These Vermont regulations provide animal welfare standards for all licensees, including recordkeeping requirements, holding periods, and inspection provisions. Subpart D then outlines the specifications for the humane handling, care, treatment, and transportation of nonhuman primates. Facility requirements, feeding, watering, veterinary care, and transportation requirements are described, among other things.
RULE 300. ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS
PART 1. DEFINITION OF TERMS
2-4-300:1.1 . DEFINITIONS
PART 2. REGULATIONS
2-4-300:2.1 . LICENSING AND REGISTRATION.
2-4-300:2.2 . RECORD KEEPING.
2-4-300:2.3 . COMPLIANCE WITH STANDARDS.
2-4-300:2.4 . HOLDING PERIOD.
2-4-300:2.5 . INSPECTION OF RECORDS.
2-4-300:2.6 . INSPECTION FOR MISSING ANIMALS.
PART 3. STANDARDS
SUBPART D. SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE HUMANE HANDLING CARE, TREATMENT, AND TRANSPORTATION NONHUMAN PRIMATES 5.
FACILITIES AND OPERATING STANDARDS
2-4-300:3.75 . FACILITIES, GENERAL
2-4-300:3.76 . FACILITIES, INDOOR.
2-4-300:3.77 . FACILITIES, OUTDOOR.
2-4-300:3.78 . PRIMARY ENCLOSURES.
2-4-300:3.79 . FEEDING
2-4-300:3.80 . WATERING
2-4-300:3.81 . SANITATION
2-4-300:3.82 . EMPLOYEES
2-4-300:3.83 . CLASSIFICATION AND SEPARATION
2-4-300:3.84 . VETERINARY CARE
2-4-300:3.85 . VEHICLES
2-4-300:3.86 . PRIMARY ENCLOSURES USED TO TRANSPORT NONHUMAN PRIMATES
2-4-300:3.87 . FOOD AND WATER REQUIREMENTS
2-4-300:3.88 . CARE IN TRANSIT
Part 1. Definition of Terms
(a) Act. Refers to the provisions of T20 Chapter 197 “Welfare of Animals and T20 Sections 3681, 3682 and 3683 as relating to provisions for the inspection of kennel premises.
(b) Division. Means the Livestock Division of the Department of Agriculture.
(c) Division representative. Means any inspector or other person employed by the Division who is responsible for the performance of the functions involved.
(d) Non-human primate. Means any non-human member of the highest order of mammals including prosimians, monkeys and apes.
(e) Standards. Means the requirement with respect to the humane handling, care, treatment, and transportation of animals.
(f) Non-conditioned. Means animals which have not been subjected to special care and treatment for sufficient time to stabilize and, where necessary to improve their health to make them suitable for sale.
Licensing period shall be from April 1 to March 31 or part thereof.
Registration period shall be from January 1 to December 31 or part thereof.
In connection with each dog and cat purchased or otherwise acquired, held, transported, or sold, or otherwise disposed of, a licensee shall keep and maintain the following information in the manner prescribed by the Division.
(1) The name and address of the person form whom acquired, and the person to whom sold or otherwise disposed of.
(2) The dates of acquisition and disposition.
(3) The description and identification of the animals.
Each licensee shall comply in all respects with the standards set forth for the humane handling, care, treatment and transportation of animals.
All dogs and cats acquired by a licensee shall be held by him, under his supervision and control, for a period of five business days after the acquisition of such animals provided, however, that dogs or cats suffering from disease, emaciation of injury may be destroyed by euthanasia prior to the expiration of the five day holding period only if such euthanasia is carried out under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian.
Each licensee upon request shall permit Division representatives to examine records required to be kept by the Act or regulations, and to make copies of such records, and to inspect such property and animals as such representative considers necessary to enforce the provisions of the Act, regulations or standards. The use of a room, or other facilities necessary for the proper examination of such records shall be extended to such authorized representative.
Each licensee upon request shall permit Division representatives; police or law officers of legally constituted law enforcement agencies with general law enforcement authority, to enter his premises to inspect animals and records for the purpose of seeking animals that are missing.
Subpart D. Specifications for the Humane Handling Care, Treatment, and Transportation Nonhuman Primates 5. Facilities and Operating Standards
(a) Structural strength. The housing facilities for nonhuman primates shall be structurally sound and shall be maintained in good repair, to protect the animals from injury, to contain the animals, and to restrict the entrance of other animals.
