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United States of America

United States Code Annotated. Title 21. Food and Drugs. Chapter 10. Poultry and Poultry Products Inspection

Statute Details
Printable Version
Citation: 21 U.S.C.A. 451 - 472



Last Checked by Web Center Staff: 11/2013

Summary:   PPIA is federal legislation that regulates the processing and distribution of poultry products.
To ensure that poultry is healthful and fit for human consumption, PPIA forbids the buying, selling, transporting and importing of dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry and products made from poultry that died other than by slaughter. PPIA also requires certain sanitary standards and practices, as well as labeling and container standards, to prevent the sale of adulterated or misbranded poultry products. Any person who violates the provisions may face a fine and/or imprisoned. There are some exceptions to PPIA, such as people who slaughter their own poultry for their own use or in observance of religious dietary laws.


Statute in Full:

§  451. Congressional statement of findings

§ 452. Congressional declaration of policy

§ 453. Definitions

§ 454. Federal and State cooperation in development and administration of State poultry product inspection programs

§ 455. Inspection in official establishments

§ 456. Operation of premises, facilities and equipment

§ 457. Labeling and container standards

§ 458. Prohibited acts

§ 459. Compliance by all establishments

§ 460. Miscellaneous activities subject to regulation

§ 461. Offenses and punishment

§ 462. Reporting of violations; notice; opportunity to present views

§ 463. Rules and regulations

§ 464. Exemptions

§ 465. Limitations upon entry of poultry products and other materials into official establishments

§ 466. Imports

§ 467. Inspection services

§ 467a. Administrative detention; duration; pending judicial proceedings; notification of government authorities; release; removal of official marks

§ 467b. Seizure and condemnation

§ 467c. Federal court jurisdiction of enforcement and injunction proceedings and other kinds of cases; limitations; United States as plaintiff; subpenas

§ 467d. Administration and enforcement; applicability of penalty provisions; conduct of inquiries; power and jurisdiction of courts

§ 467e. Non-Federal jurisdiction of Federally regulated matters; prohibition of additional or different requirements for establishments with inspection services and as to marking, labeling, packaging, and ingredients; recordkeeping and related requirements; concurrent jurisdiction over distribution for human food purposes of adulterated or misbranded and imported articles; other matters

§ 467f. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act applications

§ 468. Cost of inspection; overtime

§ 469. Authorization of appropriations

§ 470. Omitted

§ 471. Safe Meat and Poultry Inspection Panel

§ 472. Interstate shipment of poultry inspected by Federal and State agencies for certain small establishments

 

 


§  451. Congressional statement of findings

Poultry and poultry products are an important source of the Nation's total supply of food. They are consumed throughout the Nation and the major portion thereof moves in interstate or foreign commerce. It is essential in the public interest that the health and welfare of consumers be protected by assuring that poultry products distributed to them are wholesome, not adulterated, and properly marked, labeled, and packaged. Unwholesome, adulterated, or misbranded poultry products impair the effective regulation of poultry products in interstate or foreign commerce, are injurious to the public welfare, destroy markets for wholesome, not adulterated, and properly labeled and packaged poultry products, and result in sundry losses to poultry producers and processors of poultry and poultry products, as well as injury to consumers. It is hereby found that all articles and poultry which are regulated under this chapter are either in interstate or foreign commerce or substantially affect such commerce, and that regulation by the Secretary of Agriculture and cooperation by the States and other jurisdictions as contemplated by this chapter are appropriate to prevent and eliminate burdens upon such commerce, to effectively regulate such commerce, and to protect the health and welfare of consumers.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 2, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 441; Pub.L. 90-492, § 2, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 791.)

 

§ 452. Congressional declaration of policy

It is hereby declared to be the policy of the Congress to provide for the inspection of poultry and poultry products and otherwise regulate the processing and distribution of such articles as hereinafter prescribed to prevent the movement or sale in interstate or foreign commerce of, or the burdening of such commerce by, poultry products which are adulterated or misbranded. It is the intent of Congress that when poultry and poultry products are condemned because of disease, the reason for condemnation in such instances shall be supported by scientific fact, information, or criteria, and such condemnation under this chapter shall be achieved through uniform inspection standards and uniform applications thereof.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 3, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 441; Pub.L. 90-492, § 3, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 792.)

 

§ 453. Definitions

For purposes of this chapter--

(a) The term “commerce” means commerce between any State, any territory, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof; or within any territory not organized with a legislative body, or the District of Columbia.

(b) Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, the term “State” means any State of the United States and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(c) The term “territory” means Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, American Samoa, and any other territory or possession of the United States, excluding the Canal Zone.

(d) The term “United States” means the States, the District of Columbia, and the territories of the United States.

(e) The term “poultry” means any domesticated bird, whether live or dead.

