Full Statute Name:  Consolidated Assistance Animal/Guide Dog Laws

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Primary Citation:  McKinney's Agriculture and Markets Law § 108, 110, 118, 123-b; McKinney's General Obligations Law § 11-107; McKinney's Civil Rights Law § 47, 47-a to c; McKinney's Penal Law § 195.11 - 12; § 242.00 - .15; McKinney's Public Housing Law § 223-b Country of Origin:  United States Last Checked:  November, 2015 Alternate Citation:  McKinney's Executive Law § 296; McKinney's Social Services Law § 303-a; McKinney's Transportation Law § 147; McKinney's Vehicle and Traffic Law § 1153
Summary:

The following statutes comprise the state's relevant assistance animal and guide dog laws.

Statute Text: 

Mckinney's Consolidated Laws of New York Annotated.

Agriculture and Markets Law. Chapter 69. Of the Consolidated Laws. Article 7. Licensing, Identification and Control of Dogs.

§ 108 . Definitions

§ 110 . License fees

§ 118 . Violations

§ 123-b . Offenses against service animals and handlers

Executive Law. Chapter Eighteen. Of the Consolidated Laws. Article 15. Human Rights Law

§ 296. Unlawful discriminatory practices (see subsection 14 for service animals)

General Obligations Law. Chapter 24-A. Of the Consolidated Laws. Article 11. Obligations to Make Compensation or Restitution. Title 1. Compensation.

§ 11-107 . Compensation for harm to a guide, hearing or service dog

Civil Rights Law. Chapter 6. Of the Consolidated Laws. Article 4-B. Rights of Persons with a Disability Accompanied by Guide Dogs, Hearing Dogs or Service Dogs.

§ 47 . Use of public facilities by persons with a disability

§ 47-a . Employment of persons with a disability

§ 47-b . Miscellaneous provisions

§ 47-c . Penalties

Penal Law. Chapter 40. Of the Consolidated Laws. Part Three. Specific Offenses. Title L. Offenses Against Public Administration. Article 195. Official Misconduct and Obstruction of Public Servants Generally

§ 195.11 Harming an animal trained to aid a person with a disability in the second degree

§ 195.12 Harming an animal trained to aid a person with a disability in the first degree

Penal Law. Chapter 40. Of the Consolidated Laws. Part Three. Specific Offenses. Title N. Offenses Against Public Order, Public Sensibilities and the Right to Privacy. Article 242. Offenses Against Service Animals and Handlers

§ 242.00 Definitions

§ 242.05 Interference, harassment or intimidation of a service animal

§ 242.10 Harming a service animal in the second degree

§ 242.15 Harming a service animal in the first degree

Public Housing Law. Chapter 44-A. Of the Consolidated Laws. Article XI. Miscellaneous.

§ 223-b . Discrimination against hearing impaired persons who have hearing dogs

Social Services Law. Chapter 55. Of the Consolidated Laws. Article 5. Assistance and Care. Title 8. Emergency Assistance for Aged, Blind and Disabled Persons.

§ 303-a . Grants of assistance for guide dogs, hearing dogs and service dogs; certain cases

Transportation Law. Chapter 61A. Of the Consolidated Laws. Article 6. Matters Relating to All Motor Carriers.

§ 147 . Dogs accompanying persons with a disability

Vehicle and Traffic Law. Chapter Seventy-One. Of the Consolidated Laws. Title VII. Rules of the Road. Article 27. Pedestrians' Rights and Duties

§ 1153 . Provisions relating to blind or visually impaired persons

 

 

Mckinney's Consolidated Laws of New York Annotated. Agriculture and Markets Law. Chapter 69. Of the Consolidated Laws. Article 7. Licensing, Identification and Control of Dogs.

§ 108. Definitions

As used in this article, unless otherwise expressly stated or unless the context or subject matter requires otherwise:

1. “Adoption” means the delivery to any natural person eighteen years of age or older, for the limited purpose of harboring a pet, of any dog, seized or surrendered, or any cat.

2. Repealed.

3. “Clerk” means the clerk of any county, town, city or village where licenses are validated or issued pursuant to this article.

4. “Commissioner” means the state commissioner of agriculture and markets.

5. “Dog” means any member of the species canis familiaris.

6. “Dog control officer” means any individual appointed by a municipality to assist in the enforcement of this article or any authorized officer, agent or employee of an incorporated humane society or similar incorporated dog protective association under contract with a municipality to assist in the enforcement of this article.

7. “Domestic animal” means any domesticated sheep, horse, cattle, fallow deer, red deer, sika deer, whitetail deer which is raised under license from the department of environmental conservation, llama, goat, swine, fowl, duck, goose, swan, turkey, confined domestic hare or rabbit, pheasant or other bird which is raised in confinement under license from the state department of environmental conservation before release from captivity, except that the varieties of fowl commonly used for cock fights shall not be considered domestic animals for the purposes of this article.

8. “Euthanize” means to bring about death by a humane method.

9. “Guide dog” means any dog that is trained to aid a person who is blind and is actually used for such purpose, or any dog during the period such dog is being trained or bred for such purpose.

10. “Harbor” means to provide food or shelter to any dog.

11. “Identification tag” means a tag issued by the licensing municipality which sets forth an identification number, together with the name of the municipality, the state of New York, contact information, including telephone number, for the municipality and such other information as the licensing municipality deems appropriate.

12. “Identified dog” means any dog carrying an identification tag as provided in section one hundred eleven of this article.

13. “Municipality” means any county, town, city and village.

14. Repealed by L.2010, c. 59, pt. T, § 2, eff. Jan. 1, 2011.

15. “Owner” means any person who harbors or keeps any dog.

16. “Owner of record” means the person in whose name any dog was last licensed pursuant to this article, except that if any license is issued on application of a person under eighteen years of age, the owner of record shall be deemed to be the parent or guardian of such person. If it cannot be determined in whose name any dog was last licensed or if the owner of record has filed a statement pursuant to the provisions of section one hundred twelve of this article, the owner shall be deemed to be the owner of record of such dog, except that if the owner is under eighteen years of age, the owner of record shall be deemed to be the parent or guardian of such person.

17. “Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, association or other organized group of persons, municipality, or other legal entity.

18. “Police work dog” means any dog owned or harbored by any state or municipal police department or any state or federal law enforcement agency, which has been trained to aid law enforcement officers and is actually being used for police work purposes.

19. “Recognized registry association” means any registry association that operates on a nationwide basis and issues numbered registration certificates.

20. “War dog” means any dog which has been honorably discharged from the United States armed services.

21. “Hearing dog” means any dog that is trained to aid a person with a hearing impairment and is actually used for such purpose, or any dog during the period such dog is being trained or bred for such purpose.

22. “Service dog” means any dog that has been or is being individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of a person with a disability.

23. “Person with a disability” means any person with a disability as that term is defined in subdivision twenty-one of section two hundred ninety-two of the executive law.

24. (a) “Dangerous dog” means any dog which (i) without justification attacks a person, companion animal as defined in subdivision five of section three hundred fifty of this chapter, farm animal as defined in subdivision four of section three hundred fifty of this chapter or domestic animal as defined in subdivision seven of this section and causes physical injury or death, or (ii) behaves in a manner which a reasonable person would believe poses a serious and unjustified imminent threat of serious physical injury or death to one or more persons, companion animals, farm animals or domestic animals or (iii) without justification attacks a service dog, guide dog or hearing dog and causes physical injury or death.

(b) “Dangerous dog” does not include a police work dog, as defined in subdivision eighteen of this section, which acts in the manner described in this paragraph while such police work dog is being used to assist one or more law enforcement officers in the performance of their official duties.

25. “Working search dog” means any dog that is trained to aid in the search for missing persons and is actually used for such purpose.

26. “Therapy dog” means any dog that is trained to aid the emotional and physical health of patients in hospitals, nursing homes, retirement homes and other settings and is actually used for such purpose, or any dog during the period such dog is being trained or bred for such purpose.

27. “Detection dog” means any dog that is trained and is actually used for such purposes or is undergoing training to be used for the purpose of detecting controlled substances, explosives, ignitable liquids, firearms, cadavers, or school or correctional facility contraband.

28. “Physical injury” means impairment of physical condition or substantial pain.

29. “Serious physical injury” means physical injury which creates a substantial risk of death, or which causes death or serious or protracted disfigurement, protracted impairment of health or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily organ.

Credits
(Added L.1978, c. 220, § 2. Amended L.1979, c. 189, § 1; L.1979, c. 491, § 1; L.1979, c. 707, § 2; L.1986, c. 404, §§ 2 to 4; L.1987, c. 619, § 2; L.1989, c. 158, § 1; L.1997, c. 530, § 2, eff. Sept. 1, 1998; L.1998, c. 170, § 1, eff. Jan. 1, 1999; L.2000, c. 263, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 2000; L.2002, c. 39, § 1, eff. May 30, 2002; L.2002, c. 494, § 1, eff. Sept. 17, 2002; L.2002, c. 558, § 1, eff. Jan. 1, 2003; L.2003, c. 287, § 1, eff. Aug. 5, 2003; L.2004, c. 392, §§ 1, 2, eff. Dec. 15, 2004; L.2010, c. 59, pt. T, §§ 2, 3, eff. Jan. 1, 2011; L.2012, c. 446, § 1, eff. Oct. 16, 2012; L.2014, c. 536, § 4, eff. Dec. 29, 2014.)

