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Exotic Pets: Related Statutes

Statute Name Citation Summary
AL - Hunting - Article 19. . Hunting of Native Game Animals and Certain Nonindigenous Animals.   AL ST 9-11-500 to 505   This Alabama statute makes it unlawful to hunt or kill any species of nonindigenous animals for a fee or for recreation. This section does not apply to feral swine, nuisance animals, or to any nonindigenous animal lawfully brought into this state prior to 2006.  
AL - Ordinances - Article 5. Powers as to Health, Sanitation, and Quarantine   AL ST 11-47-130 to 131   This set of laws authorizes all cities and towns to regulate animals and animal related conditions that pose a threat to the public health.  
AL - Ordinances - Section 11-3A-2. Powers for Public Welfare, Health, and Safety; Authorization; Scope.   AL ST 11-3A-2   This statute authorizes each county commission to enact ordinances for the control of animals and animal nuisances.  
AL - Wildlife - 9-2-13. Commissioner of Conservation and Natural Resources -- Authority to prohibit importation of birds, animals, fish, etc.   AL ST 9-2-13   This Alabama law provides that the Commissioner of Conservation and Natural Resources may, by regulation, prohibit the importation of any animal when such importation is not in the best interest of the state. However, this does not apply to those animals used for display purposes at circuses, carnivals, zoos, and other shows or exhibits. Importing a prohibited animal into the state is a Class C misdemeanor with a fine of $1,000 - 5,000, or jail for 30 days, or both.  
AL - Wildlife, Captive - Article 11. Possession of Wildlife for Public Exhibition Purposes.   AL ST 9-11-320 to 328   This set of Alabama laws relates to the possession of captive wildlife. The Commissioner of Conservation and Natural Resources may issue an annual permit to possess wildlife for public exhibition to a person qualified by education or experience in the care and treatment of wildlife at at a cost of $25.00. Violation of any provision of the article results in a fine of not more than $500.00, imprisonment for not more than three months, or both. Notably, the provisions of the article do not apply to any municipal, county, state or other publicly owned zoo or wildlife exhibit, privately owned traveling zoo or circus or pet shop.  
AR - Breed - Wolf-Hybrid - Wolf-Hybrid Vaccination   AR ST 20-19-406   This Arkansas statute outlines the procedure for vaccination of wolf-hybrid dogs, including procedures for handling bites by these canines.  
AR - Exotic Pets - Subchapter 4. Ownership and Breeding of Wolves and Wolf-Dog Hybrids   AR ST 20-19-401 to 408   This chapter of Arkansas laws concerns the regulation of wolves and wolf-dog hybrids kept as companion animals. Under the law, a "wolf-dog hybrid” means any animal which is publicly acknowledged by its owner as being the offspring of a wolf and domestic dog; however, no animal may be judged to be a wolf or wolf-dog hybrid based strictly on its appearance. The specific rabies vaccination requirements for wolf-dog hybrids are detailed as well as confinement requirements (i.e, specific fence dimensions). If a wolf or wolf-dog hybrid bites a person or injures or destroys another animal while out of its confined area, the person responsible for the adequate confinement of the animal upon conviction shall be guilty of a Class A misdemeanor. (See also Link to Ownership and Possession of Large Carnivores Law)  
AR - Exotic Pets, Large Carnivores - Subchapter 5. Ownership and Possession of Large Carnivores   AR ST 20-19-501 to 511  

This Arkansas subchapter concerns the ownership and possession of large carnivores. Under the law, a large carnivore is defined as a bear, lion, or tiger. A person may possess a large carnivore only if he or she was in possession of the large carnivore on or before August 12, 2005 and the person applies for and is granted a permit for personal possession for each large carnivore not more than one hundred eighty (180) days after August 12, 2005. Except for these "grandfathered" possessors and other entities (zoos, USDA permittees, veterinary hospitals, etc.) it is illegal for anyone to own, possess, breed, or transfer ownership of a large carnivore. (See also Link to Wolf-Dog Hybrid Law (AR ST § 20-19-401 - 408)).