(f) The term “poultry product” means any poultry carcass, or part thereof; or any product which is made wholly or in part from any poultry carcass or part thereof, excepting products which contain poultry ingredients only in a relatively small proportion or historically have not been considered by consumers as products of the poultry food industry, and which are exempted by the Secretary from definition as a poultry product under such conditions as the Secretary may prescribe to assure that the poultry ingredients in such products are not adulterated and that such products are not represented as poultry products.

(g) The term “adulterated” shall apply to any poultry product under one or more of the following circumstances:

(1) if it bears or contains any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render it injurious to health; but in case the substance is not an added substance, such article shall not be considered adulterated under this clause if the quantity of such substance in or on such article does not ordinarily render it injurious to health;

(2)(A) if it bears or contains (by reason of administration of any substance to the live poultry or otherwise) any added poisonous or added deleterious substance (other than one which is (i) a pesticide chemical in or on a raw agricultural commodity; (ii) a food additive; or (iii) a color additive) which may, in the judgment of the Secretary, make such article unfit for human food;

(B) if it is, in whole or in part, a raw agricultural commodity and such commodity bears or contains a pesticide chemical which is unsafe within the meaning of section 346a of this title;

(C) if it bears or contains any food additive which is unsafe within the meaning of section 348 of this title;

(D) if it bears or contains any color additive which is unsafe within the meaning of section 379e of this title: Provided, That an article which is not otherwise deemed adulterated under clause (B), (C), or (D) shall nevertheless be deemed adulterated if use of the pesticide chemical, food additive, or color additive in or on such article is prohibited by regulations of the Secretary in official establishments;

(3) if it consists in whole or in part of any filthy, putrid, or decomposed substance or is for any other reason unsound, unhealthful, unwholesome, or otherwise unfit for human food;

(4) if it has been prepared, packed, or held under insanitary conditions whereby it may have become contaminated with filth, or whereby it may have been rendered injurious to health;

(5) if it is, in whole or in part, the product of any poultry which has died otherwise than by slaughter;

(6) if its container is composed, in whole or in part, of any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render the contents injurious to health;

(7) if it has been intentionally subjected to radiation, unless the use of the radiation was in conformity with a regulation or exemption in effect pursuant to section 348 of this title;

(8) if any valuable constituent has been in whole or in part omitted or abstracted therefrom; or if any substance has been substituted, wholly or in part therefor; or if damage or inferiority has been concealed in any manner; or if any substance has been added thereto or mixed or packed therewith so as to increase its bulk or weight, or reduce its quality or strength, or make it appear better or of greater value than it is.

(h) The term “misbranded” shall apply to any poultry product under one or more of the following circumstances:

(1) if its labeling is false or misleading in any particular;

(2) if it is offered for sale under the name of another food;

(3) if it is an imitation of another food, unless its label bears, in type of uniform size and prominence, the word “imitation” and immediately thereafter, the name of the food imitated;

(4) if its container is so made, formed, or filled as to be misleading;

(5) unless it bears a label showing (A) the name and the place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor; and (B) an accurate statement of the quantity of the product in terms of weight, measure, or numerical count: Provided, That under clause (B) of this subparagraph (5), reasonable variations may be permitted, and exemptions as to small packages or articles not in packages or other containers may be established by regulations prescribed by the Secretary;

(6) if any word, statement, or other information required by or under authority of this chapter to appear on the label or other labeling is not prominently placed thereon with such conspicuousness (as compared with other words, statements, designs, or devices, in the labeling) and in such terms as to render it likely to be read and understood by the ordinary individual under customary conditions of purchase and use;

(7) if it purports to be or is represented as a food for which a definition and standard of identity or composition has been prescribed by regulations of the Secretary under section 457 of this title unless (A) it conforms to such definition and standard, and (B) its label bears the name of the food specified in the definition and standard and, insofar as may be required by such regulations, the common names of optional ingredients (other than spices, flavoring, and coloring) present in such food;

(8) if it purports to be or is represented as a food for which a standard or standards of fill of container have been prescribed by regulations of the Secretary under section 457 of this title, and it falls below the standard of fill of container applicable thereto, unless its label bears, in such manner and form as such regulations specify, a statement that it falls below such standard;

(9) if it is not subject to the provisions of subparagraph (7), unless its label bears

(A) the common or usual name of the food, if any there be, and (B) in case it is fabricated from two or more ingredients, the common or usual name of each such ingredient; except that spices, flavorings, and colorings may, when authorized by the Secretary, be designated as spices, flavorings, and colorings without naming each: Provided, That to the extent that compliance with the requirements of clause

(B) of this subparagraph (9) is impracticable or results in deception or unfair competition, exemptions shall be established by regulations promulgated by the Secretary;

