Full Statute Name:  West's Annotated Code of Maryland. Family Law. Title 4. Spouses. Subtitle 5. Domestic Violence. Part I. Definitions; General Provisions.

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Primary Citation:  MD FAMILY § 4-501, 504.1 Country of Origin:  United States Last Checked:  January, 2015 Alternate Citation:  MD Code, Family Law, § 4-501, 504.1 Date Adopted:  2002
Summary:

This Maryland law amended in 2011 allows an interim protective order to award temporary possession of any pet (defined in § 4-501 as a domesticated animal except livestock) to the person eligible for relief or the respondent. This law also allows the court to issue temporary or final protective ordersawarding temporary possession of any pet of the person eligible for relief or the respondent.

Statute Text: 

§ 4-501. Definitions

In general

(a) In this subtitle the following words have the meanings indicated.

Abuse

(b)(1) “Abuse” means any of the following acts:

(i) an act that causes serious bodily harm;

(ii) an act that places a person eligible for relief in fear of imminent serious bodily harm;

(iii) assault in any degree;

(iv) rape or sexual offense under §§ 3-303 through 3-308 of the Criminal Law Article or attempted rape or sexual offense in any degree;

(v) false imprisonment; or

(vi) stalking under § 3-802 of the Criminal Law Article.

(2) If the person for whom relief is sought is a child, “abuse” may also include abuse of a child, as defined in Title 5, Subtitle 7 of this article. Nothing in this subtitle shall be construed to prohibit reasonable punishment, including reasonable corporal punishment, in light of the age and condition of the child, from being performed by a parent or stepparent of the child.

(3) If the person for whom relief is sought is a vulnerable adult, “abuse” may also include abuse of a vulnerable adult, as defined in Title 14, Subtitle 1 of this article.

Child care provider

(c) “Child care provider” means a person that provides supervision and care for a minor child.

Cohabitant

(d) “Cohabitant” means a person who has had a sexual relationship with the respondent and resided with the respondent in the home for a period of at least 90 days within 1 year before the filing of the petition.

Commissioner

(e) “Commissioner” means a District Court Commissioner appointed in accordance with Article IV, § 41G of the Maryland Constitution.

Court

(f) “Court” means the District Court or a circuit court in this State.

Emergency family maintenance

(g) “Emergency family maintenance” means a monetary award given to or for a person eligible for relief to whom the respondent has a duty of support under this article based on:

(1) the financial needs of the person eligible for relief; and

(2) the resources available to the person eligible for relief and the respondent.

Executive Director

(h) “Executive Director” means the Executive Director of the Governor's Office of Crime Control and Prevention.
Final protective order

(i) “Final protective order” means a protective order issued under § 4-506 of this subtitle.

Home

(j) “Home” means the property in this State that:

(1) is the principal residence of a person eligible for relief; and

(2) is owned, rented, or leased by the person eligible for relief or respondent or, in a petition alleging child abuse or abuse of a vulnerable adult, an adult living in the home at the time of a proceeding under this subtitle.

Interim protective order

(k) “Interim protective order” means an order that a Commissioner issues under this subtitle pending a hearing by a judge on a petition.

Local department

(l) “Local department” means the local department that has jurisdiction in the county:

(1) where the home is located; or

(2) if different, where the abuse is alleged to have taken place.

Person eligible for relief

(m) “Person eligible for relief” includes:

(1) the current or former spouse of the respondent;

(2) a cohabitant of the respondent;

(3) a person related to the respondent by blood, marriage, or adoption;

(4) a parent, stepparent, child, or stepchild of the respondent or the person eligible for relief who resides or resided with the respondent or person eligible for relief for at least 90 days within 1 year before the filing of the petition;

(5) a vulnerable adult; or

(6) an individual who has a child in common with the respondent.

Pet

(n)(1) “Pet” means a domesticated animal.

(2) “Pet” does not include livestock.

Petitioner

(o)(1) “Petitioner” means an individual who files a petition.

(2) “Petitioner” includes:

(i) a person eligible for relief; or

(ii) the following persons who may seek relief from abuse on behalf of a minor or vulnerable adult:

1. the State's Attorney for the county where the child or vulnerable adult lives, or, if different, where the abuse is alleged to have taken place;

2. the department of social services that has jurisdiction in the county where the child or vulnerable adult lives, or, if different, where the abuse is alleged to have taken place;

3. a person related to the child or vulnerable adult by blood, marriage, or adoption; or

4. an adult who resides in the home.

