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Farming/Food Production: Related Statutes

Statute Name Citation Summary
AL - Horsemeat - 2-17-15. Sale, offer for sale, transportation, etc., of carcasses, etc., of horses, mules, etc., not marked, labeled, etc.   Ala.Code 1975 § 2-17-15   This Alabama statute states that no person, firm or corporation shall sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation or receive for transportation in intrastate commerce any carcasses of horses, mules or other equines or parts of any such carcasses or the meat or meat food products thereof unless they are plainly and conspicuously marked or labeled or otherwise identified as required by regulations.  
AL - Stock Laws - Article 2. Taking Up and Disposition of Animals Running at Large on State and Federal Aid Highways.   AL ST § 3-2-1 to 6; AL ST § 3-2-20 to 23; AL ST § 3-3-1 to 3; AL ST § 3-4-1 to 7; AL ST § 3-5-1 to 14   This set of Alabama laws concerns estrays (livestock running at large), the taking up of animals running on the highway, fencing requirements, and stock laws.  
AZ - Horse slaughter - Article 4. Horsemeat.   A.R.S. § 3-2121 - 2132   This Arizona article deals with horsemeat. A license shall be obtained from the division before slaughtering a horse for human consumption. There shall be an antemortem and a postmortem inspection of each horse slaughtered. All horsemeat food products shall be conspicuously branded, marked, tagged or labeled, “horsemeat” or “horsemeat product.” It is unlawful to offer horsemeat for sale for human consumption unless there is prominently displayed in conjunction therewith a sign bearing the words, in letters not less than eight inches in height and three inches in width, “horsemeat for human consumption.”  
AZ - Humane Slaughter - Slaughter of Animals   AZ ST § 3-2001 - 2017   This Arizona statutory section covers the slaughter of animals.  Among its provisions include license requirements for the slaughter meat, recordkeeping requirements, and a section relating to humane slaughter.  The humane slaughter law requires that a livestock animal is rendered insensible to pain prior to being hoisted or shackled; however, none of the provisions apply to one who slaughters an animal for his or her own uses.  Interestingly, while the other provisions relating to adulterated meat and licensing requirements describe the penalty for violation, no penalty is listed under the humane slaughter statute.  
CA - Farm Animal Cruelty - Chapter 13.8. Farm Animal Cruelty. § 25991. Definitions.   CA HLTH & S § 25991 - 25994   This section provides the definitions, exception,s and enforcement provisions for the Chapter 13.8, Farm Animal Cruelty. The section was added after voters approved Initiative Measure (Prop. 2) in 2008. Any person who violates any of the provisions of this chapter is guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine not to exceed one thousand dollars ($1,000) or by imprisonment in the county jail for a period not to exceed 180 days or by both such fine and imprisonment.  
CA - Food Production - Chapter 13.4. Force Fed Birds   CA HLTH & S § 25980 - 25984.1   This chapter concerns force fed birds (usually ducks or geese), employed in the process of making foie gras. Beginning July 1, 2012, California outlaws the sale of any product in the state that is the result of force feeding a bird for the purpose of enlarging the bird's liver beyond normal size. A peace or humane society officer may issue a citation for a civil penalty up to $1,000 for each violation, and up to $1,000 for each day the violation continues.  
CA - Horse - § 21759. Caution in passing animals   CA VEHICLE § 21759   This California law provides that the driver of any vehicle that approaches a horse drawn vehicle, any ridden animal, or livestock must exercise proper control of his vehicle and shall reduce speed or stop as may appear necessary to avoid frightening the animal and to insure safety of the person in charge of the animal.  
CA - Horse slaughter - § 597o. Humane transportation of equine to slaughter; vehicle requirements; segregation of animals; violations   CA PENAL § 597o   This statute outlines the requirements for transporting equine to slaughter, including, but limited to, proper ventilation, sufficient space for equine to stand, and the use of ramps and floors with nonskid surfaces.  
CA - Horse slaughter - § 598c. Horse slaughter for human consumption   CA PENAL § 598c   This statute makes it unlawful to possess, to import into or export from the state, or to sell, buy, give away, hold, or accept any equine with the intent of killing it for the purpose of human consumption. Violations could result in a felony conviction with a prison sentence of up to three years.
 
CA - Horse slaughter - § 598d. Sale of horsemeat for human consumption   CA PENAL § 598d   This statute prohibits the sale of horsemeat for human consumption. No  restaurant, cafe, or other public eating place may offer horsemeat for sale for human consumption. A first time violation is a misdemeanor.
 