(10) if it purports to be or is represented for special dietary uses unless its label bears such information concerning its vitamin, mineral, and other dietary properties as the Secretary, after consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, determines to be, and by regulations prescribes as, necessary in order fully to inform purchasers as to its value for such uses;

(11) if it bears or contains any artificial flavoring, artificial coloring, or chemical preservative unless it bears labeling stating that fact: Provided, That, to the extent that compliance with the requirements of this subparagraph (11) is impracticable, exemptions shall be established by regulations promulgated by the Secretary; or

(12) if it fails to bear on its containers, and in the case of nonconsumer packaged carcasses (if the Secretary so requires) directly thereon, as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe, the official inspection legend and official establishment number of the establishment where the article was processed, and, unrestricted by any of the foregoing, such other information as the Secretary may require in such regulations to assure that it will not have false or misleading labeling and that the public will be informed of the manner of handling required to maintain the article in a wholesome condition.

(i) The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Agriculture or his delegate.

(j) The term “person” means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other business unit.

(k) The term “inspector” means: (1) an employee or official of the United States Government authorized by the Secretary to inspect poultry and poultry products under the authority of this chapter, or (2) any employee or official of the government of any State or territory or the District of Columbia authorized by the Secretary to inspect poultry and poultry products under authority of this chapter, under an agreement entered into between the Secretary and the appropriate State or other agency.

(l) The term “official mark” means the official inspection legend or any other symbol prescribed by regulation of the Secretary to identify the status of any article or poultry under this chapter.

(m) The term “official inspection legend” means any symbol prescribed by regulations of the Secretary showing that an article was inspected for wholesomeness in accordance with this chapter.

(n) The term “official certificate” means any certificate prescribed by regulations of the Secretary for issuance by an inspector or other person performing official functions under this chapter.

(o) The term “official device” means any device prescribed or authorized by the Secretary for use in applying any official mark.

(p) The term “official establishment” means any establishment as determined by the Secretary at which inspection of the slaughter of poultry, or the processing of poultry products, is maintained under the authority of this chapter.

(q) The term “inspection service” means the official Government service within the Department of Agriculture designated by the Secretary as having the responsibility for carrying out the provisions of this chapter.

(r) The term “container” or “package” includes any box, can, tin, cloth, plastic, or other receptacle, wrapper, or cover.

(s) The term “label” means a display of written, printed, or graphic matter upon any article or the immediate container (not including packaged liners) of any article; and the term “labeling” means all labels and other written, printed, or graphic matter (1) upon any article or any of its containers or wrappers, or (2) accompanying such article.

(t) The term “shipping container” means any container used or intended for use in packaging the product packed in an immediate container.

(u) The term “immediate container” includes any consumer package; or any other container in which poultry products, not consumer packaged, are packed.

(v) The term “capable of use as human food” shall apply to any carcass, or part or product of a carcass, of any poultry, unless it is denatured or otherwise identified as required by regulations prescribed by the Secretary to deter its use as human food, or it is naturally inedible by humans.

(w) The term “processed” means slaughtered, canned, salted, stuffed, rendered, boned, cut up, or otherwise manufactured or processed.

(x) The term “Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act” means the Act so entitled, approved June 25, 1938 (52 Stat. 1040) [21 U.S.C.A. § 301 et seq.], and Acts amendatory thereof or supplementary thereto.

(y) The terms “pesticide chemical”, “food additive”, “color additive”, and “raw agricultural commodity” shall have the same meanings for purposes of this chapter as under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C.A. § 301 et seq.].

(z) The term “poultry products broker” means any person engaged in the business of buying or selling poultry products on commission, or otherwise negotiating purchases or sales of such articles other than for his own account or as an employee of another person.

(aa) The term “renderer” means any person engaged in the business of rendering carcasses, or parts or products of the carcasses, of poultry, except rendering conducted under inspection or exemption under this chapter.

(bb) The term “animal food manufacturer” means any person engaged in the business of manufacturing or processing animal food derived wholly or in part from carcasses, or parts or products of the carcasses, of poultry.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 4, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 441; Pub.L. 87-498, June 25, 1962, 76 Stat. 110; Pub.L. 90-492, § 4, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 792; Pub.L. 102-571, Title I, § 107(13), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499.)

 

§ 454. Federal and State cooperation in development and administration of State poultry product inspection programs

(a) State laws; planning, technical and financial assistance; advisory committees

It is the policy of the Congress to protect the consuming public from poultry products that are adulterated or misbranded and to assist in efforts by State and other government agencies to accomplish this objective. In furtherance of this policy--

(1) The Secretary is authorized, whenever he determines that it would effectuate the purposes of this chapter, to cooperate with the appropriate State agency in developing and administering a State poultry product inspection program in any State which has enacted a mandatory State poultry product inspection law that imposes ante mortem and post mortem inspection, reinspection and sanitation requirements that are at least equal to those under this chapter, with respect to all or certain classes of persons engaged in the State in slaughtering poultry or processing poultry products for use as human food solely for distribution within such State.