 

§ 110. License fees

1. The license fee for dog licenses issued pursuant to subdivision one of section one hundred nine of this article shall be determined by the municipality issuing the license, provided that the total fee for an unspayed or unneutered dog shall be at least five dollars more than the total fee for a spayed or neutered dog. All revenue derived from such fees shall be the sole property of the municipality setting the same and shall be used only for controlling dogs and enforcing this article and any rule, regulation, or local law or ordinance adopted pursuant thereto, including subsidizing the spaying or neutering of dogs and any facility as authorized under section one hundred sixteen of this article used therefor, and subsidizing public humane education programs in responsible dog ownership.

2. Municipalities may exempt from their licensing fees any guide dog, hearing dog, service dog, war dog, working search dog, detection dog, police work dog or therapy dog. Each copy of any license for such dogs shall be conspicuously marked “Guide Dog”, “Hearing Dog”, “Service Dog”, “Working Search Dog”, “War Dog”, “Detection Dog”, “Police Work Dog”, or “Therapy Dog”, as may be appropriate, by the clerk or authorized dog control officer.

3. In addition to the fee charged pursuant to subdivision one of this section, all municipalities issuing dog licenses pursuant to this article are required to provide for the assessment of an additional surcharge of at least one dollar for altered dogs and at least three dollars for unaltered dogs for the purposes of carrying out animal population control efforts as provided in section one hundred seventeen-a of this article. Such surcharges shall be submitted by municipalities to the commissioner.

4. In addition to the fee charged pursuant to subdivision one of this section, any municipality issuing dog licenses pursuant to this article is hereby authorized to provide for the assessment of additional surcharges for the purpose of:

(a) recovering costs associated with enumeration conducted pursuant to subdivision six of section one hundred thirteen of this article should a dog be identified as unlicensed during such enumeration. Such additional fee shall be the property of the licensing municipality and shall be used to pay the expenses incurred by the municipality in conducting the enumeration. In the event the additional fees collected exceed the expenses incurred by the municipality in conducting an enumeration in any year, such excess fees may be used by the municipality for enforcing this article and for spaying or neutering animals; and

(b) offsetting costs associated with the provision and replacement of identification tags pursuant to section one hundred eleven of this article.

Credits
(Added L.2010, c. 59, pt. T, § 5, eff. Jan. 1, 2011. Amended L.2012, c. 446, § 3, eff. Oct. 16, 2012.)


§ 118. Violations

1. It shall be a violation, punishable as provided in subdivision two of this section, for:

(a) any owner to fail to license any dog;

(b) any owner to fail to have any dog identified as required by this article;

(c) any person to knowingly affix to any dog any false or improper identification tag, special identification tag for identifying guide, service or hearing dogs or purebred license tag;

(d) any owner or custodian of any dog to fail to confine, restrain or present such dog for any lawful purpose pursuant to this article;

(e) any person to furnish any false or misleading information on any form required to be filed with any municipality pursuant to the provisions of this article or rules and regulations promulgated pursuant thereto;

(f) the owner or custodian of any dog to fail to exercise due diligence in handling his or her dog if the handling results in harm to another dog that is a guide, hearing or service dog;

(g) any owner of a dog to fail to notify the municipality in which his or her dog is licensed of any change of ownership or address as required by section one hundred twelve of this article.

2. It shall be the duty of the dog control officer of any municipality to bring an action against any person who has committed within such municipality any violation set forth in subdivision one of this section. Any municipality may elect either to prosecute such action as a violation under the penal law or to commence an action to recover a civil penalty.

A violation of this section shall be punishable, subject to such an election, either:

(a) where prosecuted pursuant to the penal law, by a fine of not less than twenty-five dollars, except that (i) where the person was found to have violated this section or former article seven of this chapter within the preceding five years, the fine may be not less than fifty dollars, and (ii) where the person was found to have committed two or more such violations within the preceding five years, it shall be punishable by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars or imprisonment for not more than fifteen days, or both; or

(b) where prosecuted as an action to recover a civil penalty, by a civil penalty of not less than twenty-five dollars, except that (i) when the person was found to have violated this section or this article within the preceding five years, the civil penalty may be not less than fifty dollars, and (ii) where the person was found to have committed two or more such violations within the preceding five years, the civil penalty may be not less than one hundred dollars.

3. A defendant charged with a violation of any provision of this article or any local law or ordinance promulgated pursuant thereto may plead guilty to the charge in open court. He or she may also submit to the magistrate having jurisdiction, in person, by duly authorized agent, or by registered mail, a statement (a) that he or she waives arraignment in open court and the aid of counsel, (b) that he or she pleads guilty to the offense charged, (c) that he or she elects and requests that the charge be disposed of and the fine or penalty fixed by the court, (d) of any explanation that he or she desires to make concerning the offense charged, and (e) that he or she makes all statements under penalty of perjury. Thereupon the magistrate may proceed as though the defendant had been convicted upon a plea of guilty in open court, provided however, that any imposition of fine or penalty hereunder shall be deemed tentative until such fine or penalty shall have been paid and discharged in full. If upon receipt of the aforesaid statement the magistrate shall deny the same, he or she shall thereupon notify the defendant of this fact, and that he or she is required to appear before the said magistrate at a stated time and place to answer the charge which shall thereafter be disposed of pursuant to the applicable provisions of law.

4. Any person who intentionally refuses, withholds, or denies a person, because he or she is accompanied by an on-duty police work dog, working search, war, or detection dog as defined in section one hundred eight of this article, any accommodations, facilities, or privileges thereof shall be subject to a civil penalty of up to two hundred dollars for the first violation and up to four hundred dollars for each subsequent violation.

5. Any person who for the purpose of participating in the animal population control program shall falsify proof of adoption from a pound, shelter, duly incorporated society for the prevention of cruelty to animals, duly incorporated humane society or duly incorporated dog or cat protective association or who shall furnish any licensed veterinarian of this state with inaccurate information concerning his or her residency or the ownership of an animal or such person's authority to submit an animal for a spaying or neutering procedure pursuant to section one hundred seventeen-a of this article, and any veterinarian who shall furnish false information concerning animal sterilization fees shall be guilty of a violation punishable by a fine of not less than two hundred fifty dollars where prosecuted pursuant to the penal law, or where prosecuted as an action to recover a civil penalty of not more than two hundred fifty dollars.

CREDIT(S)

(Formerly § 119, added L.1978, c. 220, § 2. Amended L.1978, c. 221, § 3; L.1980, c. 714, §§ 6, 7; L.1984, c. 28, § 3; L.1986, c. 404, § 8; L.1995, c. 473, § 7; L.2000, c. 263, § 2, eff. Nov. 1, 2000; L.2002, c. 494, § 5, eff. Sept. 17, 2002; L.2004, c. 392, § 4, eff. Dec. 15, 2004; L.2005, c. 534, § 4, eff. Oct. 15, 2005. Renumbered § 118 and amended L.2010, c. 59, pt. T, § 14, eff. Jan. 1, 2011.)


§ 123-b. Offenses against service animals and handlers

1. Definitions. For purposes of this section:

(a) “Service animal” shall mean any animal that has been partnered with a person who has a disability and has been trained or is being trained, by a qualified person, to aid or guide a person with a disability.

(b) “Disability” shall have the same meaning as provided in section two hundred ninety-two of the executive law.

(c) “Handler” shall mean a disabled person using a service animal.

(d) “Formal training program” or “certified trainer” shall mean an institution, group or individual who has documentation and community recognition as a provider of service animals.

2. Any person who owns an animal or possesses control of such animal and who, through any act or omission, recklessly permits his or her animal to interfere with the proper working of a service animal, exposing the handler and service animal to danger or resulting in injury or death of the service animal shall be subject to a civil penalty not to exceed one thousand dollars in addition to any other applicable penalties.

3. Any person who owns an animal or possesses control of such animal and who, through any act or omission, recklessly permits his or her animal to interfere with the proper working of a service animal, exposing the handler and service animal to danger or resulting in injury or death of the service animal, where the animal causing such injury has previously been determined to be dangerous pursuant to this article, shall be guilty of a violation punishable by a fine of not more than two thousand dollars, or by a period of imprisonment not to exceed fifteen days, or by both such fine and imprisonment in addition to any other applicable penalties.

4. The handler of the service animal incapacitated, injured or killed shall have the right to pursue any and all civil remedies available to recover damages for medical and veterinary expenses, rehabilitation or replacement of the service animal, and lost wages, transportation expenses or other expenses directly related to the temporary or permanent loss of the service animal.

CREDIT(S)

(Formerly § 121-b, added L.2007, c. 582, § 2, eff. Nov. 1, 2007. Renumbered § 123-b, L.2010, c. 59, pt. T, § 20, eff. Jan. 1, 2011.)

