||
This amendment affects the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991. The Amendment Act allows a court to exercise discretion in deciding whether to destroy a prohibited dog (e.g., a "pit bull" type dog, Japanese Tosa, Fila Brasileiro, Dogo Argentino, or any dog with the physical appearance, not necessarily breed, of a fighting dog).
|TX - Dog - Consolidated Dog Laws||V.T.C.A., Health & Safety Code §§ 821.076 - 081; 822.001 - 100; § 823.001 - 009; § 826.001 - 055; § 828.001 - 015; V. T. C. A., Parks & Wildlife Code § 62.0065 ; § 62.016 V.T.C.A., Occupations Code § 1702.109, 225, 385||
These Texas statutes comprise the state's dog laws. Among the provisions include the dangerous dog laws, registration and vaccination requirements, and sterilization laws.
|TX - Dangerous - § 822.0422. Reporting of Incident in Certain Counties and Municipalities||V. T. C. A., Health & Safety Code § 822.0422||
This Texas statute outlines the procedures for reporting a dangerous dog incident in counties with a population of at least 2,800,000 in which an ordinance has been adopted pursuant to this section. It describes the reporting and seizure requirements should an owner fail to turn over an implicated dog.
|TX - Dangerous - Subchapter D: Dangerous Dogs||V. T. C. A., Health & Safety Code § 822.041 - 047||
Chapter 822, Subchapter D addresses dangerous dogs and their treatment, including dog attacks, registration, defenses, violations of the statute.
|TX - Dangerous - Subchapter B: Dogs That Are A Danger to Animals||V. T. C. A., Health & Safety Code § 822.011 - 013||
Subchapter B prohibits dogs from running at large and enumerates the criminal penalty for such violation.
|TN - Impound - Rabies. § 68-8-109. Observation; confinement or quarantine.||T. C. A. § 68-8-109||
This Tennessee statute provides that if any animal has bitten any person, is suspected of having bitten any person or is for any reason suspected of being infected with rabies, the animal may be required to be placed under an observation period either by confinement or by quarantine for a period of time deemed necessary by the commissioner or rules of the department.
|TN - Dog, dangerous, felon - § 39-17-1363. Violent felony conviction; custody or control of dogs; application||T. C. A. § 39-17-1363||Under this Tennessee law, it is an offense for any person convicted of a violent felony to knowingly own, possess, have custody or control of a potentially vicious dog or a vicious dog for a period of ten years after such person has been released from custody following completion of sentence. Additionally, it is an offense for any convicted violent felon to own or have custody of a dog that is not microchipped or spayed/neutered. This section shall only apply if a person's conviction for a violent felony occurs on or after July 1, 2010.|
|TN - Dog - Consolidated Dog Laws||T. C. A. §§ 44-8-408 - 412; §§ 44-17-101 - 505; T. C. A. § 5-1-120, § 6-54-135, § 39-14-205, § 39-14-213, § 44-14-104, § 70-4-103, § 70-4-112; § 70-4-118, § 70-4-122, § 70-2-214||
These Tennessee statutes comprise the state's dog laws. Among the provisions include licensing requirements for companion animal dealers, laws concerning damage done by dogs, and the Tennessee Spay/Neuter Law.
|TN - Dangerous dog - § 44-17-120. Death or serious injury; destruction of dogs||T. C. A. § 44-17-120||
This Tennessee statute provides that any dog which attacks a human and causes death or serious injury may be destroyed upon the order of the circuit court where the attack occurred. The owner shall be given notice that if he or she does not appear before the court within five days and show cause why the dog should not be destroyed, then the order shall issue and the dog shall be destroyed. This statute also allows certain counties to make ordinances to petition a general sessions court to provide for the disposition of dangerous dogs and/or dogs causing death or serious injury to humans or other animals.
|SD - Dogs - Consolidated Dog Laws||S D C L §9-29-12; S D C L § 40-1-41; S D C L § 40-34-1 - 16; S D C L 40-12-1 - 6; S D C L § 41-8-15; S D C L § 41-15-14; S D C L § 41-17-18.1||
These South Dakota statutes comprise the state's dog laws. Among the provisions include licensing requirements, vicious dog laws, and rabies vaccination provisions.