 
AR - Primates - Subchapter 6. Nonhuman Primates   A.C.A. 20-19-601 - 610   This new 2013 Act prohibits the importing, possession, selling, or breeding of apes, baboons, and macques. It is unlawful under the act for a person to allow a member of the public to come into direct contact with a primate. Further, a person cannot tether a primate outdoors or allow a primate to run at-large. The section does not apply to accredited AZA institutions, AWA regulated research facilities, wildlife sanctuaries, temporary holding facilities, licensed veterinarians providing treatment, law enforcement officers, circuses holding AWA Class C licenses as provided, and those temporarily in the state. The act has a grandfathering provision that allows a person at least 18 years of age to continue to possess the restricted primate if within 180 days after the effective date of the act the person registers the animal per § 20-19-605 and follows other listed requirements.  
CA - Cruelty - 597.6. Exotic or native wild cat species; alteration of toes, claws or paws   CA PENAL 597.6   This California law provides that no person may perform, or otherwise procure or arrange for the performance of, surgical claw removal, declawing, onychectomy, or tendonectomy on any cat that is a member of an exotic or native wild cat species, and shall not otherwise alter such a cat's toes, claws, or paws to prevent the normal function of the cat's toes, claws, or paws. Violation results in a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for up to one year and/or a fine of up to $10,000.  
CA - Importation - Chapter 2. Of Other and Miscellaneous Offenses (653o - 653r)   CA PENAL 653o - 653r   These California laws relate to the importation of certain animals parts for commercial purposes. Under the law, it is unlawful to import into this state for commercial purposes, to possess with intent to sell, or to sell within the state, the dead body, or any part or product thereof, of any polar bear, leopard, ocelot, tiger, cheetah, jaguar, sable antelope, wolf (Canis lupus), zebra, whale, cobra, python, sea turtle, colobus monkey, kangaroo, vicuna, sea otter, free-roaming feral horse, dolphin or porpoise (Delphinidae), Spanish lynx, or elephant. Starting in 2015, it shall be unlawful to import into this state for commercial purposes, to possess with intent to sell, or to sell within the state, the dead body, or any part or product thereof, of any crocodile or alligator. Section 653p makes it unlawful to posses with the intent to sell any part or dead body of any species on the federal endangered species list or species covered under the MMPA. Section 653q makes it illegal to import for commercial purposes, to possess with intent to sell, or to sell within the state, the dead body, or any part or product thereof, of any seal.  
CA - Importation - Chapter 3. Importation of Wild Animals.   CA HLTH & S 121775 - 121870   This California set of law relates to the importation of "wild animals" (defined as any animal of the class Aves (birds) or class Mammalia (mammals) that either is not normally domesticated in this state or not native to this state). The violation of any provision of this chapter shall be a misdemeanor. The department may issue a permit to import a wild animal provided that a determination is made that public health or safety will not be endangered.  
CO - Exotic - Article 81. Hybrid Animals   CO ST 35-81-101 to 102   This Colorado statute authorized the commissioner of the department of agriculture to appoint and convene an advisory group to study the behavior of hybrid canids (wolf hybrids) and felines, including a review of any incidents involving property damage and personal injury caused by such animals. The department was to present its findings and proposals for legislation in January of 1998.  
CT - Exotic Pets - 26-40a. Possession of potentially dangerous animal; Chapter 490. Fisheries and Game   CT ST 26-1, 26-40a; 26-54, 55, 61   These Connecticut states reflect the state's laws on the keeping of wild animals. Under § 26-40a, no person shall possess a potentially dangerous animal, which includes wildlife such as the  lion, leopard, cheetah, jaguar, ocelot, jaguarundi cat, puma, lynx, bobcat, wolf, coyote, all species of bears, gorilla, chimpanzee and orangutan. The Department of Environmental Protection shall issue a bill to the owner or person in illegal possession of such potentially dangerous animal for all costs of seizure, care, maintenance, relocation or disposal of such animal. Additionally, any person who violates any provision of this section shall be assessed a civil penalty not to exceed $2000, and is guilty of a class A misdemeanor. Under § 26-55, no person shall import or introduce into the state, possess or let loose, any live fish, wild bird, wild mammal, reptile, amphibian or invertebrate unless such person has obtained a permit. Again, a violator is responsible for expenses from the seizure, maintenance, and relocation of the illegally imported animal. The penalty includes a civil fine up to $1000 and results in a class C misdemeanor.  
D.C. - Exotic Pets - 8-1808. Prohibited conduct.   DC ST 8-1808   Among other things covered under the law, this D.C. law prohibits the importation into the District, possession, display, offering for sale, trading, bartering, exchanging, or adopting, or giving as a household pet any living member of the animal kingdom including those born or raised in captivity, except the following: domestic dogs (excluding hybrids with wolves, coyotes, or jackals), domestic cats (excluding hybrids with ocelots or margays), domesticated rodents and rabbits, captive-bred species of common cage birds, nonpoisonous snakes, fish, and turtles, traditionally kept in the home for pleasure rather than for commercial purposes, and racing pigeons (when kept in compliance with permit requirements).  
DE - Exotic Pets - CHAPTER 72. POSSESSION OF MAMMALS OR REPTILES EXOTIC TO DELAWARE   DE ST TI 3 7201 - 7203   This Delaware law requires a permit to possess, sell, or import any non-native wild animal. No such permits will be granted for non-native venomous snakes.  
FL - Agriculture & Consumer Services - Department Duties and Enforcement   FL ST 585.001 - 585.007   This set of laws explains the powers and duties of the Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services in enforcing the Animal Industry laws (Chapter 585). Any person or officer that is charged with a duty under the Animal Industry laws may be compelled to perform the same by mandamus, injunction, or other court-ordered remedy. Department employees are authorized to enter any premises in the state for the purposes of carrying out their duties under the Animal Industry laws and it is illegal for any person to interfere with the discharge of those duties.  
FL - Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services - Animal Disease Control   FL ST 585.01 - 585.69   This set of laws addresses the role of the Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services, Division of Animal Industry in the prevention, control, or eradication of any contagious, infectious, or communicable disease among domestic or wild animals. The Department is authorized to regulate the importation, transportation, transfer of ownership, and maintenance of animals; establish quarantine areas; and inspect, test, treat, condemn, and destroy animals and animal housing facilities as necessary for the eradication of communicable diseases or the detection of harmful biological and chemical residues in food animals. The laws also direct the Department to develop a list of dangerous transmissible diseases. All veterinarians and animal owners are required to report suspected and confirmed cases of dangerous transmissible diseases to the State Veterinarian; failure to do so is a felony of the second degree.  
FL - Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services - Enforcement   FL ST 570.073, 570.15, 570.16   This set of laws authorizes the establishment of the Office of Agricultural Law Enforcement within the Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services for the enforcement of laws relating to wild or domesticated animals or animal products. Law enforcement officers employed by the Department have statewide jurisdiction and have full law enforcement powers granted to other peace officers of the state, including the authority to make arrests, carry firearms, serve court process, and seize contraband and the proceeds of illegal activities. It is a misdemeanor of the second degree to threaten, interfere with, or impersonate an enforcement officer or other employee of the Department.  
FL - Endangered - Endangered and Threatened Species Act   FL ST 379.2291 - 379.231 (formerly FL ST 372.072 - 074)   These Florida statutes define endangered and threatened species and provide the State's intent to protect these species.  Under statute, the intentional killing or wounding of a listed species incurs a third degree felony.  Interestingly, the state has a reward program for the arrest and conviction of those who violate state endangered species laws.  
FL - Exhibition - Deformed Animals - Chapter 877. Miscellaneous Crimes.   FL ST 877.16   This law makes it illegal to exhibit any deformed, mutilated or disfigured animal for compensation.  
FL - Fish and Wildlife Conservation - Part V. Law Enforcement   FL ST 379.33 - 379.343   This set of laws describes the scope and methods of enforcement of the state's fish and wildlife laws.  
FL - Wildlife - Chapter 379. Fish and Wildlife Conservation.   FL ST 379.231 - 504   These Florida laws concern the keeping and taking of captive wildlife. Places where wildlife is held in captivity are subject to inspection by the officers of the state commission at any time. The commission shall promulgate rules defining Class I, Class II, and Class III types of wildlife. A companion statutory section provides that, in order to assure humane treatment of captive wildlife, no person, firm, corporation or association shall be in possession of captive wildlife for public display unless a permit has been obtained. The cost of the permit depends on whether the species fall into Class I, II, or III (also see Link to Administrative Regulations).  
GA - Exotic pets, wildlife - Chapter 5. Wild Animals   GA ST 27-5-1 to 12   These Georgia wildlife provisions embody the General Assembly's finding that it is in the public interest to ensure the public health, safety, and welfare by strictly regulating in this state the importation, transportation, sale, transfer, and possession of certain wild animals. Animals such as kangaroos, certain non-human primates, wolves, bears, big cats, hippopotamus, and crocodile, among others, are considered to be inherently dangerous to human beings and are subject to the license or permit and insurance requirements outlined in the laws. The section also details specifications for the humane handling, care, confinement and transportation of certain wild animals.  
HI - Importation - Chapter 150A. Plant and Non-Domestic Animal Quarantine and Microorganism Import   HI ST 150A-5 - 150A-15   These laws concern the importation of animals, plants, and microorganisms into the State of Hawaii.  
IA - Dangerous - Chapter 717F. Dangerous Wild Animals   IA ST 717F.1 - 13  

This Iowa set of laws concerns the keeping of dangerous wild animals. Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, a person shall not own or possess a dangerous wild animal or cause or allow a dangerous wild animal owned by a person or in the person's possession to breed. Further, a person shall not transport a dangerous wild animal into this state. There is a grandfather provision that allows a person who owns or possesses a dangerous wild animal on July 1, 2007 to continue to own or possess the dangerous wild animal subject the provisions of the laws. A person owning or possessing a dangerous wild animal who violates a provision of this chapter is subject to a civil penalty of not less than two hundred dollars and not more than two thousand dollars for each dangerous wild animal involved in the violation.