CA - Humane Slaughter - Chapter 6. Slaughter   CA FOOD & AG § 19501 - 19503   This California section constitutes the humane slaughter provisions for cattle, calves, horses, mules, sheep, swine, goats, fallow deer, and poultry.  The law provides that the animal shall be rendered insensible to pain by a captive bolt, gunshot, electrical or chemical means, or any other means that is rapid and effective before being cut, shackled, hoisted, thrown, or cast, with the exception of poultry which may be shackled.  Note that despite the section covering poultry, it does not apply to the slaughter of spent hens and small game birds, as defined by the department by regulation.   
CA - Slaughter - Part 3. Slaughtered Animals. Chapter 6. Slaughter   CA FOOD & AG § 19501 - 19503   These sections enumerate the prescribed methods for slaughtering cattle, calves, horses, mules, sheep, swine, goats, fallow deer, and poultry.  The regulations adopted under this chapter are required to conform as far as possible to the regulations of the United States Department of Agriculture governing methods of slaughtering.  
CA - Slaughter - § 597.3. Live animal markets   CA PENAL § 597.3   This California statute regulates live animal markets. Operators must ensure that no animal (frogs, turtles, and birds, but not poultry) sold for the purpose of human consumption) is cut, dismembered, butchered, or de-feathered while still alive. Operators must also provide that no animals are confined in such a way that could case injury, starvation, dehydration, or suffocation. Violation may result in a warning for the first offense and an infraction for a second offense.  
CA - Slaughter - § 598b. Animals commonly kept as pets or companions; use as food; violation; exceptions   CA PENAL § 598b   This statute makes it a misdemeanor to possess, import into, or export from, California, sell, buy, give away, or accept any carcass of any animal commonly kept as a pet with the intent of using any part of that carcass for food.  It is also a misdemeanor to possess, import, export, buy, sell, give away or accept a common pet animal with the intent of killing it for food.
 
CA - Slaughter - § 599f. Nonambulatory animals; slaughter houses, stockyards, auctions, market agencies, or dealers; transactions; processing; euthanasia; movement; violations   CA PENAL § 599f    As used in this section, "nonambulatory" means unable to stand and walk without assistance.  This statute prohibits a slaughterhouse that is not inspected by the United States Department of Agriculture, stockyard, or auction shall buy, sell, or receive a nonambulatory animal.  Effective July 2008, the law also states that no slaughterhouse shall sell meat from non-ambulatory animals for human consumption. The penalty was also increased from an unspecified misdemeanor to a penalty of up to one year in jail or a fine of up to $20,000 or both.  
CO - Farming - Article 50.5. Confinement of Calves Raised for Veal and Pregnant Sows   CO ST § 35-50.5-101 to 103   This 2008 Colorado statute applies to the confinement of calves raised for veal and pigs during pregnancy. This statute provides that calves raised for veal and sows during pregnancy must be able to lie down, stand up, and turn around without touching the sides of their enclosure.  
CO - Humane Slaughter - Article 33. Custom Processing of Meat Animals.   CO ST § 35-33-101 to 407   This Colorado section includes both the meat processing laws and the humane slaughter provisions.  It covers livestock, which are defined as cattle, calves, sheep, swine, horses, mules, goats, and any other animal which may be used in and for the preparation of meat or meat products.  No processor shall shackle, hoist, or otherwise bring livestock into position for slaughter or shall slaughter livestock except by humane methods as defined by regulation; the use of a manually operated hammer, sledge, or poleax is not permitted.  Additionally, poultry shall be slaughtered in accordance with "good commercial practices" and in a manner that will result in thorough bleeding.  Any person who violates any provision is subject to a civil penalty of not more than $750 per violation for each day of violation and commits a class 2 misdemeanor.  
CT - Horse Meat - § 21a-22. Sale of equine meat in public eating places   C. G. S. A. § 21a-22   This Connecticut law states that a public eating place shall not sell or offer equine meat without without indicating such contents of each item in print. Any person, or the responsible agent of any firm or corporation, who violates any provision of this section shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than 1 year or both.  
FL - Agriculture & Consumer Services - Department Duties and Enforcement   FL ST § 585.001 - 585.007   This set of laws explains the powers and duties of the Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services in enforcing the Animal Industry laws (Chapter 585). Any person or officer that is charged with a duty under the Animal Industry laws may be compelled to perform the same by mandamus, injunction, or other court-ordered remedy. Department employees are authorized to enter any premises in the state for the purposes of carrying out their duties under the Animal Industry laws and it is illegal for any person to interfere with the discharge of those duties.  
FL - Cruel Confinement - § 21. Limiting Cruel and Inhumane Confinement of Pigs During Pregnancy   FL CONST Art. 10 § 21  

This ballot proposal, adopted in 2002 and effective in 2008, addresses the inhumane treatment of animals, specifically, pregnant pigs. The law provides that to prevent cruelty to animals and as recommended by The Humane Society of the United States, no person shall confine a pig during pregnancy in a cage, crate or other enclosure, or tether a pregnant pig, on a farm so that the pig is prevented from turning around freely, except for veterinary purposes and during the prebirthing period; provides definitions, penalties, and an effective date. This measure passed in the November 2002 election with 54% of the vote.