|SD - Bite - Chapter 40-34. Dog Licenses and Regulation (Vicious Dog Provisions)||S D C L § 40-34-13 to 16||
This South Dakota statute provides that a vicious dog, defined as any dog which, when unprovoked , in a vicious manner approaches in apparent attitude of attack, or bites, or otherwise attacks a human being including a mailman, meter reader, serviceman, etc. who is on private property by reason of permission of the owner, is a public nuisance. However, no dog may be declared vicious if an injury or damage is sustained to any person who was committing a willful trespass or other tort upon premises occupied by the owner or keeper of the dog, or who was teasing, tormenting, abusing or assaulting the dog or was committing or attempting to commit a crime.
|SC - Impound - § 47-3-750. Seizure and impoundment of dangerous animal.||Code 1976 § 47-3-40||
This South Carolina statute provides that if an animal control officer has probable cause to believe that a dangerous animal is being harbored or cared for in violation of Section 47-3-720 or 47-3-740 or 47-3-760(E), or Section 47-3-730, the agent or officer may petition the appropriate court to order the seizure and impoundment of the dangerous animal while the trial is pending.
|SC - Dog - Consolidated Dog Laws||Code 1976 § 16-13-60; Code 1976 § 23-1-100; Code 1976 § 23-23-140; Code 1976 § 1-1-655; Code 1976 § 47-3-10 - 970; Code 1976 § 47-5-10 - 210; Code 1976 § 47-7-10 - 170; Code 1976 § 50-11-65, § 50-11-770, § 50-11-780, and § 51-3-145; Code 1976 § 50-19-960||
These statutes comprise South Carolina's state dog laws. Among the provisions include laws concerning damage done by dogs (especially to livestock), rabies control provisions, and registration requirements.
|SC - Bite - § 47-3-110. Liability for attacks by dogs, provoked attacks, trained law enforcement dogs.||Code 1976 § 47-3-110||
This South Carolina statute provides that if a person is bitten or otherwise attacked by a dog while the person is in a public place or is lawfully in a private place, including the property of the dog owner or person having the dog in the person's care or keeping, the dog owner or person having the dog in the person's care or keeping is liable for the damages suffered by the person bitten or otherwise attacked. If a person provokes a dog into attacking him then the owner of the dog is not liable.
|RI - Ordinances - § 4-13-15.1. Ordinances concerning unrestricted and vicious dogs prohibited--Leash laws||Gen.Laws 1956, § 4-13-15.1||This Rhode Island statute provides that city or town councils may make any ordinances concerning dogs in their cities or towns as the councils deem expedient, pertaining to the conduct of dogs. The statute outlines specifically what the ordinances may address, including regulations relating to unrestricted dogs, leash laws, confinement, and destruction of vicious dogs. The statute also adds additional provisions relating to the towns of Westerly and Exeter.|
|RI - Ordinances - § 4-13-1.1. Towns of Portsmouth, West Warwick, and Middletown and city of Woonsocket--Vicious dog ordinance||Gen. Laws, 1956, § 4-13-1.1||This Rhode Island statute provides that the town councils of the towns of Portsmouth, West Warwick and Middletown may, by ordinance, provide that the owner or keeper of any dog that assaults any person shall be fined an amount not less than one hundred dollars ($100) nor more than two hundred dollars. The investigation must prove that the dog was off the owner's property or that the assault was the result of owner negligence. It further provides that, in the city of Woonsocket, an owner shall not be declared negligent if an injury is sustained by a person who was committing a trespass or other tort upon the owner's premises or was teasing, tormenting, provoking, abusing or assaulting the dog or was committing or attempting to commit a crime.|
|RI - Ordinances - § 4-13-1. Regulatory ordinances--Enforcement and penalties||Gen. Laws, 1956, § 4-13-1||This Rhode Island statute first provides that city or town councils may make any ordinances concerning dogs in their cities or towns as they deem expedient, to be enforced by the destruction or disposition of the animal, or by pecuniary penalties. It then outlines that specific ordinances that several cities are authorized to enact and what terms must be included.|
|RI - Dogs - Consolidated Dog Laws||Gen. Laws, 1956, § 4-13-1 - 44; § 4-13.1 - 15; § 4-19-1 - 21||
These statutes comprise Rhode Island's dog laws. Among the provisions include licensing requirements, which are specified by county or town, vicious dog laws, and euthanasia provisions.