 

Executive Law. Chapter Eighteen. Of the Consolidated Laws. Article 15. Human Rights Law

§ 296. Unlawful discriminatory practices (see subsection 14 for service animals)

1. It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice:

(a) For an employer or licensing agency, because of an individual's age, race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, disability, predisposing genetic characteristics, marital status, or domestic violence victim status, to refuse to hire or employ or to bar or to discharge from employment such individual or to discriminate against such individual in compensation or in terms, conditions or privileges of employment.

(b) For an employment agency to discriminate against any individual because of age, race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, disability, predisposing genetic characteristics, or marital status, in receiving, classifying, disposing or otherwise acting upon applications for its services or in referring an applicant or applicants to an employer or employers.

(c) For a labor organization, because of the age, race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, disability, predisposing genetic characteristics, or marital status of any individual, to exclude or to expel from its membership such individual or to discriminate in any way against any of its members or against any employer or any individual employed by an employer.

(d) For any employer or employment agency to print or circulate or cause to be printed or circulated any statement, advertisement or publication, or to use any form of application for employment or to make any inquiry in connection with prospective employment, which expresses directly or indirectly, any limitation, specification or discrimination as to age, race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, disability, predisposing genetic characteristics, or marital status, or any intent to make any such limitation, specification or discrimination, unless based upon a bona fide occupational qualification; provided, however, that neither this paragraph nor any provision of this chapter or other law shall be construed to prohibit the department of civil service or the department of personnel of any city containing more than one county from requesting information from applicants for civil service examinations concerning any of the aforementioned characteristics, other than sexual orientation, for the purpose of conducting studies to identify and resolve possible problems in recruitment and testing of members of minority groups to insure the fairest possible and equal opportunities for employment in the civil service for all persons, regardless of age, race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, disability, predisposing genetic characteristics, or marital status.

(e) For any employer, labor organization or employment agency to discharge, expel or otherwise discriminate against any person because he or she has opposed any practices forbidden under this article or because he or she has filed a complaint, testified or assisted in any proceeding under this article.

(f) Nothing in this subdivision shall affect any restrictions upon the activities of persons licensed by the state liquor authority with respect to persons under twenty-one years of age.

(g) For an employer to compel an employee who is pregnant to take a leave of absence, unless the employee is prevented by such pregnancy from performing the activities involved in the job or occupation in a reasonable manner.

1-a. It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for an employer, labor organization, employment agency or any joint labor-management committee controlling apprentice training programs:

(a) To select persons for an apprentice training program registered with the state of New York on any basis other than their qualifications, as determined by objective criteria which permit review;

(b) To deny to or withhold from any person because of race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, age, disability, or marital status, the right to be admitted to or participate in a guidance program, an apprenticeship training program, on-the-job training program, executive training program, or other occupational training or retraining program;

(c) To discriminate against any person in his or her pursuit of such programs or to discriminate against such a person in the terms, conditions or privileges of such programs because of race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, age, disability or marital status;

(d) To print or circulate or cause to be printed or circulated any statement, advertisement or publication, or to use any form of application for such programs or to make any inquiry in connection with such program which expresses, directly or indirectly, any limitation, specification or discrimination as to race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, age, disability or marital status, or any intention to make any such limitation, specification or discrimination, unless based on a bona fide occupational qualification.

2.

(a) It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for any person, being the owner, lessee, proprietor, manager, superintendent, agent or employee of any place of public accommodation, resort or amusement, because of the race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, or disability or marital status of any person, directly or indirectly, to refuse, withhold from or deny to such person any of the accommodations, advantages, facilities or privileges thereof, including the extension of credit, or, directly or indirectly, to publish, circulate, issue, display, post or mail any written or printed communication, notice or advertisement, to the effect that any of the accommodations, advantages, facilities and privileges of any such place shall be refused, withheld from or denied to any person on account of race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, or disability or marital status, or that the patronage or custom thereat of any person of or purporting to be of any particular race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex or marital status, or having a disability is unwelcome, objectionable or not acceptable, desired or solicited.

(b) Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to prevent the barring of any person, because of the sex of such person, from places of public accommodation, resort or amusement if the division grants an exemption based on bona fide considerations of public policy; nor shall this subdivision apply to the rental of rooms in a housing accommodation which restricts such rental to individuals of one sex.

(c) For the purposes of paragraph (a) of this subdivision, “discriminatory practice” includes:

(i) a refusal to make reasonable modifications in policies, practices, or procedures, when such modifications are necessary to afford facilities, privileges, advantages or accommodations to individuals with disabilities, unless such person can demonstrate that making such modifications would fundamentally alter the nature of such facilities, privileges, advantages or accommodations;

(ii) a refusal to take such steps as may be necessary to ensure that no individual with a disability is excluded or denied services because of the absence of auxiliary aids and services, unless such person can demonstrate that taking such steps would fundamentally alter the nature of the facility, privilege, advantage or accommodation being offered or would result in an undue burden;

(iii) [Eff. until Nov. 22, 2015. See, also, subpar. (iii), below.] a refusal to remove architectural barriers, and communication barriers that are structural in nature, in existing facilities, and transportation barriers in existing vehicles and rail passenger cars used by an establishment for transporting individuals (not including barriers that can only be removed through the retrofitting of vehicles or rail passenger cars by the installation of a hydraulic or other lift), where such removal is readily achievable; and

(iii) [Eff. Nov. 22, 2015. See, also, subpar. (iii), above.] a refusal to remove architectural barriers, and communication barriers that are structural in nature, in existing facilities, and transportation barriers in existing vehicles and rail passenger cars used by an establishment for transporting individuals (not including barriers that can only be removed through the retrofitting of vehicles or rail passenger cars by the installation of a hydraulic or other lift), where such removal is readily achievable;

(iv) [Eff. until Nov. 22, 2015. See, also, subpar. (iv), below.] where such person can demonstrate that the removal of a barrier under subparagraph (iii) of this paragraph is not readily achievable, a failure to make such facilities, privileges, advantages or accommodations available through alternative methods if such methods are readily achievable.

(iv) [Eff. Nov. 22, 2015. See, also, subpar. (iv), above.] where such person is a local or state government entity, a refusal to remove architectural barriers, and communication barriers that are structural in nature, in existing facilities, and transportation barriers in existing vehicles and rail passenger cars used by an establishment for transporting individuals (not including barriers that can only be removed through the retrofitting of vehicles or rail passenger cars by the installation of a hydraulic or other lift), where such removal does not constitute an undue burden; except as set forth in paragraph (e) of this subdivision; nothing in this section would require a public entity to: necessarily make each of its existing facilities accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities; take any action that would threaten or destroy the historical significance of an historic property; or to make structural changes in existing facilities where other methods are effective in achieving compliance with this section; and

(v) [Eff. Nov. 22, 2015.] where such person can demonstrate that the removal of a barrier under subparagraph (iii) of this paragraph is not readily achievable, a failure to make such facilities, privileges, advantages or accommodations available through alternative methods if such methods are readily achievable.

(d) For the purposes of this subdivision:

(i) “Readily achievable” means easily accomplishable and able to be carried out without much difficulty or expense. In determining whether an action is readily achievable, factors to be considered include:

(A) the nature and cost of the action needed under this subdivision;

(B) the overall financial resources of the facility or facilities involved in the action; the number of persons employed at such facility; the effect on expenses and resources or the impact otherwise of such action upon the operation of the facility;

(C) the overall financial resources of the place of public accommodation, resort or amusement; the overall size of the business of such a place with respect to the number of its employees; the number, type and location of its facilities; and

(D) the type of operation or operations of the place of public accommodation, resort or amusement, including the composition, structure and functions of the workforce of such place; the geographic separateness, administrative or fiscal relationship of the facility or facilities in question to such place.

(ii) “Auxiliary aids and services” include:

(A) qualified interpreters or other effective methods of making aurally delivered materials available to individuals with hearing impairments;

(B) qualified readers, taped texts or other effective methods of making visually delivered materials available to individuals with visual impairments;

(C) acquisition or modification of equipment or devices; and

(D) other similar services and actions.

(iii) “Undue burden” means significant difficulty or expense. In determining whether an action would result in an undue burden, factors to be considered shall include:

(A) The nature and cost of the action needed under this article;

(B) The overall financial resources of the site or sites involved in the action; the number of persons employed at the site; the effect on expenses and resources; legitimate safety requirements that are necessary for safe operation, including crime prevention measures; or the impact otherwise of the action upon the operation of the site;

(C) The geographic separateness, and the administrative or fiscal relationship of the site or sites in question to any parent corporation or entity;

(D) If applicable, the overall financial resources of any parent corporation or entity; the overall size of the parent corporation or entity with respect to the number of its employees; the number, type, and location of its facilities; and

(E) If applicable, the type of operation or operations of any parent corporation or entity, including the composition, structure, and functions of the workforce of the parent corporation or entity.

(iv) “Reasonable modifications in policies, practices, procedures” includes modification to permit the use of a service animal by a person with a disability, consistent with federal regulations implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act, Title III, at 28 CFR 36.302(c).

(e) Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this subdivision do not apply to any air carrier, the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, or public transportation facilities, vehicles or services owned, leased or operated by the state, a county, city, town or village, or any agency thereof, or by any public benefit corporation or authority.