 
ID - Exotic - Chapter 39. Importation or Possession of Deleterious Exotic Animals   ID ST 25-3901 - 3905   In Idaho, all apes and other nonhuman primates are classified as “deleterious exotic animals,” which are dangerous to the environment, livestock, agriculture, or wildlife of the state. According to Idaho’s legislature, it is in the public interest to strictly regulate the importation and possession of those animals.  
ID - Wildlife - Chapter 7. Captive Wildlife   ID ST 36-701 to 716   This section comprises Idaho's captive wildlife provisions. Under the law, no person shall engage in any propagation or hold in captivity any species of big game animal found wild in this state, unless the person has been issued a license or permit by the director. All other species of mammals, birds or reptiles that are found in the wild in this state and are not species of special concern or threatened and endangered species, may be held in captivity without permit so long as the possessor retains proof that such wildlife was lawfully obtained. The laws concerning commercial wildlife farms are also included in this section. Additionally, there is also a section on the transition of wolves from federal to state management (§ 36-715).  
IL - Exotic pets - Act 585. Illinois Dangerous Animals Act   IL ST CH 720 585/0.1 - 4  

This section comprises the Illinois Dangerous Animals Act. Under the act, no person shall have a right of property in, keep, harbor, care for, act as custodian of or maintain in his possession any dangerous animal or primate except at a properly maintained zoological park, federally licensed exhibit, circus, college or university, scientific institution, research laboratory, veterinary hospital, hound running area, or animal refuge in an escape-proof enclosure. Any person violating this Act shall be guilty of a Class C misdemeanor.

 
IL - Protected species - Article II. Game Protective Regulations.   IL ST CH 520 5/2.1 to 2.5; 5/2.36a  

This collection of statutes provides that the title of all wild birds and mammals rests with the state. A new section in 2011 vests the Department of Natural Resources with the ability to control the possession and release of species deemed exotic or invasive. Other sections concern the possession of certain wild birds and animals. Possession of any listed wild bird or its parts (including the eagle) is illegal under the statute, except for the bona fide scientific or zoological exhibition.

 
IN - Exotic Pet - Chapter 2. Definitions   IN ST 14-8-2-87   This Indiana statute provides the definition of an exotic mammal, which does not include a feral cat or dog. (See also Link to Chapter 26. Wild Animal Permit).  
IN - Exotic pet - Chapter 26. Wild Animal Permit.   IN ST 14-22-26-1 to 14-22-26-6   This set of Indiana laws concerns the keeping of protected and dangerous wild animals. Under the law, a person must obtain a permit to possess these classes of animals. A permit may be suspended if an emergency exists (e.g., the animal is in peril or the animal is in a position to harm another animal). (See also Link to Sec. 87. "Exotic mammal" definition).
 
IN - Wild Animal - Chapter 25. Importation Permit   IN ST 14-22-25-1 to 4   In Indiana, a person needs a permit to import live fish or any living wild animal into the state for release. A permit may be granted only upon proof that the animals are free of a communicable disease, will not become a nuisance, and will not cause damage to a native wild or domestic species.  
KS - Exotic Pets - Chapter 32. Wildlife, Parks and Recreation.   KS ST 32-1301 - 1312   This set of Kansas statutes comprises the state's dangerous regulated animals act. Under the Act, a "dangerous regulated animal" means a live or slaughtered parts of lions, tigers, leopards, jaguars, cheetahs and mountain lions, or any hybrid thereof; bears or any hybrid thereof; and all non-native, venomous snakes. Except as provided in this section, it is unlawful for a person to possess, slaughter, sell, purchase or otherwise acquire a dangerous regulated animal.  
KY - Exotic Animals - Chapter 65. General Provisions Applicable to Counties, Cities, and Other Local Units. Ordinances and Regulations   KY ST 65.877   This Kentucky statue authorizes counties and cities to regulate or prohibit the holding of inherently dangerous wildlife. For example, the Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources has identified some of the following animals as being dangerous: African buffalo, Hippopotamus, Hyenas, Old world badger, Lions, jaguars, leopards, or tigers, Clouded leopard, Cheetah, Elephants, Rhinoceroses, Gorillas, Baboons, drills, or mandrills, Crocodiles, Alligators or caimans, certain snakes, Gila monsters or beaded lizards, Komodo dragon, Wolverine, Bears, Wolf, mountain lion.  
LA - Exotic animals - 2796.2. Limitation of liability for loss connected with festivals, programs, or activities sponsored by an animal sanctuary   LSA-R.S. 9:2796.2   This Louisiana law states that no person shall have a cause of action against any nonprofit organization which operates or maintains a tax-exempt animal sanctuary for any injury, death, loss, or damage in connection with the Chimp Haven Festival, Dixie Chimps art contest, Les Boutiques de Noel, SciPort and Chimp Haven events, Run Wild and Have a Field Day, Eye-20 Art Show Gala, Krewe of Barkus and Meow Paws parade, Krewe of Centaur parade, Krewe of Highland parade, garden tour, ChimpStock, and any other educational and public awareness activities in which the organization sponsors or participates, unless the loss or damage was caused by the deliberate and wanton act or gross negligence of the organization or any officer, employee, or volunteer thereof.  
MA - Exotic pet, breeding - Chapter 131. Inland Fisheries and Game and Other Natural Resources.   MA ST 131 23   Massachusetts bans private possession of exotic pets, and requires licenses for those who deal and propagate wild species for other reasons. The Massachusetts director of the Division of Fisheries and Wildlife also issues a list of exempted species for which no permit is needed. (See also link to § 77A. Wild canid and felid hybrids).  
MA - Exotic Pets - Chapter 131. Inland Fisheries and Game and Other Natural Resources.   MA ST 131 77A   Massachusetts bans hybrid animals, those offspring of mating between a domestic animal and its wild counterpart, usually wolves and dogs. No individual may possess or own a hybrid as a pet. (See also Link to § 23. Propagation, dealing, etc., in fish, birds, mammals, reptiles or amphibians; rules and regulations; licenses; fees ).
 