(2) The Secretary is further authorized, whenever he determines that it would effectuate the purposes of this chapter, to cooperate with appropriate State agencies in developing and administering State programs under State laws containing authorities at least equal to those provided in section 460 of this title; and to cooperate with other agencies of the United States in carrying out any provisions of this chapter. In carrying out the provisions of this chapter, the Secretary may conduct such examinations, investigations, and inspections as he determines practicable through any officer or employee of any State or Territory or the District of Columbia commissioned by the Secretary for such purpose.

(3) Cooperation with State agencies under this section may include furnishing to the appropriate State agency (i) advisory assistance in planning and otherwise developing an adequate State program under the State law; and (ii) technical and laboratory assistance and training (including necessary curricular and instructional materials and equipment), and financial and other aid for administration of such a program. The amount to be contributed to any State by the Secretary under this section from Federal funds for any year shall not exceed 50 per centum of the estimated total cost of the cooperative program; and the Federal funds shall be allocated among the States desiring to cooperate on an equitable basis. Such cooperation and payment shall be contingent at all times upon the administration of the State program in a manner which the Secretary, in consultation with the appropriate advisory committee appointed under subparagraph (4), deems adequate to effectuate the purposes of this section.

(4) The Secretary may appoint advisory committees consisting of such representatives of appropriate State agencies as the Secretary and the State agencies may designate to consult with him concerning State and Federal programs with respect to poultry product inspection and other matters within the scope of this chapter, including evaluating State programs for purposes of this chapter, and obtaining better coordination and more uniformity among the State programs and between the Federal and State programs and adequate protection of consumers.

(b) Appropriate State agency; performance of functions by subordinate governmental unit

The appropriate State agency with which the Secretary may cooperate under this chapter shall be a single agency in the State which is primarily responsible for the coordination of the State programs having objectives similar to those under this chapter. When the State program includes performance of certain functions by a municipality or other subordinate governmental unit, such unit shall be deemed to be a part of the State agency for purposes of this section.

(c) Intrastate activities; designation of State for regulation; publication of designation; exempted operations; termination of designation; review of operations in nondesignated States; annual report

(1) If the Secretary has reason to believe, by thirty days prior to the expiration of two years after August 18, 1968, that a State has failed to develop or is not enforcing, with respect to all establishments within its jurisdiction (except those that would be exempted from Federal inspection under subparagraph (2) of this paragraph (c) ) at which poultry are slaughtered, or poultry products are processed for use as human food, solely for distribution within such State, and the products of such establishments, requirements at least equal to those imposed under sections 451 to 453, 455 to 459, 461 to 467d of this title, he shall promptly notify the Governor of the State of this fact. If the Secretary determines, after consultation with the Governor of the State, or representative selected by him, that such requirements have not been developed and activated, he shall promptly after the expiration of such two-year period designate such State as one in which the provisions of said sections of this chapter shall apply to operations and transactions wholly within such State: Provided, That if the Secretary has reason to believe that the State will activate such requirements within one additional year, he may delay such designation for said period, and not designate the State, if he determines at the end of the year that the State then has such requirements in effective operation. The Secretary shall publish any such designation in the Federal Register and, upon the expiration of thirty days after such publication, the provisions of said sections of this chapter shall apply to operations and transactions and to persons engaged therein in the State to the same extent and in the same manner as if such operations and transactions were conducted in or for commerce. However, notwithstanding any other provision of this section, if the Secretary determines that any establishment within a State is producing adulterated poultry products for distribution within such State which would clearly endanger the public health he shall notify the Governor of the State and the appropriate advisory committee provided for by subparagraph (a)(4) of this section of such fact for effective action under State or local law. If the State does not take action to prevent such endangering of the public health within a reasonable time after such notice, as determined by the Secretary, in light of the risk to public health, the Secretary may forthwith designate any such establishment as subject to the provisions of said sections of this chapter, and thereupon the establishment and operator thereof shall be subject to such provisions as though engaged in commerce until such time as the Secretary determines that such State has developed and will enforce requirements at least equal to those imposed under said sections.

(2) The provisions of this chapter requiring inspection of the slaughter of poultry and the processing of poultry products shall not apply to operations of types traditionally and usually conducted at retail stores and restaurants, when conducted at any retail store or restaurant or similar retail-type establishment for sale in normal retail quantities or service of such articles to consumers at such establishments if such establishments are subject to such inspection provisions only under this paragraph (c). For the purposes of this subparagraph, operations conducted at a restaurant central kitchen facility shall be considered as being conducted at a restaurant if the restaurant central kitchen prepares poultry products that are ready to eat when they leave such facility and are served in meals or as entrees only to customers at restaurants owned or operated by the same person owning or operating such facility: Provided, That such facility shall be subject to the provisions of section 460(b) of this title: Provided further, That the facility may be subject to the inspection requirements of this chapter for as long as the Secretary deems necessary, if the Secretary determines that the sanitary conditions or practices of the facility or the processing procedures or methods at the facility are such that any of its poultry products are rendered adulterated.