2-a. It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for the owner, lessee, sub-lessee, assignee, or managing agent of publicly-assisted housing accommodations or other person having the right of ownership or possession of or the right to rent or lease such accommodations:

(a) To refuse to sell, rent or lease or otherwise to deny to or withhold from any person or group of persons such housing accommodations because of the race, creed, color, disability, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, age, sex, marital status, or familial status of such person or persons, or to represent that any housing accommodation or land is not available for inspection, sale, rental or lease when in fact it is so available.

(b) To discriminate against any person because of his or her race, creed, color, disability, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, age, sex, marital status, or familial status in the terms, conditions or privileges of any publicly-assisted housing accommodations or in the furnishing of facilities or services in connection therewith.

(c) To cause to be made any written or oral inquiry or record concerning the race, creed, color, disability, national origin, sexual orientation, membership in the reserve armed forces of the United States or in the organized militia of the state, age, sex, marital status, or familial status of a person seeking to rent or lease any publicly-assisted housing accommodation; provided, however, that nothing in this subdivision shall prohibit a member of the reserve armed forces of the United States or in the organized militia of the state from voluntarily disclosing such membership.

(c-1) To print or circulate or cause to be printed or circulated any statement, advertisement or publication, or to use any form of application for the purchase, rental or lease of such housing accommodation or to make any record or inquiry in connection with the prospective purchase, rental or lease of such a housing accommodation which expresses, directly or indirectly, any limitation, specification or discrimination as to race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, age, disability, marital status, or familial status, or any intent to make any such limitation, specification or discrimination.

(d)(1) To refuse to permit, at the expense of the person with a disability, reasonable modifications of existing premises occupied or to be occupied by the said person, if the modifications may be necessary to afford the said person full enjoyment of the premises, in conformity with the provisions of the New York state uniform fire prevention and building code, except that, in the case of a rental, the landlord may, where it is reasonable to do so, condition permission for a modification on the renter's agreeing to restore the interior of the premises to the condition that existed before the modification, reasonable wear and tear excepted.

(2) To refuse to make reasonable accommodations in rules, policies, practices, or services, when such accommodations may be necessary to afford a person with a disability equal opportunity to use and enjoy a dwelling, including reasonable modification to common use portions of the dwelling, or

(3) In connection with the design and construction of covered multi-family dwellings for first occupancy after March thirteenth, nineteen hundred ninety-one, a failure to design and construct dwellings in accordance with the accessibility requirements of the New York state uniform fire prevention and building code, to provide that:

(i) The public use and common use portions of the dwellings are readily accessible to and usable by disabled persons with disabilities;

(ii) All the doors are designed in accordance with the New York state uniform fire prevention and building code to allow passage into and within all premises and are sufficiently wide to allow passage by persons in wheelchairs; and

(iii) All premises within covered multi-family dwelling units contain an accessible route into and through the dwelling; light switches, electrical outlets, thermostats, and other environmental controls are in accessible locations; there are reinforcements in the bathroom walls to allow later installation of grab bars; and there are usable kitchens and bathrooms such that an individual in a wheelchair can maneuver about the space, in conformity with the New York state uniform fire prevention and building code.

(e) Nothing in this subdivision shall restrict the consideration of age in the rental of publicly-assisted housing accommodations if the division grants an exemption based on bona fide considerations of public policy for the purpose of providing for the special needs of a particular age group without the intent of prejudicing other age groups.

(f) Nothing in this subdivision shall be deemed to restrict the rental of rooms in school or college dormitories to individuals of the same sex.

3. (a) It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for an employer, licensing agency, employment agency or labor organization to refuse to provide reasonable accommodations to the known disabilities of an employee, prospective employee or member in connection with a job or occupation sought or held or participation in a training program.

(b) Nothing contained in this subdivision shall be construed to require provision of accommodations which can be demonstrated to impose an undue hardship on the operation of an employer's, licensing agency's, employment agency's or labor organization's business, program or enterprise.

In making such a demonstration with regard to undue hardship the factors to be considered include:

(i) The overall size of the business, program or enterprise with respect to the number of employees, number and type of facilities, and size of budget;

(ii) The type of operation which the business, program or enterprise is engaged in, including the composition and structure of the workforce; and

(iii) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed.

3-a. It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice:

(a) For an employer or licensing agency to refuse to hire or employ or license or to bar or to terminate from employment an individual eighteen years of age or older, or to discriminate against such individual in promotion, compensation or in terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, because of such individual's age.

(b) For any employer, licensing agency or employment agency to print or circulate or cause to be printed or circulated any statement, advertisement or publication, or to use any form of application for employment or to make any inquiry in connection with prospective employment, which expresses, directly or indirectly, any limitation, specification or discrimination on account of age respecting individuals eighteen years of age or older, or any intent to make any such limitation, specification, or discrimination.

(c) For any employer, licensing agency or employment agency to discharge or otherwise discriminate against any person because he or she has opposed any practices forbidden under this article or because he or she has filed a complaint, testified or assisted in any proceeding under this article.

(d) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no employee shall be subject to termination or retirement from employment on the basis of age, except where age is a bona fide occupational qualification reasonably necessary to the normal operation of a particular business, where the differentiation is based on reasonable factors other than age, or as otherwise specified in paragraphs (e) and (f) of this subdivision or in article fourteen-A of the retirement and social security law.

(e) Nothing contained in this subdivision or in subdivision one of this section shall be construed to prevent the compulsory retirement of any employee who has attained sixty-five years of age, and who, for a two-year period immediately before retirement, is employed in a bona fide executive or a high policymaking position, if such employee is entitled to an immediate nonforfeitable annual retirement benefit from a pension, profit-sharing, savings, or deferred compensation plan, or any combination of such plans, of the employer of such employee, which equals, in the aggregate, at least forty-four thousand dollars; provided that for the purposes of this paragraph only, the term “employer” includes any employer as otherwise defined in this article but does not include (i) the state of New York, (ii) a county, city, town, village or any other political subdivision or civil division of the state, (iii) a school district or any other governmental entity operating a public school, college or university, (iv) a public improvement or special district, (v) a public authority, commission or public benefit corporation, or (vi) any other public corporation, agency, instrumentality or unit of government which exercises governmental power under the laws of the state. In applying the retirement benefit test of this paragraph, if any such retirement benefit is in a form other than a straight life annuity with no ancillary benefits, or if employees contribute to any such plan or make rollover contributions, such benefit shall be adjusted in accordance with rules and regulations promulgated by the division, after an opportunity for public hearing, so that the benefit is the equivalent of a straight life annuity with no ancillary benefits under a plan to which employees do not contribute and under which no rollover contributions are made.

(f) Nothing contained in this subdivision, in subdivision one of this section or in article fourteen-A of the retirement and social security law shall be construed to prevent the compulsory retirement of any employee who has attained seventy years of age and is serving under a contract for unlimited tenure, or a similar arrangement providing for unlimited tenure, at a nonpublic institution of higher education. For purposes of such subdivisions or article, the term “institution of higher education” means an educational institution which (i) admits as regular students only persons having a certificate of graduation from a school providing secondary education, or the recognized equivalent of such a certificate, (ii) is lawfully authorized to provide a program of education beyond secondary education, and (iii) provides an educational program for which it awards a bachelor's degree or provides not less than a two-year program which is acceptable for full credit toward such a degree.

(g) In the event of a conflict between the provisions of this subdivision and the provisions of article fourteen-A of the retirement and social security law, the provisions of article fourteen-A of such law shall be controlling.

But nothing contained in this subdivision, in subdivision one of this section or in article fourteen-A of the retirement and social security law shall be construed to prevent the termination of the employment of any person who, even upon the provision of reasonable accommodations, is physically unable to perform his or her duties or to affect the retirement policy or system of any employer where such policy or system is not merely a subterfuge to evade the purposes of said subdivisions or said article; nor shall anything in such subdivisions or such article be deemed to preclude the varying of insurance coverages according to an employee's age.

The provisions of this subdivision shall not affect any restriction upon the activities of persons licensed by the state liquor authority with respect to persons under twenty-one years of age.

3-b. It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for any real estate broker, real estate salesperson or employee or agent thereof or any other individual, corporation, partnership or organization for the purpose of inducing a real estate transaction from which any such person or any of its stockholders or members may benefit financially, to represent that a change has occurred or will or may occur in the composition with respect to race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, disability, marital status, or familial status of the owners or occupants in the block, neighborhood or area in which the real property is located, and to represent, directly or indirectly, that this change will or may result in undesirable consequences in the block, neighborhood or area in which the real property is located, including but not limited to the lowering of property values, an increase in criminal or anti-social behavior, or a decline in the quality of schools or other facilities.

4. It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for an education corporation or association which holds itself out to the public to be non-sectarian and exempt from taxation pursuant to the provisions of article four of the real property tax law to deny the use of its facilities to any person otherwise qualified, or to permit the harassment of any student or applicant, by reason of his race, color, religion, disability, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, age or marital status, except that any such institution which establishes or maintains a policy of educating persons of one sex exclusively may admit students of only one sex.

5.

