Statutes / Laws

Navigation

Full Site Search

Loading...

The navigation select boxes below will direct you to the selected page when you hit enter.

Topical Explanations

Primary Legal Materials

Select by Subject

Select by Species

Select Administrative Topic


World Law

Secondary Legal Materials

Great Apes and the Law

Great Apes and the Law

Maps of State Laws

Map of USA
Share |
Iowa

Iowa Code Annotated. Title XVI. Criminal Law and Procedure [Chs. 687-915]. Subtitle 1. Crime Control and Criminal Acts [Chs. 687-747]. Chapter 717A. Offenses Relating to Agricultural Production.

Statute Details
Printable Version
Citation: IA ST 717A.1 - 717A.4

Citation: I. C. A. 717A.1 - 717A.4


Last Checked by Web Center Staff: 12/2013

Summary:   This set of Iowa laws relates to interference with animal facility operations as well as crop operations (commonly known as "ecoterrorism"). Under the section, it is unlawful for a person, without consent, to destroy property of an animal facility or kill or injure an animal maintained there. It is also unlawful for a person to enter such a facility if the person has notice that it is not open to the public with intent to disrupt operations there. A person suffering damages from such actions at an animal facility can bring an action to recover damages, which includes an amount equaling three times all actual and consequential damages. Violation of the law is a class C felony if the damage or death of an animal exceeds $10,000. It is a class D felony if the damage is exceeds $1,000 but does not exceed $10,000. Finally, it is an aggravated misdemeanor if the damage does not exceed $1,000, a serious misdemeanor if the damage exceeds $50 but is less than $100, and a simple misdemeanor if the damage does not exceed $50. Iowa has a specific section that makes it a class B felony to use pathogens with an intent to threaten the health of an animal or crop.


Statute in Full:

717A.1. Definitions

717A.2. Animal facilities--civil action--criminal penalties

717A.3. Crops or crop operation property damage--civil action--criminal penalties

717A.3A. Agricultural production facility fraud

717A.4. Use of pathogens to threaten animals and crops--penalty

 

 

717A.1. Definitions

<[Text subject to final changes by the Iowa Code Editor for Code 2013.]>

As used in this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires:

1. “Agricultural animal” means any of the following:

a. An animal that is maintained for its parts or products having commercial value, including but not limited to its muscle tissue, organs, fat, blood, manure, bones, milk, wool, hide, pelt, feathers, eggs, semen, embryos, or honey.

b. An animal belonging to the equine species, including horse, pony, mule, jenny, donkey, or hinny.

2. “Agricultural production” means any activity related to maintaining an agricultural animal at an animal facility or a crop on crop operation property.

2A. “Agricultural production facility” means an animal facility as defined in subsection 4, paragraph “a”, or a crop operation property.

3. “Animal” means a warm-blooded or cold-blooded animal, including but not limited to an animal belonging to the bovine, canine, feline, equine, ovine, or porcine species; farm deer as defined in section 189A.2; ostriches, rheas, or emus; an animal which belongs to a species of poultry or fish; mink or other pelt-bearing mammals; any invertebrate; or honey bees.

4. “Animal facility” means any of the following:

a. A location where an agricultural animal is maintained for agricultural production purposes, including but not limited to a location dedicated to farming as defined in section 9H.1, a livestock market, exhibition, or a vehicle used to transport the animal.

b. A location where an animal is maintained for educational or scientific purposes, including a research facility as defined in section 162.2, an exhibition, or a vehicle used to transport the animal.

c. A location operated by a person licensed to practice veterinary medicine pursuant to chapter 169.

d. A pound as defined in section 162.2.

e. An animal shelter as defined in section 162.2.

f. A pet shop as defined in section 162.2.

g. A boarding kennel as defined in section 162.2.

h. A commercial kennel as defined in section 162.2.

5. “Consent” means express or apparent assent by a person authorized to provide such assent.

6. a. “Crop” means any plant maintained for its parts or products having commercial value, including but not limited to stalks, trunks and branches, cuttings, grafts, scions, leaves, buds, fruit, vegetables, roots, bulbs, or seeds, if the plant is any of the following:

(1) A plant produced from an agricultural seed or vegetable seed as defined in section 199.1, including any plant producing a commodity listed in section 210.10.

