Full Statute Name:  United States Code Annotated. Title 16. Conservation. Chapter 14. Regulation of Whaling. Subchapter II. Whaling Convention Act.

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Primary Citation:  16 U.S.C.A. § 916 - 916l Country of Origin:  United States Last Checked:  March, 2018 Date Adopted:  1950
Summary:

These federal statutes describe the Whaling Convention Act which granted authority to the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Commerce for regulation. The Act makes it unlawful for any person in the United States to engage in whaling, transporting, or selling any whale or whale products, that are taken or processed in violation of the Act. The Act also prohibits other unlawful conduct such as whaling without a license and failing to keep required returns, records, and reports.  Finally, the Act provide penalties for violations including a fine of not more than $10,000, imprisonment of not more than one year, or both. In addition the court may prohibit such person from whaling for a period of time.

§ 916. Definitions

§ 916a. United States Commissioner

§ 916b. Acceptance or rejection by United States Government of regulations, etc.; acceptance of reports, recommendations, etc., of Commission

§ 916c. Unlawful acts

§ 916d. Licenses

§ 916e. Failure to keep returns, records, reports

§ 916f. Violations; fines and penalties

§ 916g. Enforcement

§ 916h. Cooperation between Federal and State and private agencies and organizations in scientific and other programs

§ 916i. Taking of whales for biological experiments

§ 916j. Allocation of responsibility for administration and enforcement

§ 916k. Regulations; submission; publication; effectiveness

§ 916l. Authorization of appropriations

 

§ 916. Definitions

When used in this subchapter--

(a) Convention: The word “convention” means the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling signed at Washington under date of December 2, 1946, by the United States of America and certain other governments.

(b) Commission: The word “Commission” means the International Whaling Commission established by article III of the convention.

(c) United States Commissioner: The words “United States Commissioner” mean the member of the International Whaling Commission representing the United States of America appointed pursuant to article III of the convention and section 916a of this title.

(d) Person: The word “person” denotes every individual, partnership, corporation, and association subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

(e) Vessel: The word “vessel” denotes every kind, type, or description of water craft or contrivance subject to the jurisdiction of the United States used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation.

(f) Factory ship: The words “factory ship” mean a vessel in which or on which whales are treated or processed, whether wholly or in part.

(g) Land station: The words “land station” mean a factory on the land at which whales are treated or processed, whether wholly or in part.

(h) Whale catcher: The words “whale catcher” mean a vessel used for the purpose of hunting, killing, taking, towing, holding onto, or scouting for whales.

(i) Whale products: The words “whale products” mean any unprocessed part of a whale and blubber, meat, bones, whale oil, sperm oil, spermaceti, meal, and baleen.

(j) Whaling: The word “whaling” means the scouting for, hunting, killing, taking, towing, holding onto, and flensing of whales, and the possession, treatment, or processing of whales or of whale products.

(k) Regulations of the Commission: The words “regulations of the Commission” mean the whaling regulations in the schedule annexed to and constituting a part of the convention in their original form or as modified, revised, or amended by the Commission from time to time, in pursuance of article V of the convention.

(l) Regulations of the Secretary of Commerce: The words “regulations of the Secretary of Commerce” mean such regulations as may be issued by the Secretary of Commerce, from time to time, in accordance with sections 916i and 916j of this title.

 CREDIT(S)

(Aug. 9, 1950, c. 653, § 2, 64 Stat. 421; 1970 Reorg. Plan No. 4, eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 F.R. 15627, 84 Stat. 2090.)

 

§ 916a. United States Commissioner

(a) Appointment

The United States Commissioner shall be appointed by the President, on the concurrent recommendations of the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Commerce, and shall serve at the pleasure of the President.

(b) Deputy Commissioner

The President may appoint a Deputy United States Commissioner, on the concurrent recommendations of the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Commerce. The Deputy United States Commissioner shall serve at the pleasure of the President and shall be the principal technical adviser to the United States Commissioner, and shall be empowered to perform the duties of the Commissioner in case of the death, resignation, absence, or illness of the Commissioner.

(c) Compensation

The United States Commissioner and Deputy Commissioner, although officers of the United States Government, shall receive no compensation for their services.

CREDIT(S)

(Aug. 9, 1950, c. 653, § 3, 64 Stat. 421; 1970 Reorg. Plan No. 4, eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 F.R. 15627, 84 Stat. 2090.)