(a) It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for the owner, lessee, sub-lessee, assignee, or managing agent of, or other person having the right to sell, rent or lease a housing accommodation, constructed or to be constructed, or any agent or employee thereof:

(1) To refuse to sell, rent, lease or otherwise to deny to or withhold from any person or group of persons such a housing accommodation because of the race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, age, disability, marital status, or familial status of such person or persons, or to represent that any housing accommodation or land is not available for inspection, sale, rental or lease when in fact it is so available.

(2) To discriminate against any person because of race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, age, disability, marital status, or familial status in the terms, conditions or privileges of the sale, rental or lease of any such housing accommodation or in the furnishing of facilities or services in connection therewith.

(3) To print or circulate or cause to be printed or circulated any statement, advertisement or publication, or to use any form of application for the purchase, rental or lease of such housing accommodation or to make any record or inquiry in connection with the prospective purchase, rental or lease of such a housing accommodation which expresses, directly or indirectly, any limitation, specification or discrimination as to race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, age, disability, marital status, or familial status, or any intent to make any such limitation, specification or discrimination.

The provisions of this paragraph (a) shall not apply (1) to the rental of a housing accommodation in a building which contains housing accommodations for not more than two families living independently of each other, if the owner resides in one of such housing accommodations, (2) to the restriction of the rental of all rooms in a housing accommodation to individuals of the same sex or (3) to the rental of a room or rooms in a housing accommodation, if such rental is by the occupant of the housing accommodation or by the owner of the housing accommodation and the owner resides in such housing accommodation or (4) solely with respect to age and familial status to the restriction of the sale, rental or lease of housing accommodations exclusively to persons sixty-two years of age or older and the spouse of any such person, or for housing intended and operated for occupancy by at least one person fifty-five years of age or older per unit. In determining whether housing is intended and operated for occupancy by persons fifty-five years of age or older, Sec. 807(b) (2) (c) (42 U.S.C. 3607 (b) (2) (c)) of the federal Fair Housing Act of 1988, as amended, shall apply.

(b) It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for the owner, lessee, sub-lessee, or managing agent of, or other person having the right of ownership or possession of or the right to sell, rent or lease, land or commercial space:

(1) To refuse to sell, rent, lease or otherwise deny to or withhold from any person or group of persons land or commercial space because of the race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, age, disability, marital status, or familial status of such person or persons, or to represent that any housing accommodation or land is not available for inspection, sale, rental or lease when in fact it is so available;

(2) To discriminate against any person because of race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, age, disability, marital status, or familial status in the terms, conditions or privileges of the sale, rental or lease of any such land or commercial space; or in the furnishing of facilities or services in connection therewith;

(3) To print or circulate or cause to be printed or circulated any statement, advertisement or publication, or to use any form of application for the purchase, rental or lease of such land or commercial space or to make any record or inquiry in connection with the prospective purchase, rental or lease of such land or commercial space which expresses, directly or indirectly, any limitation, specification or discrimination as to race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, age, disability, marital status, or familial status; or any intent to make any such limitation, specification or discrimination.

(4) With respect to age and familial status, the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to the restriction of the sale, rental or lease of land or commercial space exclusively to persons fifty-five years of age or older and the spouse of any such person, or to the restriction of the sale, rental or lease of land to be used for the construction, or location of housing accommodations exclusively for persons sixty-two years of age or older, or intended and operated for occupancy by at least one person fifty-five years of age or older per unit. In determining whether housing is intended and operated for occupancy by persons fifty-five years of age or older, Sec. 807(b) (2) (c) (42 U.S.C. 3607(b) (2) (c)) of the federal Fair Housing Act of 1988, as amended, shall apply.

(c) It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for any real estate broker, real estate salesperson or employee or agent thereof:

(1) To refuse to sell, rent or lease any housing accommodation, land or commercial space to any person or group of persons or to refuse to negotiate for the sale, rental or lease, of any housing accommodation, land or commercial space to any person or group of persons because of the race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, age, disability, marital status, or familial status of such person or persons, or to represent that any housing accommodation, land or commercial space is not available for inspection, sale, rental or lease when in fact it is so available, or otherwise to deny or withhold any housing accommodation, land or commercial space or any facilities of any housing accommodation, land or commercial space from any person or group of persons because of the race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, age, disability, marital status, or familial status of such person or persons.

(2) To print or circulate or cause to be printed or circulated any statement, advertisement or publication, or to use any form of application for the purchase, rental or lease of any housing accommodation, land or commercial space or to make any record or inquiry in connection with the prospective purchase, rental or lease of any housing accommodation, land or commercial space which expresses, directly or indirectly, any limitation, specification, or discrimination as to race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, age, disability, marital status, or familial status; or any intent to make any such limitation, specification or discrimination.

(3) With respect to age and familial status, the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to the restriction of the sale, rental or lease of any land or commercial space exclusively to persons fifty-five years of age or older and the spouse of any such person, or to the restriction of the sale, rental or lease of any housing accommodation or land to be used for the construction or location of housing accommodations for persons sixty-two years of age or older, or intended and operated for occupancy by at least one person fifty-five years of age or older per unit. In determining whether housing is intended and operated for occupancy by persons fifty-five years of age or older, Sec. 807 (b) (2) (c) (42 U.S.C. 3607 (b) (2) (c)) of the federal Fair Housing Act of 1988, as amended, shall apply.

(d) It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for any real estate board, because of the race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, age, sex, disability, marital status, or familial status of any individual who is otherwise qualified for membership, to exclude or expel such individual from membership, or to discriminate against such individual in the terms, conditions and privileges of membership in such board.

(e) It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for the owner, proprietor or managing agent of, or other person having the right to provide care and services in, a private proprietary nursing home, convalescent home, or home for adults, or an intermediate care facility, as defined in section two of the social services law, heretofore constructed, or to be constructed, or any agent or employee thereof, to refuse to provide services and care in such home or facility to any individual or to discriminate against any individual in the terms, conditions, and privileges of such services and care solely because such individual is a blind person. For purposes of this paragraph, a “blind person” shall mean a person who is registered as a blind person with the commission for the visually handicapped and who meets the definition of a “blind person” pursuant to section three of chapter four hundred fifteen of the laws of nineteen hundred thirteen1 entitled “An act to establish a state commission for improving the condition of the blind of the state of New York, and making an appropriation therefor”.

(f) The provisions of this subdivision, as they relate to age, shall not apply to persons under the age of eighteen years.

(g) It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for any person offering or providing housing accommodations, land or commercial space as described in paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this subdivision to make or cause to be made any written or oral inquiry or record concerning membership of any person in the state organized militia in relation to the purchase, rental or lease of such housing accommodation, land, or commercial space, provided, however, that nothing in this subdivision shall prohibit a member of the state organized militia from voluntarily disclosing such membership.

6. It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for any person to aid, abet, incite, compel or coerce the doing of any of the acts forbidden under this article, or to attempt to do so.

7. It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for any person engaged in any activity to which this section applies to retaliate or discriminate against any person because he or she has opposed any practices forbidden under this article or because he or she has filed a complaint, testified or assisted in any proceeding under this article.

8. It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for any party to a conciliation agreement made pursuant to section two hundred ninety-seven of this article to violate the terms of such agreement.

9. (a) It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for any fire department or fire company therein, through any member or members thereof, officers, board of fire commissioners or other body or office having power of appointment of volunteer firefighters, directly or indirectly, by ritualistic practice, constitutional or by-law prescription, by tacit agreement among its members, or otherwise, to deny to any individual membership in any volunteer fire department or fire company therein, or to expel or discriminate against any volunteer member of a fire department or fire company therein, because of the race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex or marital status of such individual.

(b) Upon a complaint to the division, as provided for under subdivision one of section two hundred ninety-seven of this article, and in the event the commissioner finds that an unlawful discriminatory practice has been engaged in, the board of fire commissioners or other body or office having power of appointment of volunteer firefighters shall be served with any order required, under subdivision four of section two hundred ninety-seven of this article, to be served on any or all respondents requiring such respondent or respondents to cease and desist from such unlawful discriminatory practice and to take affirmative action. Such board shall have the duty and power to appoint as a volunteer firefighter, notwithstanding any other statute or provision of law or by-law of any volunteer fire company, any individual whom the commissioner has determined to be the subject of an unlawful discriminatory practice under this subdivision. Unless such board has been found to have engaged in an unlawful discriminatory practice, service upon such board of such order shall not constitute such board or its members as a respondent nor constitute a finding of an unlawful discriminatory practice against such board or its members.

10. (a) It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for any employer, or an employee or agent thereof, to impose upon a person as a condition of obtaining or retaining employment, including opportunities for promotion, advancement or transfers, any terms or conditions that would require such person to violate or forego a sincerely held practice of his or her religion, including but not limited to the observance of any particular day or days or any portion thereof as a sabbath or other holy day in accordance with the requirements of his or her religion, unless, after engaging in a bona fide effort, the employer demonstrates that it is unable to reasonably accommodate the employee's or prospective employee's sincerely held religious observance or practice without undue hardship on the conduct of the employer's business. Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, an employee shall not be entitled to premium wages or premium benefits for work performed during hours to which such premium wages or premium benefits would ordinarily be applicable, if the employee is working during such hours only as an accommodation to his or her sincerely held religious requirements. Nothing in this paragraph or paragraph (b) of this subdivision shall alter or abridge the rights granted to an employee concerning the payment of wages or privileges of seniority accruing to that employee.