(2) A plant which is a tree, shrub, vine, berry plant, greenhouse plant, or flower.

b. A plant produced from a noxious weed seed as defined in section 199.1 is not a crop unless the plant is produced as a research crop.

7. “Crop operation” means a commercial enterprise where a crop is maintained on the property of the commercial enterprise.

8. “Crop operation property” means any of the following:

a. Real property that is a crop field, orchard, nursery, greenhouse, garden, elevator, seedhouse, barn, warehouse, any other associated land or structures located on the land, and personal property located on the land including machinery or equipment, that is part of a crop operation.

b. A vehicle used to transport a crop that was maintained on the crop operation property.

9. “Deprive” means to do any of the following:

a. For an animal maintained at an animal facility or property belonging to an animal facility, “deprive” means to do any of the following:

(1) Withhold the animal or property for a period of time sufficient to significantly reduce the value or enjoyment of the animal or property.

(2) Withhold the animal or property for ransom or upon condition to restore the animal or property in return for compensation.

(3) Dispose of the animal or property in a manner that makes recovery of the animal or property by its owner unlikely.

b. For crops maintained on crop operation property or for crop operation property, “deprive” means to do any of the following:

(1) Occupy any part of a crop operation property for a period of time sufficient to prevent access to the crop or crop operation property.

(2) Dispose of a crop maintained on the crop operation property or belonging to the crop operation in a manner that makes recovery of the crop or crop operation property by its owner unlikely.

10. “Maintain” means to do any of the following:

a. Keep and provide for the care and feeding of any animal, including any activity relating to confining, handling, breeding, transporting, or exhibiting the animal.

b. Keep and preserve any crop by planting, nurturing, harvesting, and storing the crop; or storing, planting, or nurturing the crop's seed.

11. “Owner” means any of the following:

a. A person, including a public or private entity, who has a legal interest in an animal or property belonging to an animal facility or who is authorized by the holder of the legal interest to act on the holder's behalf in maintaining the animal.

b. A person, including a public or private entity, who has a legal interest in a crop or crop operation property or who is authorized by the holder of the legal interest to act on the holder's behalf in maintaining the crop.

12. “Research crop” means a crop, including the crop's seed, that is maintained for purposes of scientific research regarding the study or alteration of the genetic characteristics of a plant or associated seed, including its deoxyribonucleic acid, which is accomplished by breeding or by using biotechnological systems or techniques.

Credits

Added by Acts 2001 (79 G.A.) ch. 120, § 1. Amended by Acts 2008 (82 G.A.) ch. 1058, S.F. 2177, § 19; Acts 2012 (84 G.A.) ch. 1005, H.F. 589, § 1, eff. March 2, 2012.


717A.2. Animal facilities--civil action--criminal penalties

<[Text subject to final changes by the Iowa Code Editor for Code Supp. 2013.]>

1. A person shall not, without the consent of the owner, do any of the following:

a. Willfully destroy property of an animal facility, or kill or injure an animal maintained at an animal facility, including by an act of violence or the transmission of a disease including but not limited to any disease designated by the department of agriculture and land stewardship pursuant to section 163.2.

b. Exercise control over an animal facility including property of the animal facility, or an animal maintained at an animal facility, with intent to deprive the animal facility of an animal or property.

c. (1) Enter onto or into an animal facility, or remain on or in an animal facility, if the person has notice that the facility is not open to the public, if the person has an intent to do one of the following:

(a) Disrupt operations conducted at the animal facility, if the operations directly relate to agricultural production, animal maintenance, educational or scientific purposes, or veterinary care.

(b) Kill or injure an animal maintained at the animal facility.

(2) A person has notice that an animal facility is not open to the public if the person is provided notice before entering onto or into the facility, or the person refuses to immediately depart from the facility after being informed to leave. The notice may be in the form of a written or verbal communication by the owner, a fence or other enclosure designed to exclude intruders or contain animals, or a sign posted which is reasonably likely to come to the attention of an intruder and which indicates that entry is forbidden.