Residence

(p) “Residence” includes the yard, grounds, outbuildings, and common areas surrounding the residence.

Respondent

(q) “Respondent” means the person alleged in the petition to have committed the abuse.

Temporary protective order

(r) “Temporary protective order” means a protective order issued under § 4-505 of this subtitle.

Victim

(s) “Victim” includes a person eligible for relief.

Vulnerable adult

(t) “Vulnerable adult” has the meaning provided in § 14-101(q) of this article.

Credits
Added by Acts 2001, c. 10, § 3, eff. Oct. 1, 2001. Amended by Acts 2002, c. 213, § 6, eff. Oct. 1, 2002; Acts 2002, c. 235, §§ 2, 3, eff. Dec. 18, 2002; Acts 2003, c. 21, § 1, eff. April 8, 2003; Acts 2005, c. 233, § 1, eff. July 1, 2005; Acts 2005, c. 367, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2005; Acts 2005, c. 464, § 3, eff. Jan. 1, 2006; Acts 2011, c. 283, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2011; Acts 2011, c. 284, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2011; Acts 2011, c. 356, § 1, eff. July 1, 2011; Acts 2012, c. 554, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2012; Acts 2012, c. 555, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2012.

 
 

§ 4-504.1. Interim protective orders

<Section effective through December 31, 2016. See, also, section effective January 1, 2017.>

When petition filed with commissioner

(a) A petition under this subtitle may be filed with a commissioner when neither the office of the clerk of the circuit court nor the Office of the District Court Clerk is open for business.

Issuance of interim protective order

(b) If a petition is filed with a commissioner and the commissioner finds that there are reasonable grounds to believe that the respondent has abused a person eligible for relief, the commissioner may issue an interim protective order to protect a person eligible for relief.

Scope of interim protective order

(c) An interim protective order may:

(1) order the respondent to refrain from further abuse or threats of abuse of a person eligible for relief;

(2) order the respondent to refrain from contacting, attempting to contact, or harassing a person eligible for relief;

(3) order the respondent to refrain from entering the residence of a person eligible for relief;

(4) if a person eligible for relief and the respondent are residing together at the time of the alleged abuse:

(i) order the respondent to vacate the home immediately;

(ii) award to a person eligible for relief custody of any child of the person eligible for relief and respondent then residing in the home; and

(iii) subject to the limits as to a nonspouse specified in § 4-505(a)(2)(iv) of this subtitle, award temporary use and possession of the home to the person eligible for relief;

(5) in a case alleging abuse of a child, award temporary custody of a minor child of the respondent and a person eligible for relief;

(6) in a case alleging abuse of a vulnerable adult, subject to the limits as to a nonspouse specified in § 4-505(a)(2)(iv) of this subtitle, award temporary use and possession of the home to an adult living in the home;

(7) order the respondent to remain away from the place of employment, school, or temporary residence of a person eligible for relief;

(8) order the respondent to remain away from the residence of any family member of a person eligible for relief; or

(9) award temporary possession of any pet of the person eligible for relief or the respondent.

Temporary custody awards

(d) If the commissioner awards temporary custody of a minor child under subsection (c)(4)(ii) or (5) of this section, the commissioner may order a law enforcement officer to use all reasonable and necessary force to return the minor child to the custodial parent after service of the interim protective order.

Contents of interim protective order

(e)(1)(i) An interim protective order shall state the date, time, and location for the temporary protective order hearing and a tentative date, time, and location for a final protective order hearing.

(ii) Except as provided in subsection (h) of this section, or unless the judge continues the hearing for good cause, a temporary protective order hearing shall be held on the first or second day on which a District Court judge is sitting after issuance of the interim protective order.

(2) An interim protective order shall include in at least 10-point bold type:

(i) notice to the respondent that:

1. the respondent must give the court written notice of each change of address;

2. if the respondent fails to appear at the temporary protective order hearing or any later hearing, the respondent may be served with any orders or notices in the case by first-class mail at the respondent's last known address;

3. the date, time, and location of the final protective order hearing is tentative only, and subject to change; and

4. if the respondent does not attend the temporary protective order hearing, the respondent may call the Office of the Clerk of the District Court at the number provided in the order to find out the actual date, time, and location of any final protective order hearing;

(ii) a statement of all possible forms and duration of relief that a temporary protective order or final protective order may contain;

(iii) notice to the petitioner and respondent that, at the hearing, a judge may issue a temporary protective order that grants any or all of the relief requested in the petition or may deny the petition, whether or not the respondent is in court;

(iv) a warning to the respondent that violation of an interim protective order is a crime and that a law enforcement officer shall arrest the respondent, with or without a warrant, and take the respondent into custody if the officer has probable cause to believe that the respondent has violated any provision of the interim protective order; and

(v) the phone number of the Office of the District Court Clerk.