(3) Whenever the Secretary determines that any State designated under this paragraph (c) has developed and will enforce State poultry products inspection requirements at least equal to those imposed under the aforesaid sections of this chapter, with respect to the operations and transactions within such State which are regulated under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph (c), he shall terminate the designation of such State under this paragraph (c), but this shall not preclude the subsequent redesignation of the State at any time upon thirty days' notice to the Governor and publication in the Federal Register in accordance with this paragraph, and any State may be designated upon such notice and publication, at any time after the period specified in this paragraph whether or not the State has theretofore been designated, upon the Secretary determining that it is not effectively enforcing requirements at least equal to those imposed under said sections.

(4) The Secretary shall promptly upon August 18, 1968, and periodically thereafter, but at least annually, review the requirements, including the enforcement thereof, of the several States not designated under this paragraph (c), with respect to the slaughter, and the processing, storage, handling, and distribution of poultry products, and inspection of such operations, and annually report thereon to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate in the report required in section 470 of this title.

(d) “State” defined

As used in this section, the term “State” means any State (including the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico) or organized territory.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 5, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 443; Pub.L. 90-492, § 5, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 796; Pub.L. 98-487, § 2, Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2264; Pub.L. 103-437, § 8(1), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4588.)

 

§ 455. Inspection in official establishments

(a) Ante mortem inspection

For the purpose of preventing the entry into or flow or movement in commerce of, or the burdening of commerce by, any poultry product which is capable of use as human food and is adulterated, the Secretary shall, where and to the extent considered by him necessary, cause to be made by inspectors ante mortem inspection of poultry in each official establishment processing poultry or poultry products for commerce or otherwise subject to inspection under this chapter.

(b) Post mortem inspection; quarantine, segregation, and reinspection

The Secretary, whenever processing operations are being conducted, shall cause to be made by inspectors post mortem inspection of the carcass of each bird processed, and at any time such quarantine, segregation, and reinspection as he deems necessary of poultry and poultry products capable of use as human food in each official establishment processing such poultry or poultry products for commerce or otherwise subject to inspection under this chapter.

(c) Condemnation; appeal; reprocessing

All poultry carcasses and parts thereof and other poultry products found to be adulterated shall be condemned and shall, if no appeal be taken from such determination of condemnation, be destroyed for human food purposes under the supervision of an inspector: Provided, That carcasses, parts, and products, which may by reprocessing be made not adulterated, need not be so condemned and destroyed if so reprocessed under the supervision of an inspector and thereafter found to be not adulterated. If an appeal be taken from such determination, the carcasses, parts, or products shall be appropriately marked and segregated pending completion of an appeal inspection, which appeal shall be at the cost of the appellant if the Secretary determines that the appeal is frivolous. If the determination of condemnation is sustained the carcasses, parts, and products shall be destroyed for human food purposes under the supervision of an inspector.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 6, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 443; Pub.L. 90-492, § 6, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 798.)

 

§ 456. Operation of premises, facilities and equipment

(a) Sanitary practices

Each official establishment slaughtering poultry or processing poultry products for commerce or otherwise subject to inspection under this chapter shall have such premises, facilities, and equipment, and be operated in accordance with such sanitary practices, as are required by regulations promulgated by the Secretary for the purpose of preventing the entry into or flow or movement in commerce or burdensome effect upon commerce, of poultry products which are adulterated.

(b) Refusal of inspection

The Secretary shall refuse to render inspection to any establishment whose premises, facilities, or equipment, or the operation thereof, fail to meet the requirements of this section.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 7, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 444; Pub.L. 90-492, § 7, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 799.)

 

§ 457. Labeling and container standards

(a) Requirements for shipping containers and immediate containers; nonconsumer packaged carcasses

All poultry products inspected at any official establishment under the authority of this chapter and found to be not adulterated, shall at the time they leave the establishment bear, in distinctly legible form, on their shipping containers and immediate containers as the Secretary may require, the information required under paragraph (h) of section 453 of this title. In addition, the Secretary whenever he determines such action is practicable and necessary for the protection of the public, may require nonconsumer packaged carcasses at the time they leave the establishment to bear directly thereon in distinctly legible form any information required under such paragraph (h).