2. A person suffering damages resulting from an action which is in violation of subsection 1 may bring an action in the district court against the person causing the damage to recover all of the following:

a. An amount equaling three times all actual and consequential damages.

b. Court costs and reasonable attorney fees.

3. A person violating this section is guilty of the following:

a. A person who violates subsection 1, paragraph “a”, is guilty of a class “C” felony if the injury to or death of an animal or damage to property exceeds ten thousand dollars, a class “D” felony if the injury to or death of an animal or damage to property exceeds one thousand dollars but does not exceed ten thousand dollars, an aggravated misdemeanor if the injury to or death of an animal or damage to property exceeds one hundred dollars but does not exceed one thousand dollars, a serious misdemeanor if the injury to or death of an animal or damage to property exceeds fifty dollars but does not exceed one hundred dollars, or a simple misdemeanor if the injury to or death of an animal or damage to property does not exceed fifty dollars.

b. A person who violates subsection 1, paragraph “b”, is guilty of a class “D” felony.

c. A person who violates subsection 1, paragraph “c”, is guilty of an aggravated misdemeanor.

4. a. This section does not prohibit any conduct of a person holding a legal interest in an animal or property which is superior to the interest held by a person suffering from damages resulting from the conduct.

b. This section does not apply to a governmental agency that is taking lawful action against an animal or animal facility.

c. This section does not apply to a licensed veterinarian practicing veterinary medicine as provided in chapter 169 and according to customary standards of care.

Credits

Transferred from § 717A.1 by the Code Editor for Code 2003. Amended by Acts 2003 (80 G.A.) ch. 44, § 106; Acts 2004 (80 G.A.) ch. 1142, § 1; Acts 2005 (81 G.A.) ch. 3, S.F. 113, § 110; Acts 2013 (85 G.A.) ch. 30, H.F. 417, § 212.

 


717A.3. Crops or crop operation property damage--civil action--criminal penalties

<[Text subject to final changes by the Iowa Code Editor for Code Supp. 2013.]>

1. A person shall not, without the consent of the owner, do any of the following:

a. Willfully destroy or damage a crop maintained on crop operation property or crop operation property.

b. Exercise control over a crop maintained on crop operation property or crop operation property with an intent to deprive the owner of the crop or crop operation property.

c. (1) Enter onto or remain on crop operation property if the person has notice that the property is not open to the public, and the person has an intent to do one of the following:

(a) Disrupt agricultural production conducted on the crop operation property if the agricultural production directly relates to the maintenance of crops. A person is presumed to intend disruption if the person moves, removes, or defaces any sign posted on the crop operation property or label used by the owner and the sign or label identifies a crop maintained on the crop operation property.

(b) Destroy or damage a crop or any portion of a crop maintained on the crop operation property.

(2) A person has notice that a crop operation property is not open to the public if the person is provided notice prohibiting entry before the person enters onto the crop operation property, or the person refuses to immediately depart from the crop operation property after being notified to leave. The notice may be in the form of a written or verbal communication by the owner, a fence or other enclosure designed to exclude intruders, or a sign posted which is reasonably likely to come to the attention of an intruder and which indicates that entry is prohibited.

2. a. A person suffering damages resulting from an act which is in violation of this section may bring an action in the district court against the person causing the damage to recover all of the following:

(1) For damages that are not to a research crop, an amount equaling three times all actual and consequential losses.

(2) For damages to a research crop, all of the following:

(a) Twice the amount of damages directly incurred by market losses, based on the lost market value of the research crop due to the damage, assuming that the research crop would have matured undamaged and been sold in normal commercial channels. If the research crop has no market value, the damages shall be twice the amount of actual damages incurred in producing, harvesting, and storing the damaged research crop.

(b) Twice the amount of damages directly incurred by developmental losses, based on the losses associated with the research crop's expected scientific value. The research crop's scientific value shall be determined by calculating the amount expended in developing the research crop, including costs associated with researching, testing, breeding, or engineering. However, such damages shall not be awarded to the extent that the losses are mitigated by undamaged research crops that have been identically developed.

b. A prevailing plaintiff in an action brought under this section shall be awarded court costs and reasonable attorney fees, which shall be taxed as part of the costs of the action.