(b) Water and electric power. Reliable and adequate electric power, if required to comply with other provisions of this subpart, and adequate potable water shall be available.
(c) Storage. Supplies of food and bedding shall be stored in facilities which adequately protect such supplies against infestation or contamination by vermin. Refrigeration shall be provided for supplies or perishable food.
(d) Waste disposal. Provision shall be made for the removal and disposal of animal and food wastes, bedding, dead animals, and debris. Disposal facilities shall be so provided and operated as to minimize vermin infestation, odors, and disease hazards.
(e) Washrooms and sinks. Facilities, such as washrooms, basins, or sinks, shall be provided to maintain cleanliness among animal caretakers.
(a) Heating. Indoor housing facilities for nonhuman primates shall be sufficiently heated when necessary to protect the animals from the cold, and to provide for their health and comfort. The ambient temperature shall not be allowed to fall below 50°F.
(b) Ventilation. Indoor housing facilities for nonhuman primates shall be adequately ventilated to provide for the health and comfort of the animals at all times. Such facilities shall be provided with fresh air either by means of windows, doors, vents, or air conditioning and shall be ventilated so as to minimize drafts, odors, and moisture condensation. Auxiliary ventilation, such as exhaust fans and vents or air conditioning, shall be provided when the ambient temperature is 85°F or higher.
(c) Lighting. Indoor housing facilities for nonhuman primates shall have ample light, by natural or artificial means, or both, of good quality and well distributed. Such lighting shall provide uniformly distributed illumination of sufficient light intensity to permit routine inspection and cleaning during the entire working period. Primary enclosures shall be so placed as to protect the nonhuman primates from excessive illumination.
(d) Interior surfaces. The interior building surfaces of indoor housing facilities shall be constructed and maintained so that they are substantially impervious to moisture and may be readily sanitized.
(e) Drainage. A suitable method shall be provided to rapidly eliminate excess water from indoor housing facilities. If drains are used, they shall be properly constructed and kept in good repair to avoid foul odors therefrom. If closed drainage systems are used, they shall be equipped with traps and so installed as to prevent any backup of sewage onto the floor of the room.
(a) Shelter from sunlight. When sunlight is likely to cause overheating or discomfort, sufficient shade shall be provided to allow all nonhuman primates kept outdoors to protect themselves from the direct rays of the sun.
(b) Shelter from rain or snow. Nonhuman primates kept outdoors shall be provided with access to shelter to allow them to remain dry during rain or snow.
(c) Shelter from cold weather. Shelter shall be provided for all nonhuman primates kept outdoors to afford comfort and protection to such animals appropriate for the local climatic conditions and nonhuman primate species concerned.
(d) Drainage. A suitable method shall be provided to rapidly eliminate excess water.
All primary enclosures for nonhuman primates shall conform to the following requirements.
(1) Primary enclosures shall be structurally sound and maintained in good repair to protect the nonhuman primates from injury, to contain them, and to keep predators out.
(2) Primary enclosures shall be constructed and maintained so as to enable the nonhumane primates to remain dry and clean.
(3) Primary enclosures shall be constructed and maintained so that the nonhuman primates contained therein have convenient access to clean food and water as required in this subject.
(4) The floors of the primary enclosures shall be constructed so as to protect the nonhuman primates from injury.
(b) Space requirements.
(1) Primary enclosures shall be constructed and maintained so as to provide sufficient space to allow each nonhuman primate to make normal postural adjustments with adequate freedom of movements.
(2) Each nonhuman primate housed in a primary enclosure shall be provided with a minimum floor space equal to an area of at least three times the area occupied by such primate when standing on four feet.
(a) Nonhuman primates shall be fed at least once a day except as otherwise might be required to provide adequate veterinary care. The food shall be free from contamination, wholesome, palatable, and of sufficient quantity and nutritive value to meet the normal daily requirements for the condition and size of the nonhuman primate.
(b) Food, and food receptacles if used, shall be accessible to all non-human primates and shall be places so as to minimize contamination by excreta. Food receptacles shall be kept clean. If self-feeders are used, measures shall be taken to prevent molding, deterioration or caking of food.
If potable water is not accessible to the nonhuman primates at all times, such water shall be offered to them at least twice daily except as might otherwise be required to provide adequate veterinary care. All watering receptacles shall be kept clean.