 
FL - Cruelty, Humane Slaughter - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes/Humane Slaughter Laws   FL ST 828.01 - 828.43   This section comprises the Florida anti-cruelty laws.  Under this section, the word "animal" includes every living dumb creature.  The misdemeanor violation of animal cruelty (section 828.12) occurs when a person unnecessarily overloads, overdrives, torments, deprives of necessary sustenance or shelter, or unnecessarily mutilates, or kills any animal, or carries in or upon any vehicle, any animal in a cruel or inhumane manner.  A person who intentionally commits an act to any animal, or a person who owns or has the custody or control of any animal and fails to act, which results in the cruel death, or excessive or repeated infliction of unnecessary pain or suffering is guilty of a felony of the third degree.  Psychiatric or psychological counseling are also mandatory for convicted offenders.  The section also criminalizes animal abandonment and neglect as well as animal fighting.  
FL - Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services - Animal Disease Control   FL ST § 585.01 - 585.69   This set of laws addresses the role of the Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services, Division of Animal Industry in the prevention, control, or eradication of any contagious, infectious, or communicable disease among domestic or wild animals. The Department is authorized to regulate the importation, transportation, transfer of ownership, and maintenance of animals; establish quarantine areas; and inspect, test, treat, condemn, and destroy animals and animal housing facilities as necessary for the eradication of communicable diseases or the detection of harmful biological and chemical residues in food animals. The laws also direct the Department to develop a list of dangerous transmissible diseases. All veterinarians and animal owners are required to report suspected and confirmed cases of dangerous transmissible diseases to the State Veterinarian; failure to do so is a felony of the second degree.  
FL - Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services - Enforcement   FL ST § 570.073, 570.15, 570.16   This set of laws authorizes the establishment of the Office of Agricultural Law Enforcement within the Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services for the enforcement of laws relating to wild or domesticated animals or animal products. Law enforcement officers employed by the Department have statewide jurisdiction and have full law enforcement powers granted to other peace officers of the state, including the authority to make arrests, carry firearms, serve court process, and seize contraband and the proceeds of illegal activities. It is a misdemeanor of the second degree to threaten, interfere with, or impersonate an enforcement officer or other employee of the Department.  
FL - Horse Slaughter - 500.451. Horse meat; offenses   West's F. S. A. § 500.451   This Florida makes it unlawful for any person to sell in the markets of this state horse meat for human consumption unless the horse meat is clearly stamped, marked, and described as horse meat for human consumption or to knowingly transport, distribute, sell, purchase, or possess horse meat for human consumption that is not clearly stamped, marked, and described as horse meat for human consumption or horse meat that is not acquired from a licensed slaughterhouse.  
GA - Horse Meat - Article 4. Advertisement and Sale of Meat Generally.   Ga. Code Ann., § 26-2-150 - 161   As stated in the legislative intent, the General Assembly declares that purchasers and consumers have a right to expect and demand honesty and fair practices in the sale of meat for human consumption. It is the purpose of this Code to ensure that honest, fair, and ethical practices are followed in the advertising and sale of meat for human consumption. With regard to horsemeat, the Code prohibits the slaughter a horse in this state for the purpose of selling or offering for sale for human consumption or for other than human consumption the horse meat derived from such slaughtered animal unless certain conditions are met. Further, no horse meat shall be sold or offered for sale in this state for human consumption unless at the place of sale there shall be posted in a conspicuous location a sign bearing the words “HORSE MEAT FOR SALE.”  
IA - Cruelty - Chapter 717. Injury to Livestock   IA ST § 717.1 - 717.7  

Livestock were excluded from the definition of animal in Iowa's animal cruelty laws in 1994.  These sections deal exclusively with livestock and exempt practices consistent with customary farming practices.

 
IA - Humane Slaughter - Meat and Poultry Inspection Act   IA ST § 189A.1 - 22   This Iowa section, known as the Meat and Poultry Inspection Act, also contains the state's humane slaughter laws.  For purposes of this section an approved humane slaughtering method shall include and be limited to slaughter by shooting, electrical shock, captive bolt, or use of carbon dioxide gas prior to the animal being shackle hoisted, thrown, cast or cut (except for the ritual requirements proscribed by the Jewish or any other religious faith).  Any person who violates any provisions of this chapter for which no other criminal penalty is provided shall be guilty of a simple misdemeanor, which appears to include the humane slaughter provision.  
ID - Livestock - Chapter 19. Miscellaneous Offenses Relating to Livestock   ID ST § 25-1905 - 1910   This Idaho chapter concerns miscellaneous offenses relating to livestock. One law provides that  any person other than the owner, his servant or agent who skins or removes from the carcass, the skin, hide, or pelt of any neat cattle or sheep found dead or perished, is guilty of a misdemeanor. Other topics include the slaughter of unbranded livestock, removal of hides from carcasses, altering brands and marks, and stealing the "services" of a bull.  
ID - Misc. Animal Crimes - Chapter 58. Public Health and Safety   ID ST § 18-5803, § 18-5804, § 18-5807, § 18-5808   These Idaho statutes make certain activities involved with animal slaughter criminal. For example, it is a misdemeanor punishable by a fine to put the carcass of any dead animal into any river, creek, pond or street. It is a misdemeanor to slaughter or sell any animal that has been confined for 20 hours without water or 48 hours without food. The statutes also make it a felony if a mischievous animal is allowed to run at large and the animal kills a person.  
IL - Domesticated Wild Animals Act - Chapter 510. Animals.   510 I.L.C.S. 60/0.01,   All birds and wild animals in domestication, or kept in enclosures and reduced to possession, are declared to be objects of ownership and absolute title. When fur bearing animals are raised in captivity for breeding, such animals are considered domestic animals. The animals and the products made from them are agricultural products.  
IL - Horse Meat Act - Chapter 225. Professions and Occupations.   225 ILCS 635/1 - 1.5   This Act prohibits the slaughter of horses for human consumption as well as importing, exporting, selling, giving, or even possessing horse meat if a person knows or should know that it will be used for human consumption.  Violation of this section of the Act is a Class C misdemeanor.  The Act does contain several exceptions. Notably, it does not apply to any commonly accepted noncommercial, recreational, or sporting activities.  
IL - Humane Slaughter - Humane Slaughter of Livestock Act   IL ST CH 510 § 75/0.01 - 8   This Illinois section comprises the state's humane slaughter laws.  It begins with a statement of policy that calls for the humane slaughter of commercial animals.  Animals must be slaughtered in a manner that renders them insensible to pain prior to hoisting or shackling.  As a result, the use of a manually operated hammer, sledge or pole-ax or shackling as well as the hoisting or hanging any animal while such animal is conscious are prohibited.  Any violation of this Act or of the rules and regulations promulgated by the Director is a petty offense.  
IN - Humane Slaughter - Chapter 5. Meat and Poultry Inspection; Humane Slaughter Act   IN ST 15-17-5-1 to 31  