Duties of commissioner

(f) Whenever a commissioner issues an interim protective order, the commissioner shall:

(1) immediately forward a copy of the petition and interim protective order to the appropriate law enforcement agency for service on the respondent; and

(2) before the hearing scheduled in the interim protective order, transfer the case file and the return of service, if any, to the Office of the District Court Clerk.

Duties of law enforcement officer

(g) A law enforcement officer shall:

(1) immediately on receipt of a petition and interim protective order, serve them on the respondent named in the order;

(2) immediately after service, make a return of service to the commissioner's office or, if the Office of the District Court Clerk is open for business, to the Clerk; and

(3) within two hours after service of the order on the respondent, electronically notify the Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services of the service.

How long interim protective order effective

(h)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, an interim protective order shall be effective until the earlier of:

(i) the temporary protective order hearing under § 4-505 of this subtitle; or

(ii) the end of the second business day the Office of the Clerk of the District Court is open following the issuance of an interim protective order.

(2) If the court is closed on the day on which the interim protective order is due to expire, the interim protective order shall be effective until the next day on which the court is open, at which time the court shall hold a temporary protective order hearing.

Decision of commissioner not binding on judge

(i) A decision of a commissioner to grant or deny relief under this section is not binding on, and does not affect any power granted to or duty imposed on, a judge of a circuit court or the District Court under any law, including any power to grant or deny a petition for a temporary protective order or final protective order.

Credits
Added by Acts 2002, c. 235, § 3, eff. Dec. 18, 2002. Amended by Acts 2009, c. 595, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2009; Acts 2009, c. 596, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2009; Acts 2009, c. 711, § 1, eff. Jan. 1, 2010; Acts 2011, c. 283, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2011; Acts 2011, c. 284, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2011; Acts 2012, c. 142, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2012.

 

§ 4-505. Temporary protective orders

<Section effective through December 31, 2016. See, also, section effective January 1, 2017.>

In general

(a)(1) If, after a hearing on a petition, whether ex parte or otherwise, a judge finds that there are reasonable grounds to believe that a person eligible for relief has been abused, the judge may enter a temporary protective order to protect any person eligible for relief from abuse.

(2) The temporary protective order may order any or all of the following relief:

(i) order the respondent to refrain from further abuse or threats of abuse of a person eligible for relief;

(ii) order the respondent to refrain from contacting, attempting to contact, or harassing any person eligible for relief;

(iii) order the respondent to refrain from entering the residence of a person eligible for relief;

(iv) where the person eligible for relief and the respondent are residing together at the time of the alleged abuse, order the respondent to vacate the home immediately and award temporary use and possession of the home to the person eligible for relief or in the case of alleged abuse of a child or alleged abuse of a vulnerable adult, award temporary use and possession of the home to an adult living in the home, provided that the court may not grant an order to vacate and award temporary use and possession of the home to a nonspouse person eligible for relief unless the name of the person eligible for relief appears on the lease or deed to the home or the person eligible for relief has resided in the home with the respondent for a period of at least 90 days within 1 year before the filing of the petition;

(v) order the respondent to remain away from the place of employment, school, or temporary residence of a person eligible for relief or home of other family members;

(vi) order the respondent to remain away from a child care provider of a person eligible for relief while a child of the person is in the care of the child care provider;

(vii) award temporary custody of a minor child of the person eligible for relief and the respondent;

(viii) order the respondent to surrender to law enforcement authorities any firearm in the respondent's possession, and to refrain from possession of any firearm, for the duration of the temporary protective order if the abuse consisted of:

1. the use of a firearm by the respondent against a person eligible for relief;

2. a threat by the respondent to use a firearm against a person eligible for relief;

3. serious bodily harm to a person eligible for relief caused by the respondent; or

4. a threat by the respondent to cause serious bodily harm to a person eligible for relief; and
(ix) award temporary possession of any pet of the person eligible for relief or the respondent.