(b) Except where it would cause an employer to incur an undue hardship, no person shall be required to remain at his or her place of employment during any day or days or portion thereof that, as a requirement of his or her religion, he or she observes as his or her sabbath or other holy day, including a reasonable time prior and subsequent thereto for travel between his or her place of employment and his or her home, provided however, that any such absence from work shall, wherever practicable in the reasonable judgment of the employer, be made up by an equivalent amount of time and work at some other mutually convenient time, or shall be charged against any leave with pay ordinarily granted, other than sick leave, provided further, however, that any such absence not so made up or charged, may be treated by the employer of such person as leave taken without pay.

(c) It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for an employer to refuse to permit an employee to utilize leave, as provided in paragraph (b) of this subdivision, solely because the leave will be used for absence from work to accommodate the employee's sincerely held religious observance or practice.

(d) As used in this subdivision:

(1) “undue hardship” shall mean an accommodation requiring significant expense or difficulty (including a significant interference with the safe or efficient operation of the workplace or a violation of a bona fide seniority system). Factors to be considered in determining whether the accommodation constitutes an undue economic hardship shall include, but not be limited to:

(i) the identifiable cost of the accommodation, including the costs of loss of productivity and of retaining or hiring employees or transferring employees from one facility to another, in relation to the size and operating cost of the employer;

(ii) the number of individuals who will need the particular accommodation to a sincerely held religious observance or practice; and

(iii) for an employer with multiple facilities, the degree to which the geographic separateness or administrative or fiscal relationship of the facilities will make the accommodation more difficult or expensive.

Provided, however, an accommodation shall be considered to constitute an undue hardship if it will result in the inability of an employee to perform the essential functions of the position in which he or she is employed.

(2) “premium wages” shall include overtime pay and compensatory time off, and additional remuneration for night, weekend or holiday work, or for standby or irregular duty.

(3) “premium benefit” shall mean an employment benefit, such as seniority, group life insurance, health insurance, disability insurance, sick leave, annual leave, or an educational or pension benefit that is greater than the employment benefit due the employee for an equivalent period of work performed during the regular work schedule of the employee.

In the case of any employer other than the state, any of its political subdivisions or any school district, this subdivision shall not apply where the uniform application of terms and conditions of attendance to employees is essential to prevent undue economic hardship to the employer. In any proceeding in which the applicability of this subdivision is in issue, the burden of proof shall be upon the employer. If any question shall arise whether a particular position or class of positions is excepted from this subdivision by this paragraph, such question may be referred in writing by any party claimed to be aggrieved, in the case of any position of employment by the state or any of its political subdivisions, except by any school district, to the civil service commission, in the case of any position of employment by any school district, to the commissioner of education, who shall determine such question and in the case of any other employer, a party claiming to be aggrieved may file a complaint with the division pursuant to this article. Any such determination by the civil service commission shall be reviewable in the manner provided by article seventy-eight of the civil practice law and rules and any such determination by the commissioner of education shall be reviewable in the manner and to the same extent as other determinations of the commissioner under section three hundred ten of the education law.

11. Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to bar any religious or denominational institution or organization, or any organization operated for charitable or educational purposes, which is operated, supervised or controlled by or in connection with a religious organization, from limiting employment or sales or rental of housing accommodations or admission to or giving preference to persons of the same religion or denomination or from taking such action as is calculated by such organization to promote the religious principles for which it is established or maintained.

12. Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivisions one, one-a and three-a of this section, it shall not be an unlawful discriminatory practice for an employer, employment agency, labor organization or joint labor-management committee to carry out a plan, approved by the division, to increase the employment of members of a minority group (as may be defined pursuant to the regulations of the division) which has a state-wide unemployment rate that is disproportionately high in comparison with the state-wide unemployment rate of the general population. Any plan approved under this subdivision shall be in writing and the division's approval thereof shall be for a limited period and may be rescinded at any time by the division.

13. It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice (i) for any person to boycott or blacklist, or to refuse to buy from, sell to or trade with, or otherwise discriminate against any person, because of the race, creed, color, national origin, sexual orientation, military status, sex, or disability of such person, or of such person's partners, members, stockholders, directors, officers, managers, superintendents, agents, employees, business associates, suppliers or customers, or (ii) for any person wilfully to do any act or refrain from doing any act which enables any such person to take such action. This subdivision shall not apply to:

(a) Boycotts connected with labor disputes; or

(b) Boycotts to protest unlawful discriminatory practices.

14. In addition to reasonable modifications in policies, practices, or procedures, including those defined in subparagraph (iv) of paragraph (d) of subdivision two of this section or reasonable accommodations for persons with disabilities as otherwise provided in this section, including the use of an animal as a reasonable accommodation, it shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for any person engaged in any activity covered by this section to deny access or otherwise to discriminate against a blind person, a hearing impaired person or a person with another disability because he or she is accompanied by a dog that has been trained to work or perform specific tasks for the benefit of such person by a professional guide dog, hearing dog or service dog training center or professional guide dog, hearing dog or service dog trainer, or to discriminate against such professional guide dog, hearing dog or service dog trainer engaged in such training of a dog for use by a person with a disability, whether or not accompanied by the person for whom the dog is being trained.

15. It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for any person, agency, bureau, corporation or association, including the state and any political subdivision thereof, to deny any license or employment to any individual by reason of his or her having been convicted of one or more criminal offenses, or by reason of a finding of a lack of “good moral character” which is based upon his or her having been convicted of one or more criminal offenses, when such denial is in violation of the provisions of article twenty-three-A of the correction law. Further, there shall be a rebuttable presumption in favor of excluding from evidence the prior incarceration or conviction of any person, in a case alleging that the employer has been negligent in hiring or retaining an applicant or employee, or supervising a hiring manager, if after learning about an applicant or employee's past criminal conviction history, such employer has evaluated the factors set forth in section seven hundred fifty-two of the correction law, and made a reasonable, good faith determination that such factors militate in favor of hire or retention of that applicant or employee.

16. It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice, unless specifically required or permitted by statute, for any person, agency, bureau, corporation or association, including the state and any political subdivision thereof, to make any inquiry about, whether in any form of application or otherwise, or to act upon adversely to the individual involved, any arrest or criminal accusation of such individual not then pending against that individual which was followed by a termination of that criminal action or proceeding in favor of such individual, as defined in subdivision two of section 160.50 of the criminal procedure law, or by a youthful offender adjudication, as defined in subdivision one of section 720. 35 of the criminal procedure law, or by a conviction for a violation sealed pursuant to section 160.55 of the criminal procedure law or by a conviction which is sealed pursuant to section 160.58 of the criminal procedure law, in connection with the licensing, employment or providing of credit or insurance to such individual; provided, further, that no person shall be required to divulge information pertaining to any arrest or criminal accusation of such individual not then pending against that individual which was followed by a termination of that criminal action or proceeding in favor of such individual, as defined in subdivision two of section 160.50 of the criminal procedure law, or by a youthful offender adjudication, as defined in subdivision one of section 720.35 of the criminal procedure law, or by a conviction for a violation sealed pursuant to section 160.55 of the criminal procedure law, or by a conviction which is sealed pursuant to section 160.58 of the criminal procedure law. The provisions of this subdivision shall not apply to the licensing activities of governmental bodies in relation to the regulation of guns, firearms and other deadly weapons or in relation to an application for employment as a police officer or peace officer as those terms are defined in subdivisions thirty-three and thirty-four of section 1.20 of the criminal procedure law; provided further that the provisions of this subdivision shall not apply to an application for employment or membership in any law enforcement agency with respect to any arrest or criminal accusation which was followed by a youthful offender adjudication, as defined in subdivision one of section 720.35 of the criminal procedure law, or by a conviction for a violation sealed pursuant to section 160.55 of the criminal procedure law, or by a conviction which is sealed pursuant to section 160.58 of the criminal procedure law.

17. Nothing in this section shall prohibit the offer and acceptance of a discount to a person sixty-five years of age or older for housing accommodations.

18. It shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice for the owner, lessee, sub-lessee, assignee, or managing agent of, or other person having the right of ownership of or possession of or the right to rent or lease housing accommodations:

(1) To refuse to permit, at the expense of a person with a disability, reasonable modifications of existing premises occupied or to be occupied by the said person, if the modifications may be necessary to afford the said person full enjoyment of the premises, in conformity with the provisions of the New York state uniform fire prevention and building code except that, in the case of a rental, the landlord may, where it is reasonable to do so, condition permission for a modification on the renter's agreeing to restore the interior of the premises to the condition that existed before the modification, reasonable wear and tear excepted.