 

§ 916b. Acceptance or rejection by United States Government of regulations, etc.; acceptance of reports, recommendations, etc., of Commission

The Secretary of State is authorized, with the concurrence of the Secretary of Commerce, to present or withdraw any objections on behalf of the United States Government to such regulations or amendments of the schedule to the convention as are adopted by the Commission and submitted to the United States Government in accordance with article V of the convention. The Secretary of State is further authorized to receive on behalf of the United States Government reports, requests, recommendations, and other communications of the Commission, and to act thereon either directly or by reference to the appropriate authority.

 CREDIT(S)

(Aug. 9, 1950, c. 653, § 4, 64 Stat. 422; 1970 Reorg. Plan No. 4, eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 F.R. 15627, 84 Stat. 2090.)

 

§ 916c. Unlawful acts

(a) Whaling, transporting, or selling violations; records; reports

It shall be unlawful for any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States (1) to engage in whaling in violation of the convention or of any regulation of the Commission, or of this subchapter, or of any regulation of the Secretary of Commerce; (2) to ship, transport, purchase, sell, offer for sale, import, export, or have in possession any whale or whale products taken or processed in violation of the convention, or of any regulation of the Commission, or of this subchapter, or of any regulation of the Secretary of Commerce; (3) to fail to make, keep, submit, or furnish any record or report required of him by the convention, or by any regulation of the Commission, or by any regulation of the Secretary of Commerce, or to refuse to permit any officer authorized to enforce the convention, the regulations of the Commission, this subchapter, and the regulations of the Secretary of Commerce, to inspect such record or report at any reasonable time.

(b) Acts of commission or omission

It shall be unlawful for any person or vessel subject to the jurisdiction of the United States to do any act prohibited or to fail to do any act required by the convention, or by this subchapter, or by any regulation adopted by the Commission, or by any regulation of the Secretary of Commerce.

CREDIT(S)

(Aug. 9, 1950, c. 653, § 5, 64 Stat. 422; 1970 Reorg. Plan No. 4, eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 F.R. 15627, 84 Stat. 2090.)

 

§ 916d. Licenses

(a) Issuance

No person shall engage in whaling without first having obtained an appropriate license or scientific permit. Such licenses shall be issued by the Secretary of Commerce or such officer of the Department of Commerce as may be designated by him: Provided, That the Secretary, in his discretion and by appropriate regulation, may waive the payment of any license fee or the requirement that a license first be obtained, in connection with the salvage of any “Dauhval” or unclaimed dead whale found floating or stranded.

(b) Licenses and fees required

The following licenses and fees shall be required for each calendar year or any fraction thereof and shall be nontransferable except under such conditions as may be prescribed by the Secretary:

(1) Land-station license for primary processing of whales, $250.

(2) Land-station license for secondary processing of parts of whales delivered to it by a land station licensed as a primary processor, $100.

(3) Factory-ship license for primary processing of whales delivered by whale catchers, $250.

(4) License for any vessel used exclusively for transporting whale products from a factory ship to a port during the whaling season, $100.

(5) Whale-catcher license, $100.

(c) Disposition of fees

All moneys derived from the issuance of whaling licenses shall be covered into the Treasury of the United States, and no license fee shall be refunded by reason of the failure of any person to whom a license has been issued to utilize the facility in whaling for which such license was issued.

(d) Application; conditions precedent

Any person, in making application for a license to operate a whale catcher, must furnish evidence or affidavit satisfactory to the Secretary of Commerce that, in addition to conforming to other applicable laws and regulations, (1) the whale catcher is adequately equipped and competently manned to engage in whaling in accordance with the provisions of the convention, the regulations of the Commission, and the regulations of the Secretary of Commerce; (2) gunners and crews will be compensated on some basis that does not depend primarily on the number of whales taken; and (3) no bonus or other partial remuneration with relation to the number of whales taken shall be paid to gunners and crews in respect of the taking of any whales, the taking of which is prohibited.

(e) Additional conditions

Any person, in making application for a license to operate a land station or a factory ship must furnish evidence or affidavits to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Commerce that, in addition to conforming to other applicable laws and regulations, such land station or factory ship is adequately equipped to comply with provisions of the convention, of the regulations of the Commission, and of the regulations of the Secretary of Commerce with respect to the processing of whales or the manufacture of whale products.

CREDIT(S)

(Aug. 9, 1950, c. 653, § 6, 64 Stat. 422; 1970 Reorg. Plan No. 4, eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 F.R. 15627, 84 Stat. 2090.)