(b) Labeling requirements; definitions and standards of identity or composition or articles and standards of fill of container; standards consistent with Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; consistency between Federal and State standards

The Secretary, whenever he determines such action is necessary for the protection of the public, may prescribe: (1) the styles and sizes of type to be used with respect to material required to be incorporated in labeling to avoid false or misleading labeling in marking and labeling any articles or poultry subject to this chapter; (2) definitions and standards of identity or composition or articles subject to this chapter [21 U.S.C.A. § 451 et seq.] and standards of fill of container for such articles not inconsistent with any such standards established under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, and there shall be consultation between the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services prior to the issuance of such standards under either Act relating to articles subject to this chapter to avoid inconsistency in such standards and possible impairment of the coordinated effective administration of this chapter and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. There shall also be consultation between the Secretary and an appropriate advisory committee provided for in section 454 of this title, prior to the issuance of such standards under this chapter, to avoid, insofar as feasible, inconsistency between Federal and State standards.

(c) Use of trade names; false or misleading marking or labeling; misleading form or size of container

No article subject to this chapter shall be sold or offered for sale by any person in commerce, under any name or other marking or labeling which is false or misleading, or in any container of a misleading form or size, but established trade names and other marking and labeling and containers which are not false or misleading and which are approved by the Secretary are permitted.

(d) Withholding use of false or misleading mark, label, or container size or form; modification; hearing; conclusiveness of determination; appeal

If the Secretary has reason to believe that any marking or labeling or the size or form of any container in use or proposed for use with respect to any article subject to this chapter is false or misleading in any particular, he may direct that such use be withheld unless the marking, labeling, or container is modified in such manner as he may prescribe so that it will not be false or misleading. If the person using or proposing to use the marking, labeling, or container does not accept the determination of the Secretary, such person may request a hearing, but the use of the marking, labeling, or container shall, if the Secretary so directs, be withheld pending hearing and final determination by the Secretary. Any such determination by the Secretary shall be conclusive unless, within thirty days after receipt of notice of such final determination, the person adversely affected thereby appeals to the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit in which such person has its principal place of business or to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. The provisions of section 194 of Title 7 shall be applicable to appeals taken under this section.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 8, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 444; Pub.L. 90-492, § 8, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 799.)

 

§ 458. Prohibited acts

(a) No person shall--

(1) slaughter any poultry or process any poultry products which are capable of use as human food at any establishment processing any such articles for commerce, except in compliance with the requirements of this chapter;

(2) sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or receive for transportation, in commerce, (A) any poultry products which are capable of use as human food and are adulterated or misbranded at the time of such sale, transportation, offer for sale or transportation, or receipt for transportation; or (B) any poultry products required to be inspected under this chapter unless they have been so inspected and passed;

(3) do, with respect to any poultry products which are capable of use as human food, any act while they are being transported in commerce or held for sale after such transportation, which is intended to cause or has the effect of causing such products to be adulterated or misbranded;

(4) sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or receive for transportation, in commerce or from an official establishment, any slaughtered poultry from which the blood, feathers, feet, head, or viscera have not been removed in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary, except as may be authorized by regulations of the Secretary;

(5) use to his own advantage, or reveal other than to the authorized representatives of the United States Government or any State or other government in their official capacity, or as ordered by a court in any judicial proceedings, any information acquired under the authority of this chapter concerning any matter which is entitled to protection as a trade secret.

(b) No brand manufacturer, printer, or other person shall cast, print, lithograph, or otherwise make any device containing any official mark or simulation thereof, or any label bearing any such mark or simulation, or any form of official certificate or simulation thereof, except as authorized by the Secretary.

(c) No person shall--

(1) forge any official device, mark, or certificate;

(2) without authorization from the Secretary use any official device, mark, or certificate, or simulation thereof, or alter, detach, deface, or destroy any official device, mark, or certificate;

(3) contrary to the regulations prescribed by the Secretary, fail to use, or to detach, deface, or destroy any official device, mark, or certificate;

(4) knowingly possess, without promptly notifying the Secretary or his representative, any official device or any counterfeit, simulated, forged, or improperly altered official certificate or any device or label or any carcass of any poultry, or part or product thereof, bearing any counterfeit, simulated, forged, or improperly altered official mark;

(5) knowingly make any false statement in any shipper's certificate or other nonofficial or official certificate provided for in the regulations prescribed by the Secretary; or

(6) knowingly represent that any article has been inspected and passed, or exempted, under this chapter when, in fact, it has, respectively, not been so inspected and passed, or exempted.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 9, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 445; Pub.L. 90-492, § 9, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 800.)

 

§ 459. Compliance by all establishments

(a) In general

No establishment processing poultry or poultry products for commerce otherwise subject to this chapter shall process any poultry or poultry product except in compliance with the requirements of this chapter.