This Indiana statutory section comprises both the state's meat processing laws and humane slaughter provisions.   The state board responsible for carrying out this Act are empowered to adopt rules governing humane methods to make livestock or poultry insensible to pain before incision of an instrument for severance of the carotid arteries. The rules must conform as far as applicable to the regulations promulgated under the Federal Humane Slaughter Act.  Most of the laws in this section pertain to inspection of commercial livestock facilities and the labeling of postmortem and antemortem animals.  However, violation of the humane slaughter provisions appear to result in a Class B misdemeanor where there has been a "reckless violation."

 
KS - Humane Slaughter - CHAPTER 47.LIVESTOCK AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS.   KS ST § 47-1401 - 1405   This Kansas section comprises the state's humane slaughter act.  The act first begins with a statement of policy requiring the humane slaughter of all livestock.  A humane method is defined as a method whereby the animal is rendered insensible to pain by mechanical, electrical, chemical, or other means that is rapid and effective, before being shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast, or cut.  The law also allows slaughter by a method in accordance with ritual requirements of the Jewish faith or any other religious faith whereby the animal suffers loss of consciousness by anemia of the brain.  Any person who violates any provision of this act is guilty of a misdemeanor.  
KY - Reptiles in Religious Services - Chapter 437. Offenses Against Public Peace   KY ST § 437.060   This law states that any person who displays, handles or uses any kind of reptile in connection with any religious service or gathering shall be fined not less than fifty dollars ($50) nor more than one hundred dollars ($100).  
MD - Humane Slaughter - Maryland Wholesome Meat Act   MD Code, Agriculture, § 4-101 - 131   This section comprises Maryland's "Wholesome Meat Act."  Included are laws related to licensing of slaughtering establishments, labeling of meat, and the state's humane slaughter provisions.  The humane slaughter provisions state that it is the policy of the State to prevent inhumane methods of livestock slaughter at an official establishment.  Humane methods include those by which livestock are rendered insensible to pain, by a single blow or gunshot, or by an electrical, chemical, or other rapid and effective means, before being shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast, or cut.  Ritual slaughter defined by statute is also considered humane if done in compliance with the act.  Use of a manually operated hammer, sledge, or poleax during a slaughtering operation is considered inhumane.  Note that "livestock" here explicitly excludes poultry or other fowl.  A person who violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction is subject to a fine not exceeding $100 for each violation.  
ME - Farming - An Act To Prohibit Cruel Confinement of Calves Raised for Veal and Sows during Gestation   LD 1021 (2009)  

This bill prohibits the cruel confinement of calves raised for veal and sows during gestation. It specifically prohibits a person from confining an animal covered under the law (a sow during gestation or calf raised for veal) the majority of a day in a manner that prevents the animal from lying down, standing up and fully extending the animal’s limbs, and turning around freely. It becomes effective January 1, 2011.

 
ME - Horsemeat - § 2163. Sale of horsemeat   22 M.R.S.A. § 2163   This Maine statute provides that no person shall transport, receive for transportation, sell or offer for sale or distribution any equine meat or food products thereof unless said equine meat is plainly and conspicuously labeled, marked, branded and tagged “horsemeat” or “horsemeat products” unless such equine meat is conspicuously branded and labeled and a notice containing the words “horsemeat and horsemeat products sold here” is conspicuously displayed in said place of business. Any person, firm or corporation who shall violate any of the provisions of this section shall be punished by a fine of not more than $100 for the first offense and by a fine of not more than $200 for each subsequent offense, and the District and Superior Courts shall have concurrent jurisdiction of the offense.  
ME - Humane Slaughter - Subchapter IV. Slaughter.   ME ST T. 22 § 2521 - 2521C  

The Maine humane slaughter provisions begin with a statement of policy that a method of slaughtering or handling in connection with slaughtering does not comply with the public policy of the State unless it is humane.  A humane method is defined as one which renders animals insensible to pain by a single blow or gunshot or an electrical, chemical or other means that is rapid and effective before they are shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast or cut.  Additionally, slaughtering and handling in accordance with the ritual requirements of a religious faith that prescribes a method of slaughter whereby the animal suffers loss of consciousness by anemia of the brain is allowed.  The section applies only to "livestock" and does not list a penalty for noncompliance (although the associated regulations may define both).