MD - Dangerous Animals - Part IV. Animal Control   MD HEALTH GEN 18-217 - 222   This chapter of Maryland laws declares that it is in the public interest to ensure public health and safety by strictly regulating the possession, breeding, and importation of certain animals that pose risks to humans. Certain animals such as domestic dogs, cats, and ferrets; animal used for agricultural, scientific, or education purposes; and animals used for public exhibitions are excluded from the provisions of this section. Any person who imports, transports, sells, transfers, breeds, raises, keeps, or possesses any animal which is prohibited under regulations promulgated by the Secretary is guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction is subject to a fine not exceeding $500, or imprisonment not exceeding 1 year, or both.  
MD - Exotic pets - Subtitle 6. Crimes Relating to Animals.   MD CRIM LAW 10-621   Under this Maryland law, a person may not import into the State, offer for sale, trade, barter, possess, breed, or exchange the following species of animals: foxes, skunks, raccoons, bears, caimans, alligators, crocodiles, wild cats, wolves, nonhuman primates, and venomous snakes. Animal sanctuaries, AWA licensed facilities, those holding valid permits from the Department of Natural Resources, and veterinarians are exempted. This section does not prohibit a person who had lawful possession of an animal listed above on or before May 31, 2006, from continuing to possess that animal if the person provided written notification to the local animal control authority on or before August 1, 2006. Violation results in a fine and seizure of the animal(s).  
ME - Exotic Pets - Chapter 723. Facility Licenses.   ME ST T. 7 3931-B ( 3931-B. Repealed. Laws 2011, c. 100, 13, eff. May 19, 2011)   This Maine statute outlines the requirements that apply to wolf hybrid kennels. A person who operates a wolf hybrid kennel must register with the department. The offspring of a wolf hybrid must be permanently identified prior to transferring ownership or care of the animal. Failure to comply with the provisions of this section results in a civil violation with a forfeiture not to exceed $1,000. (For other exotic pet laws in Maine, see Chapter 730-A. Breeding, Sale and Transportation of Small Mammals).  
ME - Exotic Pets - Subchapter 15. Wildlife Importation and Possession, Permits and Requirements,   ME ST T. 12 12151 - 12161   These Maine statutes prohibit keeping wildlife in captivity, importing, breeding or releasing wildlife into the wild, with exceptions for a person holding a license. Taking reptiles, amphibians, and certain nonmarine invertebrates from the wild is also prohibited without a license. Provisions for the disposition of wolf hybrids are included. Penalties for violations incur fines that range from $100 to $500. Three or more such violations are considered to be a Class E criminal offense.  
ME - Ferret - Chapter 730-A. Breeding, Sale and Transportation of Small Mammals   ME ST T. 7 3970-A - 3970-B   This chapter concerns the sale and importation of juvenile ferrets. (For other exotic pet laws in Maine, see § 3931-B. Wolf hybrid kennel).  
MI - Exotic Pets - CHAPTER 287. ANIMAL INDUSTRY; ANIMAL INDUSTRY ACT   MI ST 287.731   Michigan completely prohibits the importation into the state of “any species having the potential to spread serious diseases or parasites, to cause serious physical harm, or to otherwise endanger native wildlife, human life, livestock, domestic animals, or property.” For other wild or exotic animals, Michigan regulates various aspects of their importation, such as requiring physical exams by vets, negative disease tests, and proper animal care and restraint. (See also link to Chapter 287. Animal Industry - Large Carnivore Act; link to Wolf-dog Cross Act ).  
MI - Exotic pets - CHAPTER 287. ANIMAL INDUSTRY. WOLF-DOG CROSS ACT.   MI ST 287.1021  

Under this Michigan statute, a local unit is empowered to adopt an ordinance governing wolf-dog crosses that is more restrictive than this act, provided it fulfills the requirements of this act in addition to any other requirements governing a wolf-dog cross under state and federal law.