(2) To refuse to make reasonable accommodations in rules, policies, practices, or services, when such accommodations may be necessary to afford said person with a disability equal opportunity to use and enjoy a dwelling, including reasonable modification to common use portions of the dwelling, or

(3) In connection with the design and construction of covered multi-family dwellings for first occupancy after March thirteenth, nineteen hundred ninety-one, a failure to design and construct dwellings in accordance with the accessibility requirements for multi-family dwellings found in the New York state uniform fire prevention and building code to provide that:

(i) The public use and common use portions of the dwellings are readily accessible to and usable by persons with disabilities;

(ii) All the doors are designed in accordance with the New York state uniform fire prevention and building code to allow passage into and within all premises and are sufficiently wide to allow passage by persons in wheelchairs; and

(iii) All premises within covered multi-family dwelling units contain an accessible route into and through the dwelling; light switches, electrical outlets, thermostats, and other environmental controls are in accessible locations; there are reinforcements in the bathroom walls to allow later installation of grab bars; and there are usable kitchens and bathrooms such that an individual in a wheelchair can maneuver about the space, in conformity with the New York state uniform fire prevention and building code.

19. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subdivision, it shall be an unlawful discriminatory practice of any employer, labor organization, employment agency, licensing agency, or its employees, agents, or members:

(1) to directly or indirectly solicit, require, or administer a genetic test to a person, or solicit or require information from which a predisposing genetic characteristic can be inferred as a condition of employment, preemployment application, labor organization membership, or licensure; or

(2) to buy or otherwise acquire the results or interpretation of an individual's genetic test results or information from which a predisposing genetic characteristic can be inferred or to make an agreement with an individual to take a genetic test or provide genetic test results or such information.

(b) An employer may require a specified genetic test as a condition of employment where such a test is shown to be directly related to the occupational environment, such that the employee or applicant with a particular genetic anomaly might be at an increased risk of disease as a result of working in said environment.

(c) Nothing in this section shall prohibit the genetic testing of an employee who requests a genetic test and who provides written and informed consent to taking a genetic test for any of the following purposes:

(1) pursuant to a workers' compensation claim;

(2) pursuant to civil litigation; or

(3) to determine the employee's susceptibility to potentially carcinogenic, toxic, or otherwise hazardous chemicals or substances found in the workplace environment only if the employer does not terminate the employee or take any other action that adversely affects any term, condition or privilege of employment pursuant to the genetic test results.

(d) If an employee consents to genetic testing for any of the aforementioned allowable reasons, he or she must be given and sign an authorization of consent form which explicitly states the specific purpose, uses and limitations of the genetic tests and the specific traits or characteristics to be tested.

20. Repealed by L.2010, c. 565, § 2, eff. Oct. 31, 2010.

21. Nothing in this section shall prohibit the offer and acceptance of a discount for housing accommodations to a person with a disability, as defined in subdivision twenty-one of section two hundred ninety-two of this article.

Credits
(L.1951, c. 800. Amended L.1952, c. 284, § 2; L.1952, c. 285, § 6; L.1955, c. 340, § 3; L.1958, c. 738, §§ 1, 2; L.1958, c. 960, § 23; L.1961, c. 414, § 4; L.1961, c. 609; L.1962, c. 164, § 1; L.1963, c. 480; L.1963, c. 481, § 2; L.1964, c. 948, § 1; L.1965, c. 506; L.1965, c. 516, §§ 1, 2; L.1965, c. 851, § 3; L.1967, cc. 202, 298; L.1967, c. 628, § 1; L.1967, c. 667, § 2; L.1968, c. 10, § 1; L.1968, c. 577; L.1969, c. 359, §§ 7, 8; L.1969, cc. 443, 458; L.1969, c. 1070, § 1; L.1970, c. 807; L.1971, cc. 299, 461, 674, 1194; L.1973, c. 656, § 1; L.1974, c. 27, § 1; L.1974, c. 173, § 5; L.1974, c. 550, § 1; L.1974, c. 988, §§ 2 to 7; L.1975, c. 662, § 1; L.1975, c. 803, §§ 3 to 10; L.1976, c. 177, § 1; L.1976, c. 632, § 2; L.1976, c. 877, § 4; L.1976, c. 931, § 6; L.1977, c. 730, §§ 1 to 3; L.1978, c. 204, §§ 1, 2; L.1978, c. 215, § 1; L.1980, c. 689, §§ 1, 2; L.1980, c. 830, § 1; L.1983, c. 657, § 1; L.1984, c. 98, § 2; L.1984, c. 296, §§ 1, 2; L.1984, c. 414, § 1; L.1985, c. 208, § 2; L.1985, c. 527, § 1; L.1986, c. 404, § 11; L.1989, c. 298, § 1; L.1990, c. 483, § 1; L.1991, c. 74, §§ 1, 2; L.1991, c. 368, §§ 3 to 5; L.1993, c. 478, § 1; L.1994, c. 593, §§ 1, 2; L.1996, c. 204, §§ 4, 5; L.1997, c. 269, §§ 3, 4, eff. Jan. 1, 1998; L.1999, c. 405, pt. D, §§ 2 to 8, eff. Aug. 6, 1999; L.2000, c. 166, §§ 12 to 26, eff. July 18, 2000; L.2002, c. 2, §§ 5 to 13, eff. Jan. 16, 2003; L.2002, c. 539, §§ 1, 2, eff. Nov. 16, 2002; L.2003, c. 106, §§ 13 to 19, eff. July 1, 2003; L.2005, c. 75, §§ 2, 3, eff. Aug. 29, 2005; L.2007, c. 133, § 2, eff. Oct. 1, 2007; L.2007, c. 394, § 1, eff. Jan. 1, 2008; L.2007, c. 639, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 2007; L.2008, c. 534, § 1, eff. Sept. 4, 2008; L.2009, c. 56, pt. N, § 3, eff. April 7, 2009, deemed eff. March 1, 2009; L.2009, c. 56, pt. AAA, § 14, eff. April 7, 2009; L.2009, c. 80, § 1, eff. July 7, 2009; L.2010, c. 196, §§ 2 to 4, eff. July 15, 2010; L.2010, c. 536, § 6, eff. Oct. 31, 2010; L.2010, c. 565, § 2, eff. Oct. 31, 2010; L.2014, c. 536, § 2, eff. Dec. 29, 2014; L.2015, c. 89, § 2, eff. Nov. 22, 2015; L.2015, c. 141, §§ 2, 3, eff. Aug. 13, 2015, deemed eff. Dec. 29, 2014.)

 

General Obligations Law. Chapter 24-A. Of the Consolidated Laws. Article 11. Obligations to Make Compensation or Restitution. Title 1. Compensation.

§ 11-107. Compensation for harm to a guide, hearing or service dog

In addition to any other right of action or recovery otherwise available under law, a disabled person whose guide, hearing or service dog is injured due to the negligence of the owner of another dog in handling that other dog may recover damages from the owner or custodian of the non-guide, hearing or service dog that causes injury to the guide, hearing or service dog. Such damages may include, but are not limited to veterinarian fees, the cost of retraining or replacing the guide, hearing or service dog, and lost wages or damages due to loss of mobility incurred while retraining or replacement is taking place.

CREDIT(S)

(Added L.2000, c. 263, § 4, eff. Nov. 1, 2000.)

 

Civil Rights Law. Chapter 6. Of the Consolidated Laws. Article 4-B. Rights of Persons with a Disability Accompanied by Guide Dogs, Hearing Dogs or Service Dogs.

§ 47. Use of public facilities by persons with a disability

1. No person shall be denied admittance to and/or the equal use of and enjoyment of any public facility solely because said person is a person with a disability and is accompanied by a guide dog, hearing dog or service dog.

2. For the purposes of this section the term “public facility” shall include, but shall not be limited to, all modes of public and private transportation, all forms of public and private housing accommodations whether permanent or temporary, buildings to which the public is invited or permitted, including those maintained by the state or by any political subdivision thereof, all educational facilities and institutions, including those maintained by the state or by any political subdivision thereof, all places where food is offered for sale, all theatres, including both live playhouses and motion picture establishments and all other places of public accommodations, convenience, resort, entertainment, or business to which the general public or any classification of persons therefrom is normally or customarily invited or permitted.

CREDIT(S)

(Added L.1976, c. 469, § 2; amended L.1979, c. 491, § 4; L.1986, c. 404, § 10.)

 

§ 47-a. Employment of persons with a disability

Unless it can be clearly shown that a person's disability would prevent such person from performing the particular job no person who is otherwise qualified shall be denied equal opportunities to obtain and/or maintain employment and/or to advance in position in his job solely because said person is a person with a disability and is accompanied by a guide dog, hearing dog or service dog regardless of whether the employer or prospective employer is the state or any political subdivision thereof or any other category of employer.

CREDIT(S)

(Added L.1976, c. 469, § 2; amended L.1979, c. 491, § 4; L.1986, c. 404, § 10.)

 

§ 47-b. Miscellaneous provisions

1. Persons with a disability accompanied by guide dogs, hearing dogs or service dogs shall be guaranteed the right to have such dogs in their immediate custody while exercising any of the rights and privileges set forth in this article, provided that in instances of employment pursuant to section forty-seven-a of this article, such dog has been trained by a qualified person. Blind persons shall, further, have the right to carry a cane in their immediate custody while exercising any of the rights and privileges set forth in this section.