 
MI - Humane Slaughter - Chapter 287. Animal Industry. Humane Slaughter of Livestock.   M.C.L.A. 287.551 - 556   A typical state law that imposes the requirements of humane slaughter upon the commercial operations of the state.  The law describes humane methods of slaughter, which include ritual slaughter methods.  It also makes the statement that no slaughterer, packer or stockyard operator shall shackle, hoist or otherwise bring livestock into position for slaughter by any method which shall cause injury or pain.  However, the director, by administrative order, may exempt from compliance with this act, for a period not to exceed 1 year after the effective date of this act, any slaughterer, packer or stockyard operator if he finds that an earlier compliance would cause such person an undue hardship.  Any person who violates any provision of this act shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.  
MI - Livestock - Chapter 287. Animal Industry. Animal Industry Act   MI ST 287.701 - 747   This Michigan act is known as the “animal industry act." The act is intended to protect the health, safety, and welfare of humans and animals, by requiring disease testing of imported animals, certification, and reporting of infected animals. A newly amended section (287.746) also concerns the tethering or confinement of animals such as pregnant sows and veal calves in manners that restrict lying, standing, fully extending limbs, or turning freely.  
MN - Humane Slaughter - Chapter 31. Food. Slaughter of Livestock   MN ST § 31.59 - 31.592   This section comprises Minnesota's humane slaughter laws.  The law requires humane slaughter of livestock, defined as any method of slaughtering livestock which normally causes animals to be rendered insensible to pain by a single blow of a mechanical instrument or shot of a firearm or by chemical, or other means that are rapid and effective; or by methods of preparation necessary to Halal ritual slaughter, Jewish ritual slaughter and of slaughtering required by the ritual of the Islamic or Jewish faith.  "Livestock" under this act is limited to cattle, horses, swine, sheep and goats.   
MN - Meat - Chapter 31. Food. Meats, Generally   M. S. A. § 31.60 -   This Minnesota chapter deals with sale and processing of meat in the state. Among the provisions include a prohibition on the sale of veal when calves are killed when less than four weeks old; the sale of horse meat for human consumption unless conspicuous notices are provided; and the sale of unwholesome game or poultry. The chapter also creates a Meat Industry Division in the Department of Agriculture who enforces and administers these laws.  
MS - Horses - Slaughter (Chapter 33. Meat, Meat-Food and Poultry Regulation and Inspection. Article 1. Meat, Meat-Food and Poultry Regulation and Inspection Law of 1960)   Miss. Code Ann. § 75-33-3   Construes the phrase "unfit for human consumption" in the very broad Mississippi Meat Inspection Act of 1960 to apply to horse meat and meat-food products.     
MS - Slaughter - Chapter 35. Meat Inspection   MS ST § 75-35-1 to 75-35-327   These Mississippi statutes regulate meat products, animal slaughter, inspection and branding. Animals to be slaughtered must examined and slaughtered humanely, which means being “rendered insensible to pain... before being shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast or cut.” Meat and meat products must be labeled “Mississippi inspected and passed.” Any violation of the provisions may result in imprisonment and/or a fine.  
MS - Slaughter - Chapter 35. Meat Inspection.   MS ST § 75-35-7   This Mississippi statute, last amended in 2006, concerns the slaughter of livestock, such as cattle, pigs, and horses. The statute gives the Commissioner of Agriculture and Commerce in Mississippi the authority to: 1) inspect animals before slaughter to determine if any are diseased and should be slaughtered separately, and 2) inspect slaughter establishments for humane methods of slaughter.  
MS - Slaughter - Chapter 35. Meat Inspection.   Miss. Code Ann. § 75-35-21   This Mississippi statute, last amended in 2006, concerns prohibited acts in the sale, transportation, and slaughter of livestock, such as cattle, pigs, and horses. This statute prohibits the sale or transportation of any animal that is adulterated or misbranded, as well as any act that causes adulteration or misbranding of any animal. This statute also prohibits any slaughter that is not considered humane.  
NE - Cruelty - Article 9. Livestock Animal Welfare Act   NE ST § 54-901 to 54-912   In 2010, Nebraska enacted the Livestock Animal Welfare Act. The act makes the intentional abandonment, neglect, or cruel mistreatment of livestock (bovine, equine, swine, sheep, goats, domesticated cervine animals, ratite birds, or poultry) a Class I misdemeanor (Class IV felony for subsequent offenses). Further, the act criminalizes "indecency with a livestock animal," which is a Class III misdemeanor. A person who is convicted of a Class IV felony under 54-903 (the abandonment/cruel neglect or mistreatment provision) shall also be ordered by the sentencing court not to possess a livestock animal for at least 5 years after the date of conviction.  
NE - Horse Slaughter - Article 19. Meat and Poultry Inspection. (a) Nebraska Meat and Poultry Inspection Law   Neb. Rev. St. § 54-1901   The Nebraska Meat and Poultry Inspection Law assures that only wholesome meat and poultry products enter regular commercial channels of commerce and to provide that same are identified and truthfully labeled. It is unlawful under the act for any person to operate or maintain any establishment unless first licensed by the department. With regard to horses, it is unlawful for any person to sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or receive for transportation, in intrastate commerce any carcasses of horses, mules, or other equines or parts of such carcasses, or the meat or meat food products thereof, unless they are plainly and conspicuously marked or labeled or otherwise identified as required by regulations prescribed by the director to show the kinds of animals from which they were derived.  