(3) If the judge awards temporary custody of a minor child under paragraph (2)(vii) of this subsection, the judge may order a law enforcement officer to use all reasonable and necessary force to return the minor child to the custodial parent after service of the temporary protective order.
Service

(b)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, a law enforcement officer shall:

(i) immediately serve the temporary protective order on the alleged abuser under this section; and

(ii) within two hours after service of the order on the respondent, electronically notify the Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services of the service using an electronic system approved and provided by the Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services.

(2) A respondent who has been served with an interim protective order under § 4-504.1 of this subtitle shall be served with the temporary protective order in open court or, if the respondent is not present at the temporary protective order hearing, by first-class mail at the respondent's last known address.

(3) There shall be no cost to the petitioner for service of the temporary protective order.
Duration of temporary protective order

(c)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the temporary protective order shall be effective for not more than 7 days after service of the order.

(2) The judge may extend the temporary protective order as needed, but not to exceed 6 months, to effectuate service of the order where necessary to provide protection or for other good cause.

(3) If the court is closed on the day on which the temporary protective order is due to expire, the temporary protective order shall be effective until the second day on which the court is open, by which time the court shall hold a final protective order hearing.
Issuance of final protective order

(d) The judge may proceed with a final protective order hearing instead of a temporary protective order hearing, if:

(1)(i) the respondent appears at the hearing;

(ii) the respondent has been served with an interim protective order; or

(iii) the court otherwise has personal jurisdiction over the respondent; and

(2) the petitioner and the respondent expressly consent to waive the temporary protective order hearing.

Investigation of abuse of a child or vulnerable adult

(e)(1) Whenever a judge finds reasonable grounds to believe that abuse of a child, as defined in Title 5, Subtitle 7 of this article, or abuse of a vulnerable adult, as defined in Title 14, Subtitle 1 of this article, has occurred, the court shall forward to the local department a copy of the petition and temporary protective order.

(2) Whenever a local department receives a petition and temporary protective order from a court, the local department shall:

(i) investigate the alleged abuse as provided in:

1. Title 5, Subtitle 7 of this article; or

2. Title 14, Subtitle 3 of this article; and

(ii) by the date of the final protective order hearing, send to the court a copy of the report of the investigation.

Credits
Added by Acts 1984, c. 296, § 2, eff. Oct. 1, 1984. Amended by Acts 1985, c. 493, § 1, eff. June 1, 1985; Acts 1991, c. 390, § 1, eff. July 1, 1991; Acts 1992, c. 65, § 2, eff. Oct. 1, 1992; Acts 1994, c. 469, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 1994; Acts 1999, c. 449, § 2, eff. Oct. 1, 1999; Acts 1999, c. 403, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 1999; Acts 2002, c. 235, § 3, eff. Dec. 18, 2002; Acts 2009, c. 490, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2009; Acts 2009, c. 491, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2009; Acts 2009, c. 563, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2009; Acts 2009, c. 564, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2009; Acts 2009, c. 595, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2009; Acts 2009, c. 596, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2009; Acts 2009, c. 711, § 1, eff. Jan. 1, 2010; Acts 2011, c. 103, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2011; Acts 2011, c. 283, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2011; Acts 2011, c. 284, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2011; Acts 2012, c. 142, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2012.

§ 4-506. Final protective orders

Hearing

(a) A respondent under § 4-505 of this subtitle shall have an opportunity to be heard on the question of whether the judge should issue a final protective order.

Contents of temporary protective order
(b)(1)(i) The temporary protective order shall state the date and time of the final protective order hearing.

(ii) Except as provided in § 4-505(c) of this subtitle, or unless continued for good cause, the final protective order hearing shall be held no later than 7 days after the temporary protective order is served on the respondent.

(2) The temporary protective order shall include notice to the respondent:

(i) in at least 10-point bold type, that if the respondent fails to appear at the final protective order hearing, the respondent may be served by first-class mail at the respondent's last known address with the final protective order and all other notices concerning the final protective order;

(ii) specifying all the possible forms of relief under subsection (d) of this section that the final protective order may contain;

(iii) that the final protective order shall be effective for the period stated in the order, not to exceed 1 year or, under the circumstances described in subsection (j)(2) of this section, 2 years, unless the judge extends the term of the order under § 4-507(a)(2) of this subtitle or the court issues a permanent order under subsection (k) of this section; and

(iv) in at least 10-point bold type, that the respondent must notify the court in writing of any change of address.