(b) Notification

Any establishment subject to inspection under this chapter that believes, or has reason to believe, that an adulterated or misbranded poultry or poultry product received by or originating from the establishment has entered into commerce shall promptly notify the Secretary with regard to the type, amount, origin, and destination of the poultry or poultry product.

(c) Plans and reassessments
The Secretary shall require that each establishment subject to inspection under this chapter shall, at a minimum--

(1) prepare and maintain current procedures for the recall of all poultry or poultry products produced and shipped by the establishment;

(2) document each reassessment of the process control plans of the establishment; and

(3) upon request, make the procedures and reassessed process control plans available to inspectors appointed by the Secretary for review and copying.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 10, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 446; Pub.L. 90-492, § 10, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 801; Pub.L. 110-234, Title XI, § 11017(b), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1370; Pub.L. 110-246, § 4(a), Title XI, § 11017(b), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2132.)

 

§ 460. Miscellaneous activities subject to regulation

(a) Prohibition of inspection of articles not intended for use as human food; denaturation or other identification prior to distribution in commerce; inedible articles

Inspection shall not be provided under this chapter at any establishment for the slaughter of poultry or the processing of any carcasses or parts or products of poultry, which are not intended for use as human food, but such articles shall, prior to their offer for sale or transportation in commerce, unless naturally inedible by humans, be denatured or otherwise identified as prescribed by regulations of the Secretary to deter their use for human food. No person shall buy, sell, transport, or offer for sale or transportation, or receive for transportation, in commerce, or import, any poultry carcasses or parts or products thereof which are not intended for use as human food unless they are denatured or otherwise identified as required by the regulations of the Secretary or are naturally inedible by humans.

(b) Recordkeeping requirements; persons liable; scope of disclosure; access to places of business; examination of records, facilities, and inventories; copies; samples

The following classes of persons shall, for such period of time as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe, not to exceed two years unless otherwise directed by the Secretary for good cause shown, keep such records as are properly necessary for the effective enforcement of this chapter in order to insure against adulterated or misbranded poultry products for the American consumer; and all persons subject to such requirements shall, at all reasonable times, upon notice by a duly authorized representative of the Secretary, afford such representative access to their places of business and opportunity to examine the facilities, inventory, and records thereof, to copy all such records, and to take reasonable samples of their inventory upon payment of the fair market value therefor--

(1) Any person that engages in the business of slaughtering any poultry or processing, freezing, packaging, or labeling any carcasses, or parts or products of carcasses, of any poultry, for commerce, for use as human food or animal food;

(2) Any person that engages in the business of buying or selling (as poultry products brokers, wholesalers or otherwise), or transporting, in commerce, or storing in or for commerce, or importing, any carcasses, or parts or products of carcasses, of any poultry;

(3) Any person that engages in business, in or for commerce, as a renderer, or engages in the business of buying, selling, or transporting, in commerce, or importing, any dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry or parts of the carcasses of any poultry that died otherwise than by slaughter.

(c) Registration of business, name of person, and trade names

No person shall engage in business, in or for commerce, as a poultry products broker, renderer, or animal food manufacturer, or engage in business in commerce as a wholesaler of any carcasses, or parts or products of the carcasses, of any poultry, whether intended for human food or other purposes, or engage in business as a public warehouseman storing any such articles in or for commerce, or engage in the business of buying, selling, or transporting in commerce, or importing, any dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, or parts of the carcasses of any poultry that died otherwise than by slaughter, unless when required by regulations of the Secretary, he has registered with the Secretary his name, and the address of each place of business at which, and all trade names under which, he conducts such business.

(d) Regulation of transactions, transportation, or importation of dead, dying, disabled or diseased poultry or carcasses to prevent use as human food

No person engaged in the business of buying, selling, or transporting in commerce, or importing, dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, or any parts of the carcasses of any poultry that died otherwise than by slaughter, shall buy, sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or receive for transportation, in commerce, or import, any dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry or parts of the carcasses of any poultry that died otherwise than by slaughter, unless such transaction, transportation or importation is made in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe to assure that such poultry, or the unwholesome parts or products thereof, will be prevented from being used for human food.

(e) Federal provisions applicable to State or Territorial business transactions of a local nature and not subject to local authority

The authority conferred on the Secretary by paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section with respect to persons engaged in the specified kinds of business in or for commerce may be exercised with respect to persons engaged, in any State or organized territory, in such kinds of business but not in or for commerce, whenever the Secretary determines, after consultation with an appropriate advisory committee provided for in section 454 of this title, that the State or territory does not have at least equal authority under its laws or such authority is not exercised in a manner to effectuate the purposes of this chapter, including the State or territory providing for the Secretary or his representative being afforded access to such places of business and the facilities, inventories, and records thereof, and the taking of reasonable samples, where he determines necessary in carrying out his responsibilities under this chapter; and in such case the provisions of paragraph (b), (c), or

(d) of this section, respectively, shall apply to such persons to the same extent and in the same manner as if they were engaged in such business in or for commerce and the transactions involved were in commerce.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 11, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 446; Pub.L. 90-492, § 11, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 801.)