2. No person or legal entity, public or private, shall attempt to impose or maintain any direct or indirect additional charge for the admittance of a guide dog, hearing dog or service dog accompanying a person with a disability, nor shall any conditions or restrictions not specifically set forth in this article be imposed on the person's rights as set forth herein.

3. A person engaged in training a dog to guide or otherwise aid persons with a disability, while engaged in such training activities, and a person with a disability for whom the dog is being trained, shall have the same rights and privileges set forth for persons with a disability in this article.

4. The term “guide dog”, or “hearing dog” shall mean a dog that is under the control, consistent with federal regulations implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act, Title III, at 28 CFR 36.302(c), of the person using or training it and has been or is being trained to guide or otherwise to aid a person with a disability.

5. For the purposes of this article the term “disability” shall have the same meaning as provided for in subdivision twenty-one of section two hundred ninety-two of the executive law.

6. Any law, rule, or regulation conflicting with any provision of this article is, to the extent of said conflict only, deemed to be superseded by the provisions of this article.

7. “Service dog” means any dog under the control, consistent with federal regulations implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act, Title III, at 28 CFR 36.302(c), of the person using or training it, and that has been or is being individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of a person with a disability.

Credits
(Added L.1976, c. 469, § 2. Amended L.1979, c. 358, § 1. Amended L.1979, c. 358, § 1; L.1979, c. 491, § 4; L.1986, c. 404, § 10; L.2014, c. 536, § 3, eff. Dec. 29, 2014; L.2015, c. 141, § 4, eff. Aug. 13, 2015, deemed eff. Dec. 29, 2014.)

 

§ 47-c. Penalties

1. Any person or legal entity, public or private, violating any provision of this article shall be guilty of a violation.

2. Any person or legal entity, public or private, violating section forty-seven and/or subdivision one or two of section forty-seven-b of this article two or more times within a two year period shall be guilty of a violation punishable by a fine of one thousand dollars.

CREDIT(S)

(Added L.1976, c. 469, § 2; amended L.1979, c. 491, § 4; L.1986, c. 404, § 10; L.2004, c. 295, § 1, eff. Jan. 1, 2005.)

 

Mckinney's Consolidated Laws of New York Annotated. Penal Law. Chapter 40. Of the Consolidated Laws. Part Three. Specific Offenses. Title L. Offenses Against Public Administration. Article 195. Official Misconduct and Obstruction of Public Servants Generally

§ 195.11 Harming an animal trained to aid a person with a disability in the second degree

A person is guilty of harming an animal trained to aid a person with a disability in the second degree when such person intentionally causes physical injury to such animal while it is in the performance of aiding a person with a disability, and thereby renders such animal incapable of providing such aid to such person, or to another person with a disability.

For purposes of this section and section 195.12 of this article, the term “disability” means “disability” as defined in subdivision twenty-one of section two hundred ninety-two of the executive law.

Harming an animal trained to aid a person with a disability in the second degree is a class B misdemeanor.

CREDIT(S)

(Added L.1989, c. 344, § 1.)

 

§ 195.12 Harming an animal trained to aid a person with a disability in the first degree

A person is guilty of harming an animal trained to aid a person with a disability in the first degree when such person:

1. intentionally causes physical injury to such animal while it is in the performance of aiding a person with a disability, and thereby renders such animal permanently incapable of providing such aid to such person, or to another person with a disability; or

2. intentionally kills such animal while it is in the performance of aiding a person with a disability.

Harming an animal trained to aid a person with a disability in the first degree is a class A misdemeanor.

CREDIT(S)

(Added L.1989, c. 344, § 1.)


Mckinney's Consolidated Laws of New York Annotated. Penal Law. Chapter 40. Of the Consolidated Laws. Part Three. Specific Offenses. Title N. Offenses Against Public Order, Public Sensibilities and the Right to Privacy. Article 242. Offenses Against Service Animals and Handlers

§ 242.00 Definitions

For purposes of this article:

1. “Service animal” shall mean any animal that has been partnered with a person who has a disability and has been trained or is being trained, by a qualified person, to aid or guide a person with a disability.

2. “Disability” shall have the same meaning as provided in section two hundred ninety-two of the executive law.

3. “Handler” shall mean a disabled person using a service animal.

4. “Formal training program” or “certified trainer” shall mean an institution, group or individual who has documentation and community recognition as a provider of service animals.

CREDIT(S)

(Added L.2007, c. 582, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 2007.)

 

§ 242.05 Interference, harassment or intimidation of a service animal

A person is guilty of interference, harassment or intimidation of a service animal when he or she commits an act with intent to and which does make it impractical, dangerous or impossible for a service animal to perform its assigned responsibilities of assisting a person with a disability.

Interference, harassment or intimidation of a service animal is a class B misdemeanor.

CREDIT(S)

(Added L.2007, c. 582, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 2007.)


§ 242.10 Harming a service animal in the second degree

A person is guilty of harming a service animal in the second degree when, with the intent to do so, he or she causes physical injury, or causes such injury that results in the death, of a service animal.

Harming a service animal in the second degree is a class A misdemeanor.

CREDIT(S)

(Added L.2007, c. 582, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 2007.)


§ 242.15 Harming a service animal in the first degree

A person is guilty of harming a service animal in the first degree when, he or she commits the crime of harming a service animal in the second degree, and has been convicted of harming a service animal in the first or second degree within the prior five years.

Harming a service animal in the first degree is a class E felony.

CREDIT(S)

(Added L.2007, c. 582, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 2007.)

 

Mckinney's Consolidated Laws of New York Annotated. Public Housing Law. Chapter 44-A. Of the Consolidated Laws. Article XI. Miscellaneous.

§ 223-b. Discrimination against hearing impaired persons who have hearing dogs

No person who has a hearing impairment shall be denied occupancy in a dwelling in any project or be subjected to eviction from any such dwelling on the sole ground that such person owns a hearing dog as defined in section forty-seven-b of the civil rights law, provided, however, that if after occupancy a health hazard results on account of such dog, the public health officer having jurisdiction may take such corrective measures as may be appropriate.

Credits
(Added L.1980, c. 689, § 3. Amended L.2014, c. 536, § 6, eff. Dec. 29, 2014.)


Mckinney's Consolidated Laws of New York Annotated. Social Services Law. Chapter 55. Of the Consolidated Laws. Article 5. Assistance and Care. Title 8. Emergency Assistance for Aged, Blind and Disabled Persons.

§ 303-a. Grants of assistance for guide dogs, hearing dogs and service dogs; certain cases

1. It shall be the duty of the social services official to provide assistance, in accordance with regulations of the department, to a person with a disability using a guide dog, hearing dog or service dog who has been determined to be eligible for or is receiving federal supplemental security income benefits and/or additional state payments, for the purchase of food for such dog.

2. Such regulations of the department shall fix an amount of not less than thirty-five dollars a month, and the method and frequency of distribution and procedures for the determination and periodical redetermination of eligibility for such assistance.

3. Such assistance shall not be granted to any person for whom earned income has been exempted for such purpose pursuant to federal law or regulation.

4. The full amount properly expended by social services districts under this section, including costs of administration, shall be reimbursed by the state, notwithstanding any inconsistent provision of section three hundred one of this chapter.

CREDIT(S)

(Added L.1978, c. 732, § 1. Amended L.1983, c. 493, § 1; L.1986, c. 404, §§ 13, 14; L.1986, c. 562, §1.)

 

Mckinney's Consolidated Laws of New York Annotated. Transportation Law. Chapter 61A. Of the Consolidated Laws. Article 6. Matters Relating to All Motor Carriers.

§ 147. Dogs accompanying persons with a disability

Subject to such rules and regulations as the commissioner may prescribe, all common and contract carriers of passengers by motor vehicle shall permit a guide dog, hearing dog or service dog as defined in section forty-seven-b of the civil rights law accompanying a person with a disability, as defined in subdivision twenty-one of section two hundred ninety-two of the executive law, to accompany, to guide, or otherwise to aid such person, to ride on all vehicles operated for transportation and no charge shall be made for the transportation of such dog.

Credits

(Added L.1983, c. 635, § 4. Amended L.1986, c. 404, § 15; L.2014, c. 536, § 5, eff. Dec. 29, 2014.)


Mckinney's Consolidated Laws of New York Annotated. Vehicle and Traffic Law. Chapter Seventy-One. Of the Consolidated Laws. Title VII. Rules of the Road. Article 27. Pedestrians' Rights and Duties

§ 1153. Provisions relating to blind or visually impaired persons

(a) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this article every driver of a vehicle approaching an intersection or crosswalk shall yield the right of way to a pedestrian crossing or attempting to cross the roadway when such pedestrian is accompanied by a guide dog or using a cane which is metallic or white in color or white with a red tip.

(b) No person, unless blind or visually impaired, shall use on any street or highway a cane which is metallic or white in color or white with a red tip.

(c) This section shall not be construed as making obligatory the employment of the use of a guide dog or of a cane or walking stick of any kind by a person blind or visually impaired.

CREDIT(S)

(L.1959, c. 775. Amended L.1973, c. 494, § 1; L.1986, c. 302, § 1.)

 

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