3. A person who violates this section as it applies to a research crop or crop operation property where a research crop is maintained is guilty of the following:

a. For a violation of subsection 1, paragraph “a”, the person is guilty of criminal mischief as provided in section 716.1, and commits the same class of offense as provided in sections 716.3 through 716.6 based on the amount of damage to the research crop or crop operation property where the research crop is maintained.

b. For a violation of subsection 1, paragraph “b”, the person is guilty of a class “D” felony.

c. For a violation of subsection 1, paragraph “c”, the person is guilty of an aggravated misdemeanor.

4. A person who violates this section as it applies to a crop other than a research crop or crop operation property where a research crop is not maintained is guilty of the following:

a. For a violation of subsection 1, paragraph “a”, the person is guilty of criminal mischief as provided in section 716.1, and commits the same class of offense as provided in sections 716.3 through 716.6 based on the amount of damage to the crop or crop operation property where the crop is maintained.

b. For a violation of subsection 1, paragraph “b”, the person is guilty of an aggravated misdemeanor.

c. For a violation of subsection 1, paragraph “c”, the person is guilty of a serious misdemeanor.

5. a. This section does not prohibit any conduct of a person holding a legal interest in a crop operation that is superior to the interest held by a person suffering from damages resulting from the conduct.

b. This section does not apply to a governmental agency that is taking lawful action against a crop or crop operation property.

Credits

Added by Acts 2001 (79 G.A.) ch. 120, § 6. Amended by Acts 2013 (85 G.A.) ch. 30, H.F. 417, § 213.

 717A.3A. Agricultural production facility fraud

1. A person is guilty of agricultural production facility fraud if the person willfully does any of the following:

a. Obtains access to an agricultural production facility by false pretenses.

b. Makes a false statement or representation as part of an application or agreement to be employed at an agricultural production facility, if the person knows the statement to be false, and makes the statement with an intent to commit an act not authorized by the owner of the agricultural production facility, knowing that the act is not authorized.

2. A person who commits agricultural production facility fraud under subsection 1 is guilty of the following:

a. For the first conviction, a serious misdemeanor.

b. For a second or subsequent conviction, an aggravated misdemeanor.

3. a. A person who conspires to commit agricultural production facility fraud under subsection 1 is subject to the provisions of chapter 706. A person who aids and abets in the commission of agricultural production facility fraud under subsection 1 is subject to the provisions of chapter 703. When two or more persons, acting in concert, knowingly participate in committing agricultural production facility fraud under subsection 1, each person is responsible for the acts of the other person as provided in section 703.2. A person who has knowledge that agricultural production facility fraud under subsection 1 has been committed and that a certain person committed it, and who does not stand in the relation of husband or wife to the person committing the agricultural production facility fraud under subsection 1, and who harbors, aids, or conceals the person committing the agricultural production facility fraud under subsection 1, with the intent to prevent the apprehension of the person committing the agricultural production facility fraud under subsection 1, is subject to section 703.3.

b. A trial information or an indictment relating to agricultural production facility fraud under subsection 1 need not contain allegations of vicarious liability as provided in chapter 703.

Credits

Added by Acts 2012 (84 G.A.) ch. 1005, H.F. 589, § 2, eff. March 2, 2012.


717A.4. Use of pathogens to threaten animals and crops--penalty

1. Except as provided in subsection 2, a person shall not willfully possess, transport, or transfer a pathogen with an intent to threaten the health of an animal or crop.

a. For animals, a pathogen restricted under this section shall be limited to a biological agent or toxin listed in 9 C.F.R. § 121.2(b), as that list exists on January 1, 2004.

b. For crops, a pathogen restricted under this section shall be limited to a biological agent or toxin listed in 7 C.F.R. § 331.3, as that list exists on January 1, 2004.

2. This section does not apply to a person who possesses, transports, or distributes a pathogen in compliance with federal law, including but not limited to as provided in 9 C.F.R. pt. 121 or 7 C.F.R. pt. 331.

3. A person who violates this section is guilty of a class “B” felony.

CREDIT(S)

Added by Acts 2004 (80 G.A.) ch. 1142, § 2.

 


 



Top of Page
Share |