 
MI - Exotic pets - CHAPTER 287. ANIMAL INDUSTRY. WOLF-DOG CROSS ACT.   M. C. L. A. 287.1004   This Michigan statute provides the requirements for ownership of wolf-dog hybrids in the state.  
MI - Exotic Pets - Chapter 287. Animal Industry; Large Carnivore Act   MI ST 287.1101 - 1123   This Michigan law bans acquisition and possession of large carnivores (big cats and bears), though it “grandfathered” animals already owned as pets at the time of the law's enactment. In order to maintain public safety and animal welfare, the state created a strict permit system for those owners who were allowed to keep their already-existing pets.  The statute also outlines minimal care requirements, transportation guidelines, and procedures for when a large carnivore suspected of carrying rabies bites a human or livestock. (See also link to Chapter 287. Animal Industry; Wolf-dog Cross Act; link to 287.731- Importation of species having potential to endanger life or property prohibited; importation of wild or exotic animals; requirements and prohibitions).  
MI - Exotic Pets - Chapter 287. Animal Industry; Wolf-dog Cross Act   MI ST 287.1001 - 1023   This Michigan law bans acquisition and possession of wolf-dog hybrids, though it “grandfathered” animals already owned as pets at the time of the law's enactments. In order to maintain public safety and animal welfare, the state created a strict permit system for those owners who were allowed to keep their already-existing pets. (See also link to Chapter 287. Animal Industry; Large Carnivore Act; link to 287.731- Importation of species having potential to endanger life or property prohibited; importation of wild or exotic animals; requirements and prohibitions).  
MI - Hunting - Chapter 324. Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act.   M.C.L.A. 324.42701 - 42714   These sections describe the licensing of and regulations of breeders and dealers, including zoological parks. These sections also describe the parameters for enclosures and pens.  
MI - Livestock - Chapter 287. Animal Industry. Animal Industry Act   MI ST 287.701 - 747   This Michigan act is known as the “animal industry act." The act is intended to protect the health, safety, and welfare of humans and animals, by requiring disease testing of imported animals, certification, and reporting of infected animals. A newly amended section (287.746) also concerns the tethering or confinement of animals such as pregnant sows and veal calves in manners that restrict lying, standing, fully extending limbs, or turning freely.  
MN - Exhibition - Chapter 97A. Game and Fish. General Provisions.   MN ST 97A.041   In Minnesota, a person may not possess wildlife in captivity for public exhibition purposes without a permit. The commissioner may issue a permit to an applicant qualified by education or experience in the care and treatment of wildlife. A permit shall include a condition that allows an enforcement officer to enter and inspect the facilities where the wildlife covered by the permit are held in captivity. A violation may result in the attorney general bringing an abatement action.  
MN - Exotic pet - 346.155. Possessing regulated animals   MN ST 346.155   This Minnesota law defines "regulated animal" to mean all members of the Felidae family except the domestic cat, bears, and all non-human primates. Unless a person possessed a regulated animal on or before January 1, 2005, and came into compliance with AWA regulations, possession of the above-mentioned regulated animals is unlawful. A person who lawfully possessed a regulated animal before that date, must comply with registration, microchipping, fee, and inspection requirements.  
MO - Exotic - Chapter 578. Miscellaneous Offenses. Large Carnivores   V.A.M.S. 578.600 - 578.625   The “Large Carnivore Act” pertains to large cats and bears that are nonnative to Missouri and held in captivity. The Act prohibits ownership, possession, breeding, and transportation of large carnivores (with exceptions). The Act creates civil and criminal liability for persons who own or possess a large carnivore. Violations may result in misdemeanor or felony convictions, community service work, the loss of privileges to own or possess any animal, and forfeiture of a large carnivore.  
MO - Exotic pet - 578.023. Keeper of dangerous wild animals must register animals, exceptions--penalty   MO ST 578.023   This Missouri law states that no person may keep any lion, tiger, leopard, ocelot, jaguar, cheetah, margay, mountain lion, Canada lynx, bobcat, jaguarundi, hyena, wolf, bear, nonhuman primate, coyote, any deadly, dangerous, or poisonous reptile, or any deadly or dangerous reptile over eight feet long, in any place other than a properly maintained zoological park, circus, scientific, or educational institution, research laboratory, veterinary hospital, or animal refuge, unless such person has registered such animals with the local law enforcement agency in the county in which the animal is kept. Violation is a class C misdemeanor.  
MO - Ordinances -Chapter 77. Third Class Cities   MO ST 77.590, 79.110, 80.090, 82.300   This set of statutes authorizes municipal governments to regulate animals and animal-related nuisances.  
MS - Exotic pet - Chapter 8. Importation, Sale and Possession of Inherently Dangerous Wild Animals.   MS ST 49-8-1 to 49-8-19   This Mississippi chapter states that it is in the public interest to ensure the public health, safety and welfare by strictly regulating the importation, sale, transfer and possession of those wild animals inherently dangerous to humans. Several species are listed under this section as inherently dangerous to humans, including non-human primates, wolves, bears, hyenas, big cats, and hippopotamus, among others. It is unlawful for a person to import, transfer, sell, purchase or possess any wild animal classified inherently dangerous by law or regulation unless that person holds a permit. Those persons who were in possession of such animals on or before May 1, 1997 were able to continue possession provided that they complied with the permit process. Prior to the issuance of a permit, the applicant must have provided proof of liability insurance in the amount of $100,000.00 for each wild animal up to a maximum of $1,000,000.00.  
MT - Exotic pets - Chapter 4. Commercial Activities.   MT ST 87-4-801 to 87-4-808   This set of Montana laws covers both "roadside menagerie" (any place where one or more wild animals are kept in captivity for the evident purpose of exhibition or attracting trade, excluding an educational institution or a traveling theatrical exhibition or circus based outside of Montana) and "wild animal menagerie" (any place where one or more bears or large cats, including cougars, lions, tigers, jaguars, leopards, pumas, cheetahs, ocelots, and hybrids of those large cats are kept in captivity for use other than public exhibition). The latter definition seems to cover the keeping of those listed species as exotic pets. Under the section, it is unlawful for any person to operate a roadside menagerie or wild animal menagerie without a permit. The annual permit fee for five or less animals is $10. The annual permit fee for more than five animals is $25.  
MT - Exotic wildlife - Part 7. Importation, Introduction, and Transplantation of Wildlife   MT ST 87-5-701 to 87-5-725   These Montana statutes control the importation, introduction, and transplantation of exotic wildlife into the state. The importation of any wildlife is prohibited unless the species poses no threat of harm to native wildlife and plants or to agricultural production and that the introduction has significant public benefits. Violations may result in a fine or imprisonment.
 