 

 § 916e. Failure to keep returns, records, reports

Any person who fails to make, keep, or furnish any catch return, statistical record, or any report that may be required by the convention, or by any regulation of the Commission, or by this subchapter, or by a regulation of the Secretary of Commerce, or any person who furnishes a false return, record, or report, upon conviction, shall be subject to such fine as may be imposed by the court not to exceed $500, and shall in addition be prohibited from whaling, processing, or possessing whales and whale products from the date of conviction until such time as any delinquent return, record, or report shall have been submitted or any false return, record, or report shall have been replaced by a duly certified correct and true return, record, or report to the satisfaction of the court. The penalties imposed by section 916f of this title shall not be invoked for failure to comply with requirements respecting returns, records, and reports.

CREDIT(S)

(Aug. 9, 1950, c. 653, § 7, 64 Stat. 423; 1970 Reorg. Plan No. 4, eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 F.R. 15627, 84 Stat. 2090.)

 

§ 916f. Violations; fines and penalties

Except as to violations defined in clause 3 of subsection (a) of section 916c of this title, any person violating any provision of the convention, or of any regulation of the Commission, or of this subchapter, or of any regulation of the Secretary of Commerce upon conviction, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or be imprisoned not more than one year, or both. In addition the court may prohibit such person from whaling for such period of time as it may determine, and may order forfeited, in whole or in part, the whales taken by such person in whaling during the season, or the whale products derived therefrom or the monetary value thereof. Such forfeited whales or whale products shall be disposed of in accordance with the direction of the court.

CREDIT(S)

(Aug. 9, 1950, c. 653, § 8, 64 Stat. 423; 1970 Reorg. Plan No. 4, eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 F.R. 15627, 84 Stat. 2090.)

 

§ 916g. Enforcement

(a) Enforcement officers; arrests; search and seizure of vessels; disposal of property

Any duly authorized enforcement officer or employee of the Department of Commerce; any Coast Guard officer; any United States marshal or deputy United States marshal; any customs officer; and any other person authorized to enforce the provisions of the convention, the regulations of the Commission, this subchapter, and the regulations of the Secretary of Commerce, shall have power, without warrant or other process but subject to the provisions of the convention, to arrest any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States committing in his presence or view a violation of the convention or of this subchapter or of the regulations of the Commission, or of the regulations of the Secretary of Commerce and to take such person immediately for examination before a justice or judge or any other official designated in section 3041 of Title 18; and shall have power, without warrant or other process, to search any vessel subject to the jurisdiction of the United States or land station when he has reasonable cause to believe that such vessel or land station is engaged in whaling in violation of the provisions of the convention or this subchapter, or the regulations of the Commission, or the regulations of the Secretary of Commerce. Any person authorized to enforce the provisions of the convention, this subchapter, the regulations of the Commission, or the regulations of the Secretary of Commerce shall have power to execute any warrant or process issued by an officer or court of competent jurisdiction for the enforcement of this subchapter, and shall have power with a search warrant to search any vessel, person, or place at any time. The judges of the United States district courts and the United States magistrate judges may, within their respective jurisdictions, upon proper oath or affirmation showing probable cause, issue warrants in all such cases. Subject to the provisions of the convention, any person authorized to enforce the convention, this subchapter, the regulations of the Commission, and the regulations of the Secretary of Commerce may seize, whenever and wherever lawfully found, all whales or whale products taken, processed, or possessed contrary to the provisions of the convention, of this subchapter, of the regulations of the Commission, or of the regulations of the Secretary of Commerce.

Any property so seized shall not be disposed of except pursuant to the order of a court of competent jurisdiction or the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, or, if perishable, in the manner prescribed by regulations of the Secretary of Commerce.

(b) Stay of execution upon posting of bond; bond requirements

Notwithstanding the provisions of section 2464 of Title 28, when a warrant of arrest or other process in rem is issued in any cause under this section, the marshal or other officer shall stay the execution of such process, or discharge any property seized if the process has been levied, on receiving from the claimant of the property a bond or stipulation for double the value of the property with sufficient surety to be approved by a judge of the district court having jurisdiction, conditioned to deliver the property seized, if condemned, without impairment in value or, in the discretion of the court, to pay its equivalent value in money or otherwise to answer the decree of the court in such cause. Such bond or stipulation shall be returned to the court and judgment thereon against both the principal and sureties may be recovered in event of any breach of the conditions thereof as determined by the court.

CREDIT(S)

(Aug. 9, 1950, c. 653, § 9, 64 Stat. 423; Oct. 17, 1968, Pub.L. 90-578, Title IV, § 402(b)(2), 82 Stat. 1118; 1970 Reorg.Plan No. 4, eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 F.R. 15627, 84 Stat. 2090; As Dec. 1, 1990, amended Pub.L. 101-650, Title III, § 321, 104 Stat. 5117.)