NE - Livestock - Article 23. Domesticated Cervine Animal Act   NE ST § 54-2301 to 54- 2324   This set of laws comprises Nebraska's Domesticated Cervine Animal Act. Under the act, it is unlawful for any person to own, possess, buy, sell, or barter any domesticated cervine animal in this state unless such animal is individually identified and kept at a premises for which a domesticated cervine animal facility permit has been issued by the department. A municipal, state, or federal zoo, park, refuge, or wildlife area, a bona fide circus or animal exhibit, or any private, nonprofit zoological society is not required to obtain a permit in order to own, possess, buy, sell, or barter a domesticated cervine animal, but such facilities are still governed by the provisions of the act regarding the testing, control, and eradication of cervidae diseases including chronic wasting disease.  
NH - Agricultural Animals - Chapter 435. Animal Care, Breeding and Feed   N.H. Rev. Stat. § 435:1 - 435:41   This New Hampshire chapter concerns the registration of breeding stallions and the proper care, feeding, and shelter of horses. The chapter also includes the New Hampshire Commercial Feed Law of 1971. Within this law are prohibitions on the misbranding or adulteration of commercial feed. The chapter additionally prohibits the feeding of raw garbage to swine.  
NH - Humane Slaughter - Chapter 427. Livestock and Meat Inspection. Humane Slaughter   N.H. Rev. Stat. § 427:33 - 427:37   These laws comprise New Hampshire's humane slaughter provisions.  A humane method is defined as one where the animal is rendered insensible to pain by a single blow or shot of a mechanical instrument or by electrical, chemical or other means that is rapid and effective, before being shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast, or cut.  Ritual slaughter required by the ritual of the Jewish faith, whereby the animal suffers loss of consciousness by anemia of the brain is also allowed.  Any slaughterer who violates this subdivision shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.  
NY - Enforcement - Agriculture and Markets Law - Article 3. Investigation; Practice and Procedure; Violations; Penalties.   McKinney's Agriculture and Markets Law § 32 - 45-a   This article outlines the procedures and penalties for violations of New York's Agriculture and Markets Law.  
NY - Sharks - Article 13. Marine and Coastal Resources.   McKinney's E. C. L. § 13-0338,   This New York law prohibits the practice known as "shark finning." The section provides that no person shall possess shark fins in the marine and coastal district unless the requisite shark carcass is also possessed. It defines "finning" as "the removal of a fin, other than the caudal fin, from a shark and not retaining the remainder of the shark's carcass."  
OH - Horse slaughter - Chapter 919. Horse Meat   R.C. § 919.01 - 919.99   These Ohio statutes deal with horse slaughter and horse meat. Any person who has any establishment that processes and sells horse meat for human food must be licensed by the department of agriculture. The statutes also stipulate certain labeling, signage, and record-keeping requirements. A violation is a first degree misdemeanor.  
OH - Humane Slaughter - Chapter 945. Humane Slaughter of Livestock.   R.C. § 945.01 - 99   These laws comprise Ohio's humane slaughter provisions.  After July 1, 1967, no method of slaughtering livestock or handling in connection with the commercial slaughtering of livestock shall be utilized unless it is humane.  Humane methods are defined as those that render animals insensible to pain by a single blow or gunshot or an electrical, chemical, or other means that is rapid and effective.  Slaughter in accordance with the ritual requirements of the Jewish faith or any other religious faith that prescribes a method of slaughter whereby the animal suffers loss of consciousness by anemia of the brain is also allowed.  Violation of the act results in a fine of not more than one hundred dollars.  
OH - Livestock - Chapter 904. Livestock Care Standards   R.C. § 904.01 - 904.09   These Ohio statutes establish the Ohio livestock care standards board and Ohio livestock care standards fund. The statutes make it illegal to falsify any plans, specifications, data, reports, records, or other information required to be kept or submitted to the director of agriculture or the board.  
OK - Horse - Slaughter (Repealed: D. Horsemeat)   repealed, 63 Okl.St.Ann. § 1-1135 - 1139   §§ 1-1135 to 1-1139. Repealed by Laws 2013, c. 2, § 3, eff. Nov. 1, 2013. Former text summary: It is unlawful to sell horsemeat for human consumption or to possess horsemeat with the intent to sell it for human consumption.  It is also unlawful to transfer horsemeat when the person transferring the horsemeat knows or reasonably should know that the person receiving the meat intends to sell the meat for human consumption.  The statute also identifies certain circumstances, such as the presence of horsemeat in a restaurant or cafe, as prima facie evidence of an intent to sell horsemeat for human consumption.  
OR - Humane Slaughter - Chapter 603. Meat Dealers and Slaughterers. Meat Dealers and Slaughterers, in General.   O. R. S. § 603.010 - 992   These Oregon laws comprise the state's slaughter laws.  Among the provisions is the humane slaughter law, which requires that cattle, equines, sheep, or swine are slaughtered by by any method which renders the animal insensible to pain by a single blow or gunshot or by an electrical, chemical or other means that is rapid and effective; or by a method in accordance with the ritual requirements of any religious faith that prescribes a method of slaughter whereby the animal suffers loss of consciousness by anemia of the brain.  Violation of ORS 603.065 (the humane slaughter law) is a Class B misdemeanor.  
PA - Humane Slaughter - Slaughter and Processing of Domestic Animals   3 Pa.C.S.A. § 2361 - 2362   These laws comprise Pennsylvania's humane slaughter provisions.  The section begins with the enabling statute that grants authority to the relevant state agency.  It then declares that humane methods shall be used in the handling of domestic animals for slaughter and in the actual bleeding and slaughter of domestic animals except in the cases of slaughter for ritual purposes or individual (e.g., non-commercial) consumption.  The law itself does not proscribe penalties for non-compliance (but such may be listed in departmental regulations).  