NC - Exotic pets - Chapter 153A. Counties.   NC ST 153A-131; NC ST 160A-187   These two North Carolina statutes provide that a city or county may by ordinance regulate, restrict, or prohibit the possession or harboring of animals which are dangerous to persons or property.  
ND - Livestock - State Board of Animal Health   ND ST 36-01-01 - ND ST 36-01-33   This Chapter of North Dakota laws deals with the state board of animal health, state veterinarian, and special provisions for keeping certain non-traditional livestock. Section 36-01-08.2 states that any person who keeps a mountain lion, wolf, or wolf hybrid in captivity must obtain an identification number from the state board. Section 36-01-08.4 also provides that a person may not keep a skunk or raccoon in captivity, and that the state board must adopt rules concerning the keeping of a primate, wolf, or wolf-hybrid in captivity. The remainder of the chapter deals primary with infectious disease control in livestock, although section 36-01-31 contains a ban on the keeping of a live venomous reptile.   
NE - Exotic pets - Chapter 37. Game and Parks. Article 4. Permits and Licenses. (B) Special Permits and Licenses.   NE ST 37-477 to 37-482   This set of Nebraska laws provides that no person shall keep in captivity any wild bird or mammal that is either in need of conservation or listed as an endangered or threatened species. Further, no person shall keep in captivity in this state any wolf, any skunk, or any member of the families Felidae (except the domestic cat) and Ursidae (the bear family). Any person legally holding in captivity, on March 1, 1986, any such animal subject to the prohibition shall be allowed to keep the animal for the duration of its life. The section also outlines the legal requirements for obtaining and maintaining captive wildlife. (See also Chapter 37. Game and Parks. Article 2. Game Law General Provisions).  
NE - Wildlife - Article 2. Game Law General Provisions   NE ST 37-201 to 248   These statutes comprise the definitional section  of Nebraska's wildlife code. Among the definitions include game, aquaculture, wildlife, hunt, and take. (See also Chapter 37. Game and Parks. Article 4. Permits and Licenses. (B) Special Permits and Licenses).  
NH - Exotic Pets - Chapter 466-A. Wolf Hybrids   NH ST 466-A:1 to 466-A:6   This section of laws comprises New Hampshire's wolf-dog hybrid act. Under the law, no person shall sell or resell, offer for sale or resale, or release or cause to be released a wolf hybrid in the state of New Hampshire. A person may temporarily import a wolf hybrid provided that he or she shows proof of spaying or neutering and has accurate vaccination records. Each wolf hybrid shall be under the physical control of the owner or confined in an enclosure or structure sufficient to prohibit escape. Any person in violation of this chapter or any rule adopted under this chapter shall be guilty of a class A misdemeanor. (See also link to 207:14 Import, Possession, or Release of Wildlife).  
NH - Exotic Pets, Wildlife - Chapter 207. General Provisions as to Fish and Game. Import, Possession, or Release of Wildlife.   NH ST 207:14 - 207:15-a   This New Hampshire section states that no person shall import, possess, sell, exhibit, or release any live marine species or wildlife, or the eggs or progeny thereof, without first obtaining a permit from the executive director except as otherwise permitted. The executive director has the authority to determine the time period and any other conditions governing the issuance of such permit. The executive director may refuse to issue a permit if he determines that such issuance may pose significant disease, genetic, ecological, environmental, health, safety, or welfare risks to persons, marine species or wildlife. Any wildlife release or imported contrary to these provisions are subject to seizure. (See also Chapter 466-A. Wolf Hybrids).  
NY - Dangerous animal - 209-cc. Notification of presence of wild animals and dangerous dogs   McKinney's General Municipal Law 209-cc   New York state law requires anyone in possession of dangerous dogs and dangerous wild animals (which include non-human primates, non-domesticated dogs and cats, bears, venomous, constrictors and python snakes, and certain crocodiles) to report the presence of that animal to the clerk of the city, town, or village in which the animal resides. The report must be filed by April 1st every year and must list all of the physical locations where the animal may be kept. The clerk must then notify all local police, fire, and emergency medical service departments of the presence of that animal. Any person who fails to report the presence may be fined up to $250 dollars for the first offense and $1,000 dollars for each subsequent offense. Zoos and other U.S. Department of Agriculture-licensed exhibitors are exempt from the reporting requirement.  
NY - Exotic - Chapter 43-B. Of the Consolidated Laws.   McKinney's E. C. L. 11-0917   This New York laws begin by stating that wild game and other wildlife may only be possessed if lawfully taken in compliance with the Fish and Wildlife Law and the accompanying regulations. Skunk, bobcat, mink, raccoon and muskrat may be bought and sold alive during their respective open seasons. No live wolf, coyote, coydog, fox, skunk, venomous reptile or raccoon shall be possessed or transported, except under a license or permit issued by the department. Every such license or permit shall contain a prominent notice warning the licensee or permittee of his or her duty to exercise due care in safeguarding the public from attack; failure to do so is a crime under section three hundred seventy of the agriculture and markets law.  
NY - Exotic - Chapter 43-B. Of the Consolidated Laws.   McKinney's E. C. L. 11-0501 to 11-0539   This set of New York statutes provides some of the state's fish and wildlife laws. Among the provisions include a prohibition against interference with wildlife, restriction on the possession and importation of certain wildlife such as wolves, wolfdogs, coyotes, coydogs, foxes, skunks, and venomous reptiles, and laws that allows individuals to take destructive wildlife. No person shall knowingly possess, harbor, sell, barter, transfer, exchange or import any wild animal for use as a pet in New York state, except that any person who possessed a wild animal for use as a pet at the time that this section went effect may retain possession of such animal for the remainder of its life.  
NY - Exotic Pets - Chapter 69 Of the Consolidated Laws.   McKinney's Agriculture and Markets Law 370   This New York law provides that any person who owns or possesses a wild animal or reptile capable of inflicting bodily harm upon a human being, who fails to exercise due care in safeguarding the public from attack by such wild animal or reptile, is guilty of a misdemeanor. The punishment for violation is imprisonment for not more than one year, or by a fine of not more than five hundred dollars, or by both. The second part of the law imposes strict liability upon owners of dangerous wild animals. (See also NY ENVIR CONSER § 11-0101 - 11-0113).  
NY - Wildlife, Exotics - Title 1. Short Title; Definitions; General Provisions   McKinney's E. C. L. 11-0101 to 11-0113   This set of statutes represents the definitional portion of New York's Fish and Wildlife Law. Among the provisions include definitions for game and non-game, a definition for "wild animal," which includes big cats, non-domesticated dogs, bears, and venomous reptiles, and the state's hunter harassment law. The section also provides that the State of New York owns all fish, game, wildlife, shellfish, crustacea and protected insects in the state, except those legally acquired and held in private ownership. (See also link to Article 25-B. § 370. Protection of the public from attack by wild animals and reptiles).  
OH - Exotic - Chapter 2927. Miscellaneous Offenses (repealed 2012)   R.C. 2927.21   Formerly, this Ohio law provides than an owner or keeper of any non-indigenous or exotic animal that presents a risk of serious physical harm to persons or property must report the animal's escape within one hour after discovering its escape. Failure to do so is a first degree misdemeanor. However, this law was repealed in 2012.  
OH - Exotic - Chapter 935. Dangerous Wild Animals and Restricted Snakes   R.C. 935.01 - .99   On June 5, 2012, Ohio governor Kasich signed the "Dangerous Wild Animal Act" into law. Under this new section, no person shall possess a dangerous wild animal on or after January 1, 2014 unless he or she is authorized under an unexpired wildlife shelter/propagation permit or other exception. Dangerous wild animals include big cats, some smaller exotic cats, bears, elephants, hyenas, gray wolves, alligators, crocodiles and nonhuman primates other than lemurs. Except as provided, no person shall acquire, buy, sell, trade, or transfer possession or ownership of a dangerous wild animal on or after the effective date of this section  
OK - Exotic - 7-801. Exotic wildlife--Penalties for releasing   29 Okl. St. Ann. 7-801   No exotic wildlife may be released into the wilds of Oklahoma without first obtaining written permission of the Director. Violation is a misdemeanor punishable of a fine of $100 to $2000, and/or imprisonment up to 30 days.  
OK - Exotic pet - 4-107. Commercial wildlife breeder's license; 4-107.1. Circuses--Application of act   29 Okl. St. Ann. 4-107, 4-107.1   This Oklahoma statute states that no person may breed, possess or raise native wildlife, except fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles, aquatic invertebrates or exotic livestock, for commercial purposes without first obtaining a commercial wildlife breeder's license from the Director. Further, no person licensed with a commercial wildlife breeder's license may sell native cats or bears to any person who does not possess a commercial wildlife breeder's license. The initial and annual fee for such a license is $48 for a resident. Violation of any provision of this section results in a fine of not less than $500.00 and, if applicable, revocation of the wildlife license. Circuses are exempted from this provision.  