 

 

§ 916h. Cooperation between Federal and State and private agencies and organizations in scientific and other programs

(a) Agency cooperation

In order to avoid duplication in scientific and other programs, the Secretary of State, with the concurrence of the agency, institution, or organization concerned, may direct the United States Commissioner to arrange for the cooperation of agencies of the United States Government, and of State and private institutions and organizations in carrying out the provisions of article IV of the convention.

(b) Authorization for Federal agency cooperation

All agencies of the Federal Government are authorized, on request of the Commission, to cooperate in the conduct of scientific and other programs, or to furnish facilities and personnel for the purpose of assisting the Commission in the performance of its duties as prescribed by the convention.

CREDIT(S)

(Aug. 9, 1950, c. 653, § 10, 64 Stat. 424.)

 

§ 916i. Taking of whales for biological experiments

Nothing contained in this subchapter shall prevent the taking of whales and the conducting of biological experiments at any time for purposes of scientific investigation in accordance with scientific permits and regulations issued by the Secretary of Commerce or shall prevent the Commission from discharging its duties as prescribed by the convention.

CREDIT(S)

(Aug. 9, 1950, c. 653, § 11, 64 Stat. 424; 1970 Reorg. Plan No. 4, eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 F.R. 15627, 84 Stat. 2090.)

 

§ 916j. Allocation of responsibility for administration and enforcement

(a) Administration and general enforcement

The Secretary of Commerce is authorized and directed to administer and enforce all of the provisions of this subchapter and regulations issued pursuant thereto and all of the provisions of the convention and of the regulations of the Commission, except to the extent otherwise provided for in this subchapter, in the convention, or in the regulations of the Commission. In carrying out such functions he is authorized to adopt such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes and objectives of the convention, the regulations of the Commission, this subchapter, and with the concurrence of the Secretary of State, to cooperate with the duly authorized officials of the government of any party to the convention.

(b) Enforcement relating to whaling vessels

Enforcement activities under the provisions of this subchapter relating to vessels engaged in whaling and subject to the jurisdiction of the United States primarily shall be the responsibility of the Secretary of the Treasury in cooperation with the Secretary of Commerce.

(c) Enforcement by officers and employees of coastal States

The Secretary of Commerce may authorize officers and employees of the coastal States of the United States to enforce the provisions of the convention, or of the regulations of the Commission, or of this subchapter, or of the regulations of the Secretary of Commerce. When so authorized such officers and employees may function as Federal law-enforcement officers for the purposes of this subchapter.

 CREDIT(S)

(Aug. 9, 1950, c. 653, § 12, 64 Stat. 425; 1970 Reorg. Plan No. 4, eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 F.R. 15627, 84 Stat. 2090.)

 

§ 916k. Regulations; submission; publication; effectiveness

Regulations of the Commission approved and effective in accordance with section 916b of this title and article V of the convention shall be submitted for appropriate action or publication in the Federal Register by the Secretary of Commerce and shall become effective with respect to all persons and vessels subject to the jurisdiction of the United States in accordance with the terms of such regulations and the provisions of article V of the convention.

CREDIT(S)

(Aug. 9, 1950, c. 653, § 13, 64 Stat. 425; 1970 Reorg. Plan No. 4, eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 F.R. 15627, 84 Stat. 2090.)

 

§ 916l. Authorization of appropriations

There is hereby authorized to be appropriated from time to time, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of the convention and of this subchapter, including (1) contributions to the Commission for the United States share of any joint expenses of the Commission agreed by the United States and any of the other contracting governments, and (2) the expenses of the United States Commissioner and his staff, including (a) personal services in the District of Columbia and elsewhere, without regard to the civil-service laws and chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of Title 5; (b) travel expenses without regard to subchapter I of chapter 57 of Title 5 and section 5731(a) of Title 5; (c) transportation of things, communication services; (d) rent of offices; (e) printing and binding without regard to section 501 of Title 44, and section 6101 of Title 41; (f) stenographic and other services by contract, if deemed necessary, without regard to section 6101 of Title 41; (g) supplies and materials; (h) equipment; (i) purchase, hire, operation, maintenance, and repair of aircraft, motor vehicles (including passenger-carrying vehicles), boats, and research vessels.

CREDIT(S)

(Aug. 9, 1950, c. 653, § 14, 64 Stat. 425.)

 

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