Issuance of final protective order
(c)(1) If the respondent appears before the court at a protective order hearing or has been served with an interim or temporary protective order, or the court otherwise has personal jurisdiction over the respondent, the judge:

(i) may proceed with the final protective order hearing; and

(ii) if the judge finds by a preponderannce of the evidence that the alleged abuse has occurred, or if the respondent consents to the entry of a protective order, the judge may grant a final protective order to protect any person eligible for relief from abuse.

(2) A final protective order may be issued only to a person who has filed a petition under § 4-504 of this subtitle.

(3)(i) Subject to the provisions of subparagraph (ii) of this paragraph, in cases where both parties file a petition under § 4-504 of this subtitle, the judge may issue mutual protective orders if the judge finds by a preponderance of the evidence that mutual abuse has occurred.

(ii) The judge may issue mutual final protective orders only if the judge makes a detailed finding of fact that:

1. both parties acted primarily as aggressors; and

2. neither party acted primarily in self-defense.

Scope of final protective order
(d) The final protective order may include any or all of the following relief:

(1) order the respondent to refrain from abusing or threatening to abuse any person eligible for relief;

(2) order the respondent to refrain from contacting, attempting to contact, or harassing any person eligible for relief;

(3) order the respondent to refrain from entering the residence of any person eligible for relief;

(4) where the person eligible for relief and the respondent are residing together at the time of the abuse, order the respondent to vacate the home immediately and award temporary use and possession of the home to the person eligible for relief or, in the case of alleged abuse of a child or alleged abuse of a vulnerable adult, award temporary use and possession of the home to an adult living in the home, provided that the court may not grant an order to vacate and award temporary use and possession of the home to a nonspouse person eligible for relief unless the name of the person eligible for relief appears on the lease or deed to the home or the person eligible for relief has shared the home with the respondent for a period of at least 90 days within 1 year before the filing of the petition;

(5) order the respondent to remain away from the place of employment, school, or temporary residence of a person eligible for relief or home of other family members;

(6) order the respondent to remain away from a child care provider of a person eligible for relief while a child of the person is in the care of the child care provider;

(7) award temporary custody of a minor child of the respondent and a person eligible for relief;

(8) establish temporary visitation with a minor child of the respondent and a person eligible for relief on a basis which gives primary consideration to the welfare of the minor child and the safety of any other person eligible for relief. If the court finds that the safety of a person eligible for relief will be jeopardized by unsupervised or unrestricted visitation, the court shall condition or restrict visitation as to time, place, duration, or supervision, or deny visitation entirely, as needed to guard the safety of any person eligible for relief;

(9) award emergency family maintenance as necessary to support any person eligible for relief to whom the respondent has a duty of support under this article, including an immediate and continuing withholding order on all earnings of the respondent in the amount of the ordered emergency family maintenance in accordance with the procedures specified in Title 10, Subtitle 1, Part III of this article;

(10) award temporary use and possession of a vehicle jointly owned by the respondent and a person eligible for relief to the person eligible for relief if necessary for the employment of the person eligible for relief or for the care of a minor child of the respondent or a person eligible for relief;

(11) direct the respondent or any or all of the persons eligible for relief to participate in professionally supervised counseling or a domestic violence program;

(12) order the respondent to pay filing fees and costs of a proceeding under this subtitle; or

(13) award temporary possession of any pet of the person eligible for relief or the respondent.

Review of open and shielded records
(e)(1) Before granting, denying, or modifying a final protective order under this section, the court shall review all open and shielded court records involving the person eligible for relief and the respondent, including records of proceedings under:

(i) the Criminal Law Article;

(ii) Title 3, Subtitle 15 of the Courts Article; and

(iii) this article.

(2) The court's failure to review records under this subsection does not affect the validity of an order issued under this section.

Surrender of firearms by respondent
(f) The final protective order shall order the respondent to surrender to law enforcement authorities any firearm in the respondent's possession, and to refrain from possession of any firearm, for the duration of the protective order.

Return of minor child to custodial parent
(g) If the judge awards temporary custody of a minor child under subsection (d)(7) of this section, the judge may order a law enforcement officer to use all reasonable and necessary force to return the minor child to the custodial parent after service of the final protective order.

Vacation of home by respondent
(h) In determining whether to order the respondent to vacate the home under § 4-505(a)(2)(iv) of this subtitle or subsection (d)(4) of this section, the judge shall consider the following factors:

(1) the housing needs of any minor child living in the home;

(2) the duration of the relationship between the respondent and any person eligible for relief;

(3) title to the home;

(4) pendency and type of criminal charges against the respondent;

(5) the history and severity of abuse in the relationship between the respondent and any person eligible for relief;

(6) the existence of alternative housing for the respondent and any person eligible for relief; and

(7) the financial resources of the respondent and the person eligible for relief.