|RI - Dangerous Dog - § 4-13.1-9. Penalties for violation--Licensing ordinances and fees||Gen. Laws, 1956, § 4-13.1-9||
This Rhode Island statute provides that a vicious dog may be confiscated by a dog officer and destroyed in an expeditious and humane manner after the expiration of a five day waiting period if an owner does not secure liability insurance, have his or her dog properly identified, or properly enclose/restrain the dog. If any dog declared vicious under § 4-13.1-11, when unprovoked, kills, wounds, or worries or assists in killing or wounding any described animal, the owner shall pay a five hundred fifty dollar fine. The dog officer is empowered to confiscate the dog. The statute further provides that municipalities may enact vicious dog licensing ordinances and provide for impoundment of dogs that violate such ordinances. It also outlines other actions owners of vicious dogs must take, including the posting of vicious dog signs and the maintenance of proper insurance.
|PR - Ordinances - Municipal regulation of domestic animals||PR ST T. 24 § 651||
This Puerto Rico statute confers authority to the municipal councils of Puerto Rico to regulate by ordinance, the running at large of domestic animals, destruction and impounding of such animals, as well as the regulation of muzzling and licensing of dogs. In addition, the councils are given authority to enact all needful ordinances to protect the public health as affected by the running at large of domestic animals.
|PA - Ordinances - § 459-1201. Applicability to cities of the first class, second class, second class A and third class||3 P.S. § 459-1201||This Pennsylvania statute provides that cities of the first and second class are not affected by state dog licensing programs; existing city-level programs remain in effect. With cities of the third class, certain provisions of the state article on dog licensing shall not apply if the city has established a licensing program by ordinance.|
|PA - Dog Law - Chapter 8. Dogs (consolidated dog laws)||3 P.S. § 459-101 - 1205; 3 P.S. § 501, 531 - 532, 550 - 551; 34 Pa.C.S.A. § 2381 - 2386; 34 Pa.C.S.A. § 2928, 2941 - 2945||These statutes represent Pennsylvania's Dog Law, and contain provisions related to licensing, rabies quarantines, kennels, and the dangerous dog chapter. The significant features of the law include a statewide control requirement for dogs (Section 305) and provisions for "dangerous dogs" (Section 501 et. seq.). Under the latter, any person may kill any dog which he sees in the act of pursuing or wounding or killing any domestic animal, including household pets, or pursuing, wounding or attacking human beings, whether or not such a dog bears a required license tag. There is no liability on such persons in damages or otherwise for such killing.|
|PA - Dangerous - § 459-507-A. Construction of article (dangerous dogs)||3 P.S. § 459-507-A||This Pennsylvania statute provides the construction of the dangerous dog chapter in the state. It outlines the exceptions under the dangerous dog law as well as the enforcement procedure for one who is attacked by such dog. It also specifically states that any provisions of local ordinances relating to dangerous dogs are hereby abrogated. Further, a local ordinance otherwise dealing with dogs may not prohibit or otherwise limit a specific breed of dog.|
|OR - Impound - 609.090. Impounding dogs running at large; disposition of chasing, menacing or biting||O. R. S. § 609.090||This Oregon statute provides that when a dog is running at large contrary to state or municipal law, a police or dog control officer shall impound it. Unless claimed by its owner, a dog will be held at least five days if it has a license tag. A "reasonable effort" shall be made to notify the keeper of a dog before the dog is removed from impoundment. This statute also states that, upon finding that the dog has menaced or chased a person when on premises other than the premises occupied exclusively by the keeper or has bitten a person, the dog control board or county governing body may order that the dog be killed in a humane manner. Before ordering that the dog be killed, the board or governing body shall consider the factors described in ORS 609.093 and issue written findings on those factors. A keeper of the dog may also file a petition to prevent the destruction. If the dog is not killed, the board or governing body may impose reasonable restrictions on the keeping of the dog.|
|OR - Dog - Consolidated Dog Laws||O.R.S. § 31.360; O. R. S. § 87.172, O. R. S. § 167.374, 376; O. R. S. § 433.340 - 405; O. R. S. § 609.010 - 994; O. R. S. § 498.102, 106, and 164; O.R.S. § 646A.075 - 077; O.R.S. § 811.200; O.R.S. § 30.815||These Oregon statutes comprise the state's dog laws. Among the provisions include licensing and registration requirements, rabies control laws, and a comprehensive section on damage done by dogs, especially as it concerns the destruction of livestock.|
|OK - Police and Dogs - § 36.1. Police dog handlers--Civil liability||22 Okl.St.Ann. § 36.1||This Oklahoma statute deals with the civil liability of police dog handlers. Under the statute, a police dog handler who uses a dog in the line of duty in accordance with the policies and standards established by the law enforcement agency that employs the officer, will not be civilly liable for any damages arising from the use of the dog. The police dog handler may only be liable for exceptions listed in the Governmental Tort Claims Act.|