European Union

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Detailed Discussion of European Animal Welfare Laws 2003 to Present: Explaining the Downturn


After a flurry of legislative activity in the 1990s, EU animal welfare initiatives have stagnated of late. This article seeks to explain why, by pointing to factors such as changing EU membership, implementation costs, and fallout from extremist attacks. After providing an overview of recent animal welfare legislation, the paper discusses the slowdown and its causes, and then ventures some educated guesses about what can be expected on the European animal welfare front in coming years.

Detailed Discussion of International Comparative Animal Cruelty Laws


A detailed analysis of the differences and similarities between US, European Union, Swiss, Norwegian and German animal cruelty laws. The theories behind these differences are explored. Finally, possible and definite future reforms shed light on upcoming animal cruelty law.

EU - Egg Labeling - Egg Labeling Directive Number 1028 - Council Regulation (EC) No 1028/2006


In June of 2006, the Commission passed a broad regulation on egg labeling—Number 1028—that served mainly to set out labeling requirements distinguishing between Class A eggs (eggs for direct human consumption) and Class B eggs (other eggs). It paved the way for more detailed egg labeling legislation, such as Regulation 557 of 2007, that had a more direct impact on hen welfare.

EU - Farming - 78/923/EEC: Council Decision of 19 June 1978 concerning the conclusion of the European Convention for the protect


This EU council decision approves the European Convention for the protection of animals kept for farming purposes on behalf of the European Economic Community. It has the aim of protecting animals kept for farming purposes, particularly in modem intensive production systems.

EU - Farming - Commission Directive 2002/4/EC on the registration of establishments keeping laying hens


This EU commission directive concerns Council Directive 1999/74/EC on the registration of establishments keeping laying hens. It mandates that Member States establish a registration system for egg producers covered by Directive 199/74/EC.

EU - Farming - Council Directive 1999/74/EC laying down minimum standards for the protection of laying hens


The Directive lays down minimum standards for the protection of laying hens. It does not apply to establishments with fewer than 350 laying hens or establishments rearing breeding laying hens. Such establishments are, however, subject to the requirements of Directive 98/58/EC.

EU - Farming - Council Directive 1999/74/EC of 19 July 1999 laying down minimum standards for the protection of laying hens


This EU council directive lays down minimum standards for the protection of laying hens. In particular, it eliminates battery cages in the EU by 2012 for operations that meet the criteria (establishments with more than 350 laying hens) and creates a registration and reporting system for egg producers.

EU - Farming - Council Directive 2007/43/EC laying down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production


Community measures regulate the management of holdings that rear chickens for meat production in order to improve animal welfare, particularly for chickens kept on intensive farms.

EU - Farming - Council Directive 2008/119/EC (Calves)


Even before passage of this important new directive setting down minimum standards for the protection of calves, the use of veal crates for rearing calves had already been illegal in the EU (since 2006). The new directive, however, passed on December 18, 2008, fleshed out older one, establishing new welfare minimums under which veal could be raised. According to the new directive, veal calves may, when very young, be kept in individual pens, but must be able to turn around and to see and touch other calves through perforated walls. Once they are more than eight weeks old, veal calves must be reared in groups. To guard against the nutrient-deficient diet veal calves have long been fed on factory farms—and continue to be fed on farms in the United States—European calves must, at least twice a day, be fed a diet that meets basic health requirements to ensure their bodies develop normally.

EU - Farming - COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 93/119/EC on the protection of animals at the


This directive reflects the EU's concern for a need to establish common minimum standards for the protection of animals at the time of slaughter or killing in order to ensure rational development of production and to facilitate the completion of the internal market in animals and animal products. The directive also states that at the time of slaughter or killing animals should be spared any avoidable pain or suffering.

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