Service
(i)(1) A copy of the final protective order shall be served on the petitioner, the respondent, any affected person eligible for relief, the appropriate law enforcement agency, and any other person the judge determines is appropriate, in open court or, if the person is not present at the final protective order hearing, by first-class mail to the person's last known address.

(2) A copy of the final protective order served on the respondent in accordance with paragraph (1) of this subsection constitutes actual notice to the respondent of the contents of the final protective order. Service is complete upon mailing.

Duration of relief granted
(j)(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection, all relief granted in a final protective order shall be effective for the period stated in the order, not to exceed 1 year.

(2) All relief granted in a final protective order shall be effective for the period stated in the order, not to exceed 2 years if:

(i) the court issues a final protective order under this section against a respondent on behalf of a person eligible for relief for an act of abuse committed within 1 year after the date that a prior final protective order issued against the same respondent on behalf of the same person eligible for relief expires; and

(ii) the prior final protective order was issued for a period of at least 6 months.

(3) A subsequent circuit court order pertaining to any of the provisions included in the final protective order shall supersede those provisions in the final protective order.

Final protective orders
(k)(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the court shall issue a new final protective order against an individual if:

(i) the individual was previously a respondent under this subtitle against whom a final protective order was issued;

(ii) the individual was convicted and served a term of imprisonment of at least 5 years under § 2-205, § 2-206, § 3-202, § 3-303, § 3-304, § 3-305, § 3-306, § 3-309, § 3-310, § 3-311, or § 3-312 of the Criminal Law Article for the act of abuse that led to the issuance of the final protective order; and

(iii) the victim of the abuse who was the person eligible for relief in the original final protective order requests the issuance of a new final protective order.

(2) In a final protective order issued under this subsection, the court may grant only the relief that was granted in the original protective order under subsection (d)(1) or (2) of this section.

(3) Unless terminated at the request of the victim, a final protective order issued under this subsection shall be permanent.

Credits
Added by Acts 1984, c. 296, § 2, eff. Oct. 1, 1984. Amended by Acts 1985, c. 187, § 1, eff. July 1, 1985; Acts 1985, c. 493, § 1, eff. June 1, 1985; Acts 1987, c. 247, § 1, eff. July 1, 1987; Acts 1991, c. 390, § 1, eff. July 1, 1991; Acts 1992, c. 65, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 1992; Acts 1994, c. 469, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 1994; Acts 1995, c. 9, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 1995; Acts 1995, c. 10, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 1995; Acts 1995, c. 480, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 1995; Acts 1996, c. 561, § 2, eff. Oct. 1, 1996; Acts 1996, c. 562, § 2, eff. Oct. 1, 1996; Acts 1997, c. 307, § 2, eff. Oct. 1, 1997; Acts 1999, c. 449, § 2, eff. Oct. 1, 1999; Acts 1999, c. 403, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 1999; Acts 2002, c. 235, § 3, eff. Dec. 18, 2002; Acts 2004, c. 537, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2004; Acts 2006, c. 44, § 6, eff. April 8, 2006; Acts 2008, c. 36, § 6, eff. April 8, 2008; Acts 2008, c. 395, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2008; Acts 2008, c. 396, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2008; Acts 2008, c. 397, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2008; Acts 2008, c. 398, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2008; Acts 2009, c. 60, § 5, eff. April 14, 2009; Acts 2009, c. 488, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2009; Acts 2009, c. 489, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2009; Acts 2009, c. 595, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2009; Acts 2009, c. 596, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2009; Acts 2009, c. 611, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2009; Acts 2009, c. 612, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2009; Acts 2009, c. 711, § 1, eff. Jan. 1, 2010; Acts 2010, c. 361, §§ 1, 2, eff. Oct. 1, 2010; Acts 2010, c. 362, §§ 1, 2, eff. Oct. 1, 2010; Acts 2010, c. 620, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2010; Acts 2010, c. 621, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2010; Acts 2011, c. 283, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2011; Acts 2011, c. 284, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2011; Acts 2012, c. 142, § 1, eff. Oct. 1, 2012; Acts 2014, c. 45, § 1, eff. April 8, 2014.eff. October 1, 2014

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