(a) Cleaning of primary enclosures. Excreta shall be removed from primary enclosures as often as necessary to prevent contamination of the nonhuman primates contained therein and to reduce disease hazards and odors. When hosing or flushing methods are used for this purpose, measures shall be taken to prevent animals confined in such enclosures from being wetted involuntarily.
(b) Sanitization of enclosures.
(1) Prior to the introduction of non-human primates into primary enclosures previously occupied by other nonhuman primates, such enclosures shall be sanitized in the manner provided in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph.
(2) Primary enclosures for nonhuman primates shall be sanitized often enough to prevent and accumulation of debris or excreta, or a disease hazard: Provided, however, That such enclosures shall be sanitized at least once every 2 weeks in the manner provided in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph.
(3) Cages, rooms and hard surfaced pens or runs shall be sanitized either by washing them with hot water (180°F) and soap or detergent, as in a mechanical cage washer, or by washing all soiled surfaces with a detergent solution followed by a safe and effective disinfectant, or by cleaning all soiled surfaces with live steam. Runs, if provided, shall be paved.
(c) Housekeeping. Premises (buildings and grounds) shall be kept clean and in good repair in oder to protect the animals from injury and to facilitate the prescribed husbandry practices set forth in this subpart. Premises shall remain free of accumulations of trash.
(c) Pest control. An effective program for the control of insects, ectoparasites, and avian and mammalian pests shall be established and maintained.
A sufficient number of employees shall be utilized to maintain the prescribed level of husbandry practices set forth in this subpart. Such practices shall be under the supervision of animal caretaker who has a background in animal husbandry or care.
Nonhuman primates housed in the same primary enclosure shall be maintained in compatible groups and shall not be housed in the same primary enclosure with animal species other than nonhuman primates.
Each nonhuman primate shall be observed daily by the animal caretaker in charge or by someone working under his direct supervision. Sick or diseased, injured, lame or blind nonhuman primates shall be provided with veterinary care or humanely disposed of.
(a) Vehicles used in transporting nonhuman primates shall be mechanically sound and equipped to provide fresh air to all animals being transported, without injurious drafts.
(b) The animal cargo space shall be so constructed and maintained as to prevent the ingress of exhaust from the vehicle's engine.
(c) The interior of the animal cargo space shall be kept clean.
(a) Primary enclosures such as compartment, transport cages or crates, used to transport nonhuman primates shall be well-constructed, well-ventilated, and designed to protect the health and insure the safety of the animals. Such enclosures shall be constructed or positioned in the vehicle in such a manner that (1) each animal in the vehicle has access to sufficient air for normal breathing, (2) the openings of such enclosures are easily accessible at all times for emergency removal of the animals and (3) the animals are afforded adequate protection from the elements. The temperature within such enclosures shall not be allowed to exceed the atmospheric temperature. Moreover the ambient temperature shall not be allowed to exceed 85°F for more than 4 hours continuously nor allowed to fall below 45°F.
(b) Nonhuman primates transported in the same primary enclosure shall be in compatible groups and shall not be transported in the same primary enclosures with other species of animals.
(c) Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates shall be large enough to insure that each nonhuman primate contained therein has sufficient space to turn about freely and to make normal postural adjustments. Not more than 10 nonhuman primates shall be transported in the same primary enclosures.
(d) Nonhuman primates shall not be placed in primary enclosures over other animals in transit unless each enclosure is fitted with a floor of a material with prevents animal excreta from entering lower enclosures.
(e) Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates shall be cleaned and sanitized between shipments. All litter in the vehicle shall be clean at the beginning of each trip.
If nonhuman primates are transported for a period of more than 12 hours:
(a) Potable water shall be provided to each nonhuman primate at least once in each 12-hour period.
(b) Each nonhuman primate shall be fed at least once in each 24-hour period.
(c) Nonhuman primates include a great diversity of forms, ranging from the marmoset weighing only a few ounces, to the adult gorilla weighing hundreds of pounds. They come from Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and they live in different habitats. Their nutritional and activity requirements differ as do their social and environmental requirements. As a result, the conditions appropriate for one species do not necessarily apply to another; therefore, discretion must be used in interpreting these standards.
Facilities and Operating Standards
It shall be the responsibility of the attendant or driver to provide or obtain adequate care for the animals in case of an emergency.