OR - Exotic Pets - Chapter 609. Animal Control; Exotic Animals; Dealers.   O. R. S. 609.205 - 335   These Oregon laws concern the regulation of exotic pets in the state. An "exotic animal" for purposes of the section means a  member of the family Felidae not indigenous to Oregon (except the domestic cat), any nonhuman primate, any nonwolf member of the family Canidae not indigenous to Oregon (except the domestic dog), any bear except the black bear, and any member of the order Crocodylia.  A person may not keep an exotic animal in this state unless the person possesses a valid State Department of Agriculture permit for that animal issued prior to the effective date of this 2009 Act.  
PA - Exotic Pets - Subchapter D. Permits Relating to Wildlife; Chapter 147. Special Permits. Subchapter N. Exotic Wildlife Possession   34 Pa.C.S.A. 2961 - 2965; 58 Pa. Code 147.261 - 262   These Pennsylvania statutes represent the state's exotic pet laws. “Exotic wildlife" includes all bears, coyotes, lions, tigers, leopards, jaguars, cheetahs, cougars, wolves and any crossbreed of these animals. The commission may issue a permit to a person to act as an exotic wildlife dealer. No permit shall be granted by the commission until it is satisfied that the provisions for housing and caring for the exotic wildlife and protection for the public are proper and adequate and in accordance with the standards which may be established by regulations. It is unlawful to release any exotic wildlife into the wild, fail to exercise due care in safeguarding the public, or recklessly engage in conduct that places another person in danger of attack from exotic wildlife.  
PA - Permits - Chapter 29. Special Licenses and Permits. Subchapter A. General Provisions.   34 Pa.C.S.A. 2901 - 2908   This chapter of Pennsylvania laws allows the commission to issue permits to take wildlife. Among the permit categories include endangered or threatened species permits, wildlife menagerie, wildlife (exotic) dealer, and wildlife (exotic) possession permits. It is unlawful to exercise any of the privileges granted by a permit issued under this title without first securing the required permit.  
RI - Exotic Pets - Chapter 18. Importation of Wild Animals   Gen. Laws, 1956, 4-18-1 - 15   This chapter of Rhode Island laws proclaims that its intent is to provide safeguards for the protection of persons in the state from disease hazards associated with imported wild animals. Under the chapter, no person shall import into, receive, or possess in this state without first obtaining a permit from the department, animals of the following orders, families, and genera: primates, carnivores, amphibia, reptilia, canidae, and insecta. Personal pets under a special permit are exempted from the importation permit requirement. A permit may be granted by the department to import a wild animal as a personal pet, if a written affidavit or declaration under penalty of perjury is completed at the time of entry at the site of first arrival. This chapter also requires that certain species undergo quarantine for specified periods of time. Any person who violates any provisions of this chapter shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars ($100), and the loss of any specimen referred to in this chapter.  
SC - Exotic Pets - Chapter 16. Importation of Wildlife.   Code 1976 50-11-1700 - 1950; 50-16-10 - 70   This South Carolina law states that it is unlawful for a person to import, possess, or transport for the purpose of release or to introduce or bring into this State the following live wildlife: a furbearer which includes but is not limited to, red and gray fox, raccoon, opossum, muskrat, mink, skunk, otter, bobcat, weasel, and beaver; a  member of the family Cervidae, a nondomestic member of the families Suidae (pigs), Tayassuidae (peccaries), Bovidae (bison, mountain goat, mountain sheep), coyote, bear, or turkey (genus Meleagris); or a non-native species of fish, crustacean, mollusk, or invertebrate. A permit may be granted only after the investigations and inspections of the wildlife have been made as the department considers necessary and the department approves the possession, transportation, or importation into the State. § 50-11-1765 provides that it is unlawful to sell live wolves or to ship, import, or possess live wolves into this State without a permit.  
SC - Exotic Pets - 47-5-50. Prohibition on sale of wild carnivores as pets; sale of domesticated ferrets.   Code 1976 47-5-20, 47-5-50   This South Carolina law provides that no carnivores, which normally are not domesticated, may be sold as pets in this State. A carnivore kept by an individual must not be allowed to run at large and then returned to confinement. A normally wild animal indigenous to this State, if held captive for a period of time, may be released to the wild. This section does not apply to domesticated ferrets. Each business that sells ferrets must also display a notice about the potential danger of unprovoked attacks against humans.  
SC - Wildlife - Chapter 16. Importation of Wildlife.   Code 1976 50-16-10 - 70; 50-11-1765   This set of South Carolina laws relates to the possession of live wildlife. A permit is required for the following: the family Cervidae, a nondomestic member of the families Suidae (pigs), Tayassuidae (peccaries), Bovidae (bison, mountain goat, mountain sheep), coyote, bear, or turkey (genus Meleagris), and a "furbearer," which includes, but is not limited to, red and gray fox, raccoon, opossum, muskrat, mink, skunk, otter, bobcat, weasel, and beaver. However, wildlife imported for exhibition purposes only by state wildlife departments, municipal zoos or parks, public museums, public zoological parks, and public scientific or educational institutions operated not for profit, and transient circuses are not required to procure a permit. Under another section, release of  a member of the family Suidae (pig) into the wild is prohibited except as provided by law. Further, it is unlawful for a person to possess, transport, or otherwise bring into the state or release or introduce into the state any diseased wildlife or other animal that reasonably might be expected to pose a public health or safety hazard. Violating any permitting requirement under the chapter results in a misdemeanor with a mandatory fine of not more than $1,000 or up to 6 months imprisonment, or both.  
SD - Exotic Pets - Chapter 40-3. State Animal Industry Board (captive wildlife provisions)   S D C L 40-3-23 - 29   These South Dakota statutes establish the Animal Industry Board, which promulgate rules to allow nondomestic mammals that are safe to the public and to the free-roaming animals of the state to be imported or possessed. The Board regulates the breeding, raising, marketing, and transportation of any captive nondomestic mammals. The Board may also develop and implement programs to identify animals and premises involved to further animal health and food safety.  
TN - Dangerous Animals - 39-17-101. Dangerous snakes or reptiles; handling   T. C. A. 39-17-101   This Tennessee law makes it an offense for a person to display, exhibit, handle, or use a poisonous or dangerous snake or reptile in a manner that endangers the life or health of any person. Violation is a Class C misdemeanor.  
TN - Exotic Pet - Part 4. Exotic Animals.   T. C. A. 70-4-401 - 417   This Tennessee chapter relates to the private possession of wildlife. It is unlawful for any person to possess, transport, import, export, buy, sell, barter, propagate or transfer any wildlife, whether indigenous to this state or not, except as provided by this part and rules and regulations promulgated by the Tennessee wildlife resources commission pursuant to this part. Additionally, no person shall possess Class I (all species inherently dangerous to humans such as wolves, bears, lions and poisonous snakes) or Class II (native species that are  not listed in other classes) wildlife without having documentary evidence showing the name and address of the supplier of such wildlife and date of acquisition. In order to obtain a permit to possess Class I wildlife, a person must be 21, have at least 2 years of experience handling such animals (or take an approved written exam), have a full-time resident caretaker, and must have a plan for the quick and safe recapture of the wildlife, among other provisions. The annual permits and fees for personal possession of  Class I wildlife are $150/animal or $1,000/facility.  
TX - Alligators - Chapter 65. Alligators   V. T. C. A., Parks & Wildlife Code 65.001 - 104   Under these Texas statutes, no person may take, sell, purchase, or possess an alligator, an alligator egg, or any part of an alligator without a permit. An offense is a misdemeanor.  
TX - Dangerous - Subchapter E: Dangerous Wild Animals   V. T. C. A., Health & Safety Code 822.101 - 116   Chapter 822, Subchapter E regulates the keeping of dangerous wild animals. It imposes a registration requirement upon the owner of a dangerous wild animal and also sets forth insurance requirements.  One thing to note is that Texas animal cruelty laws do not apply to these wild animals.  
TX - Exotic Animal - Discharge of Firearm in Public Place   V.T.C.A., Penal Code 42.01   Although it is illegal to discharge a firearm in a public place, or across a public road, this statute makes it an affirmative defense that the shooter had a reasonable fear of bodily injury to himself or to another by a "dangerous wild animal," which term includes but is not limited to a chimpanzee, orangutan, gorilla, lion, tiger, or bear.  
TX - Exotic pets - Subchapter A. Regulation of Keeping of Wild Animals   V. T. C. A., Local Government Code 240.001 - 004  