RI - Farming - Chapter 1.1. Unlawful Confinement of a Covered Animal   Gen. Laws, 1956, § 4-1.1-1 to 1.1-6   This Rhode Island chapter of laws was enacted to to prohibit the confinement of calves raised for veal and sows during gestation, subject to exceptions. It becomes effective June 19, 2013.  
RI - Humane Slaughter - Chapter 17. Humane Slaughter of Livestock   Gen. Laws, 1956, § 4-17-1 - 7   This section comprises Rhode Island's humane slaughter provisions.  It begins first by declaring it to be the policy of the state that the slaughter of all livestock and the handling of livestock, in connection with slaughter, be carried out only by humane methods.  A "humane method" is defined as a method through which the animal is rendered insensible to pain by mechanical, electrical, chemical or other means that is rapid and effective before being shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast, or cut; or a method in accordance with the ritual requirements of the Jewish faith or any other religious faith through which the animal suffers loss of consciousness by anemia of the brain.  Any person who violates any provision of this chapter shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not more than five hundred ($500) dollars, or by imprisonment for not more than one year.  
RI - Livestock - Chapter 26. The Rhode Island Livestock Welfare and Care Standards Advisory Board Council Act of 2012   Gen. Laws, 1956, § 4-26-1 to 6   This chapter is the Rhode Island Livestock Welfare and Care Standards Advisory Council Act of 2012. The act establishes a livestock care standards advisory council consisting of the state veterinarian, or his or her designee, and six public members. The council reviews and evaluates laws and rules of the state applicable to the care and handling of livestock and issues recommendations.  
RI - Livestock, damage done by - Chapter 14. Damage by Animals   Gen. Laws, 1956, § 4-14-1 - 20   This chapter deals with responsibilities and liability for livestock at large. No horse, bull, boar, ram, or goat shall be permitted to run at large and if the owner or keeper of these, for any reason suffers any animals to do so he or she shall upon conviction be fined not in excess of one hundred dollars ($100) and be liable in addition for all damages done by the animal while so at large. The chapter also specifies procedures for impounding animals found at large.  
RI - Transportation - § 4-1-7. Live poultry containers   Gen. Laws, 1956, § 4-1-7   This Rhode Island statute requires poultry be shipped in sanitary, warm, and ventilated containers.  
TN - Bovine - Chapter 21. Liability of Bovine Owners   T. C. A. § 44-21-101 - 104   This chapter operates similarly to equine activity liability laws and provides that a bovine owner shall not be liable for any injury, loss, damage, or death of a person resulting from the inherent risks of bovine activities. The section also requires the posting of warning signs alerting visitors to bovine activities that the owner or operator is not liable.  
TX - Horse - Sale of Horsemeat (Chapter 149. Sale of Horsemeat for Human Consumption)   V. T. C. A., Agriculture Code § 149.001 - 007   These statutes prohibit the sale of horsemeat, the possession of horsemeat with the intent to sell, and the knowing transfer of horsemeat to a person who intends to sell it for human consumption. Horsemeat is defined as the flesh of an animal of the genus equus.  Prima facie evidence of an offense is prescribed by these statues and includes, for example, the presence of horsemeat in a restaurant or cafe.  The penalty for an offense may be a fine of up to a $1,000, confinement for not less than 30 days and not more than two years, or both a fine and confinement.  
TX - Wildlife - Subchapter H. Permits to Control Wildlife Protected by This Code.   V. T. C. A., Parks & Wildlife Code § 43.151 - 158   This statute allows an individual to apply to a local municipality to receive a permit to destroy wildlife that is posing a serious risk to agricultural interests or public safety.  This provision relates to a section that disallows the killing of eagles save for this exception.  For discussion of federal Eagle Act, see Detailed Discussion.  
US - Poultry Products Inspection Act (PPIA)   21 U.S.C.A. § 451 - 472   PPIA regulates the processing and distribution of poultry products. To ensure that poultry is fit for human consumption, it forbids the buying, selling, transporting and importing of dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry and products made from poultry that died other than by slaughter. PPIA requires certain sanitary, labeling and container standards to prevent the sale of adulterated or misbranded poultry products. Violations may result in a fine and/or imprisoned.  
UT - Livestock - § 76-6-111. Wanton destruction of livestock--Penalties--Seizure and disposition of property   U.C.A. 1953 § 76-6-111   This Utah statute makes wanton destruction of livestock a crime. A person is guilty if that person intentionally or knowingly and without the permission of the owner injures, physically alters, releases, or causes the death of livestock. Wanton destruction of livestock is punishable as a misdemeanor or a felony, depending on the value of the livestock.  
VT - Humane Slaughter - Humane Slaughter of Livestock   6 V.S.A. § 3131 - 3134   These statutes comprise Vermont's humane slaughter provisions.  The law requires the humane slaughter of all commercial livestock with a "humane method" defined as a method whereby the animal is rendered insensible to pain by mechanical, electrical, chemical or other means that is rapid and effective before being shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast or cut (with exemptions for religious ritual slaughter).  A person who violates this chapter shall be fined not more than $100.00 nor less than $50.00 or imprisoned not more than ninety days, or both, and in addition, the secretary may seek an injunction against a slaughterer.  