In this subchapter, “wild animal” is defined as a nondomestic animal that the commissioners court of a county determines is dangerous and is in need of control in that county. The commissioners court of a county by order may prohibit or regulate the keeping of a wild animal in the county. A person commits a Class C misdemeanor if the person violates an order adopted under this subchapter and the order defines the violation as an offense.

 
TX - Hunting, canned - 62.015. Hunting and Possession of Exotic Animals   V.T.C.A., Parks & Wildlife Code 62.015   This Texas law provides that no person on a public road or on the right-of-way of a public road may hunt an exotic animal. In addition, no person may hunt on the land of another for an exotic animal without the express consent of the owner of the land to hunt for exotic animals. A person who violates this section commits an offense that is a Class A Parks and Wildlife Code misdemeanor.  
US - Importation - CHAPTER 3. ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND PLANTS   18 USCS 42   Under this federal law, no importation of certain listed animals is permitted. Whoever violates this section, or any regulation issued pursuant thereto, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than six months, or both.  
US - Importation - Fraud and False Statements   18 USC 1001   Under this federal law, fraudulent statements, orally or in writing, may result in a fine and or imprisonment.  
US - Importation - Mailing of Injurious Article   18 USCS 1716   All kinds of poison, all articles and compositions containing poison, all poisonous animals, insects, reptiles, all explosives, inflammable materials, infernal machines, and mechanical, chemical, or other devices or compositions which may ignite or explode, all disease germs or scabs, and all other natural or artificial articles, compositions, or material which may kill or injure another, or injure the mails or other property, whether or not sealed as first-class matter, are nonmailable matter and shall not be conveyed in the mails or delivered from any post office or station thereof, nor by any officer or employee of the Postal Service.  
US - Trade - Tariff Act of 1930   19 USCA 1481   This federal law outlines the requirements for importation invoices.  
VA - Dog Breed - Article 11. Hybrid Canines.   Va. Code Ann. 3.2-6581 - 6584   This Virginia section provides three definitions related to hybrid dogs (wolf or coyote crossbreeds), including, adequate confinement, hybrid canine, responsible ownership. The section also allows any locality may, by ordinance, establish a permit system to ensure the adequate confinement and responsible ownership of hybrid canines. Violation of an ordinance enacted pursuant to this section is a Class 3 misdemeanor for the first violation and a Class 1 misdemeanor for any subsequent violation.  
VA - Exotic Pets - Article 11. Hybrid Canines   Va. Code Ann. 3.2-6581 - 6584   This section provides Virginia's hybrid canine laws (registered or described to a veterinarian, animal control, or other listed authority as a wolf or coyote-dog cross) . Under the section, any locality may, by ordinance, establish a permit system to ensure the adequate confinement and responsible ownership of hybrid canines. Violation of an ordinance enacted pursuant to this section is a Class 3 misdemeanor for the first violation and a Class 1 misdemeanor for any subsequent violation. Further, it is the duty of any animal control officer or other officer who may find a hybrid canine in the act of killing or injuring livestock or poultry to kill such hybrid canine forthwith, whether such hybrid canine bears a tag or not.  
VT - Dogs, Wolf-hybrids - Consolidated Dog Laws   20 V.S.A. 3511 - 3513; 3541 - 3817, 3901 - 3915, 4301 - 4304; 10 V.S.A. 5001 - 5007, 4748   These Vermont statutes comprise the state's dog laws.  Among the provisions include licensing and control laws for both domestic dogs and wolf-hybrids, laws concerning the sale of dogs, and various wildlife/hunting laws that implicate dogs.  
VT - Exotic pet, wildlife - 4709. Importation, stocking wild animals   10 V.S.A. 4709   This Vermont law provides that a person may not bring into the state or possess any live wild bird or animal of any kind, unless the person obtains from the commissioner a permit to do so. Applicants shall pay a permit fee of $100.00.  
WA - Exotic Pet - Chapter 16.30. Dangerous Wild Animals   West's RCWA 16.30.005 - 900   This Washington chapter passed in 2007 regulates the keeping of dangerous wild animals. By definition, a potentially dangerous wild animal includes, among others, lions, tigers, captive-bred cougars, jaguars, cheetahs, leopards, wolves, (but excluding wolf-hybrids), bears, hyenas, non-human primates, elephants, rhinoceroses, certain reptiles, and venomous snakes. A person shall not own, possess, keep, harbor, bring into the state, or have custody or control of a potentially dangerous wild animal. A person in legal possession of a potentially dangerous wild animal prior to July 22, 2007, and who is the legal possessor of the animal may keep possession of the animal for the remainder of the animal's life.  
WA - Health - Chapter 16.36. Animal Health   West's RCWA 16.36.005 - 160   These laws set forth the laws for importation and health requirements of certain imported animals. It also allows the director to establish inspection procedures for the transportation of animals. A section provides that it is unlawful for a person to bring an animal into Washington state without first securing a certificate of veterinary inspection, reviewed by the state veterinarian of the state of origin, verifying that the animal meets the Washington state animal health  
WI - Exotic pets - Chapter 169. Captive Wildlife   W. S. A. 169.01 - 46   The Wisconsin wildlife laws require a license to take a wild animal from the wild or to import one into the state. A license is also required to exhibit, breed, rehabilitate, hunt, and/or purchase wild animals. Violations can result in fines, forfeiture, and/or imprisonment.  
WI - Import - 95.20. Import and movement of animals   W. S. A. 95.20   Under this Wisconsin statute, the importation or movement of animals may be prohibited or regulated if it is necessary to prevent the introduction or spread of a disease that threatens the health of animals or of humans.  
WV - Exotic Pet - 20-2-51. Permit for keeping pets; 20-2-52. Permits for roadside menageries   W. Va. Code, 20-2-51; W. Va. Code, 20-2-52,   This West Virginia statute provides that the state fish and game director may issue a permit to a person to keep and maintain in captivity as a pet, a wild animal acquired from a commercial dealer or during the legal open season. The fee is charged is two dollars.  
WY - Wildlife, exotic hybrid - Chapter 1. Game and Fish Administration.   WY ST 23-1-101 to 109  

This section of Wyoming statutes states that all wildlife in the state is considered the property of the state.  It further provides that there is no private ownership of live animals classified in this act as big or trophy game animals. “Exotic species” means any wild animals, including amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, crustaceans or birds not found in a wild, free or unconfined status in Wyoming. This section also contains the management laws for delisted gray wolves that were repealed in 2012.

 

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