WA - Humane Slaughter - Chapter 16.50. Humane Slaughter of Livestock.   WA ST 16.50.100 - 900   The Washington humane slaughter laws begin with a statement that it is declared to be the policy of the state of Washington to require that the slaughter of all livestock, and the handling of livestock in connection with slaughter, shall be carried out only by humane methods.  Humane methods are defined are those methods whereby the animal is rendered insensible to pain by mechanical, electrical, chemical or other means that is rapid and effective, before being shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast or cut; or methods in accordance with the ritual requirements of any religious faith whereby the animal suffers loss of consciousness by anemia of the brain.  "Livestock" is limited under the statute to cattle, calves, sheep, swine, horses, mules and goats.  Note that the director may, by administrative order, exempt a person from compliance with this chapter for a period of not to exceed six months if he finds that an earlier compliance would cause such person undue hardship.  Violation of the act constitutes a misdemeanor and is subject to a fine of not more than two hundred fifty dollars or confinement in the county jail for not more than ninety days.  
WA - Trespass - CHAPTER 16.04. TRESPASS OF ANIMALS-GENERAL   West's RCWA 16.04.005 - 100   These Washington statutes pertain to trespassing animals. They provide for liability of owners for damage caused by such animals.There are also notification requirements to owners of trespassing animals.  
WI - Chickens, transport - 134.52. Shipment of chickens   W. S. A. 134.52   This Wisconsin statute requires that poultry not be overcrowded and the shipping container must be at least 13 inches in high on the inside and covered at the top in a way that prevents the chickens from getting caught in the top.  
WI - Horsemeat - 97.45. Labeling of horsemeat   W.S.A. 97.45   This Wisconsin statute states that no person shall sell any horsemeat, unless it is conspicuously labeled, marked, branded or tagged “horsemeat.” Violation is a Class H felony.  
WI - Slaughter - 95.80. Humane slaughtering   W. S. A. 95.80, .99   Under this Wisconsin statute, livestock may only be slaughtered by humane methods, such that they are rendered insensible to pain by a single blow or shot of a mechanical instrument or by electrical, chemical or other means that is rapid and effective, before being shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast, or cut. Religious ritual slaughter practices whereby the animal suffers loss of consciousness by anemia of the brain caused by the simultaneous and instantaneous severance of the carotid arteries with a sharp instrument, are also considered to be “humane.”  
WV - Horse Slaughter - Article 2B. Inspection of Meat and Poultry.   W. Va. Code, § 19-2B-1 - 12   The stated purpose of this article is to provide for the inspection, labeling and disposition of animals, poultry, carcasses, meat products and poultry products which are to be sold or offered for sale through commercial outlets for human consumption, the licensing of commercial slaughterers, custom slaughterers and processors, and the inspection of slaughterhouses and processing plants located in the state of West Virginia. With regard to horse slaughter, the article makes it unlawful to add kangaroo meat, horse meat, mule meat or other equine meat to any animal meat, meat product or poultry product to be sold or offered for sale through commercial outlets or distributors for human consumption.  
WV - Humane Slaughter - Article 2E. Humane Slaughter of Livestock.   WV ST § 19-2E-1 - 7   The West Virginia humane slaughter provisions apply to livestock, defined as cattle, swine, sheep or goats.  Humane methods of slaughtering livestock include those where the animal is rendered insensible to pain by a single blow, gunshot or by electrical, chemical or other means, or by slaughtering in accordance with the ritual requirements of the Jewish faith or any other religious faith that prescribes a method of slaughter by the simultaneous and instantaneous severance of the carotid arteries.  The section provides a graduating scheme of penalties for violation; a first offense results in a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of $100 - $500; a second offense results in a misdemeanor with a fine of $500 - 1,000 and suspension of the license to do business as a slaughtering establishment until the facility is in compliance.  
WY - Cruelty, livestock - Chapter 29. Protection of Livestock Animals.   WY ST § 11-29-101 - 115   This chapter concerns cruelty to livestock animals. The laws state that every person who confines or causes to be confined any livestock animal under the laws of this state, must supply to the livestock animal during confinement a sufficient quantity of wholesome food and water. The section also provides that officers and agents of the Wyoming livestock board must be provided with a certificate and badge. Any peace officer, agent or officer of the board may lawfully interfere to prevent the perpetration of any act of cruelty upon any livestock animal in his or her presence.  
WY - Feral animals - Chapter 48. Feral Livestock   W. S. 1977 § 11-48-101, WY ST § 11-48-101   This Wyoming chapter deals with feral livestock. Under the chapter, "feral” means a domestic animal that is not under the control of nor cared for by a person and which has returned to a wild or semi-wild state. Before livestock can be declared feral, an attempt must be made to locate the owner. If the owner cannot be located, the director of the Wyoming livestock board or state veterinarian can then capture or dispose of any feral livestock damaging public or private property, and destroy any feral livestock thought to be infected with disease. The owner of feral livestock is responsible for costs associated with this chapter for damage or care of the feral livestock.  
WY - Livestock - Chapter 30. Offenses Concerning Livestock and Other Animals.   W. S. 1977 § 11-30-101 - 115   This Wyoming chapter of laws covers such offenses from misbranding livestock to a prohibition on the desertion and abandonment of sheep. Specific horse offenses are detailed, such as taking possession of any horse or mule found running at large on the open range with the intent of working or riding it, and the use of horses by a stable keeper without consent of the owner. The chapter also makes it a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not more than $750 and/or imprisonment for up to 6 months for willfully or maliciously killing a wild horse.  

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