 

§ 461. Offenses and punishment

(a) Violations; liability of agents, employees, and employers

Any person who violates the provisions of section 458, 459, 460, 463, or 466 of this title shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both; but if such violation involves intent to defraud, or any distribution or attempted distribution of an article that is adulterated (except as defined in section 453(g)(8) of this title), such person shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than three years, or both. When construing or enforcing the provisions of said sections the act, omission, or failure of any person acting for or employed by any individual, partnership, corporation, or association within the scope of his employment or office shall in every case be deemed the act, omission, or failure of such individual, partnership, corporation, or association, as well as of such person.

(b) Liability of carrier

No carrier shall be subject to the penalties of this chapter, other than the penalties for violation of section 460 of this title, by reason of his receipt, carriage, holding, or delivery, in the usual course of business, as a carrier, of poultry or poultry products, owned by another person unless the carrier has knowledge, or is in possession of facts which would cause a reasonable person to believe that such poultry or poultry products were not inspected or marked in accordance with the provisions of this chapter or were otherwise not eligible for transportation under this chapter or unless the carrier refuses to furnish on request of a representative of the Secretary the name and address of the person from whom he received such poultry or poultry products, and copies of all documents, if any there be, pertaining to the delivery of the poultry or poultry products to such carrier.

(c) Assaulting, resisting, or impeding certain persons; murder; punishments

Any person who forcibly assaults, resists, opposes, impedes, intimidates, or interferes with any person while engaged in or on account of the performance of his official duties under this chapter shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than three years, or both. Whoever, in the commission of any such acts, uses a deadly or dangerous weapon, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both. Whoever kills any person while engaged in or on account of the performance of his official duties under this chapter shall be punished as provided under sections 1111 and 1114 of Title 18.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 12, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 446; Pub.L. 90-492, § 12, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 802.)

 

§ 462. Reporting of violations; notice; opportunity to present views

Before any violation of this chapter is reported by the Secretary to any United States attorney for institution of a criminal proceeding, the person against whom such proceeding is contemplated shall be given reasonable notice of the alleged violation and opportunity to present his views orally or in writing with regard to such contemplated proceeding. Nothing in this chapter shall be construed as requiring the Secretary to report for criminal prosecution violations of this chapter whenever he believes that the public interest will be adequately served and compliance with the chapter obtained by a suitable written notice or warning.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 13, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 447.)

 

§ 463. Rules and regulations

(a) Storage and handling of poultry products; violation of regulations

The Secretary may by regulations prescribe conditions under which poultry products capable of use as human food, shall be stored or otherwise handled by any person engaged in the business of buying, selling, freezing, storing, or transporting, in or for commerce, or importing, such articles, whenever the Secretary deems such action necessary to assure that such articles will not be adulterated or misbranded when delivered to the consumer. Violation of any such regulation is prohibited.

(b) Other necessary rules and regulations

The Secretary shall promulgate such other rules and regulations as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter.

(c) Oral presentation of views

In applying the provisions of section 553(c) of Title 5 to proposed rule making under this chapter, an opportunity for the oral presentation of views shall be accorded all interested persons.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 14, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 447; Pub.L. 90-492, § 13, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 803.)

 

§ 464. Exemptions

(a) Persons exempted

The Secretary shall, by regulation and under such conditions as to sanitary standards, practices, and procedures as he may prescribe, exempt from specific provisions of this chapter--

(1) retail dealers with respect to poultry products sold directly to consumers in individual retail stores, if the only processing operation performed by such retail dealers is the cutting up of poultry products on the premises where such sales to consumers are made;

(2) for such period of time as the Secretary determines that it would be impracticable to provide inspection and the exemption will aid in the effective administration of this chapter, any person engaged in the processing of poultry or poultry products for commerce and the poultry or poultry products processed by such person: Provided, however, That no such exemption shall continue in effect on and after January 1, 1970; and

(3) persons slaughtering, processing, or otherwise handling poultry or poultry products which have been or are to be processed as required by recognized religious dietary laws, to the extent that the Secretary determines necessary to avoid conflict with such requirements while still effectuating the purposes of this chapter.

(b) Territorial exemption

The Secretary may, under such sanitary conditions as he may by regulations prescribe, exempt from the inspection requirements of this chapter the slaughter of poultry, and the processing of poultry products, by any person in any Territory not organized with a legislative body, solely for distribution within such Territory, when the Secretary determines that it is impracticable to provide such inspection within the limits of funds appropriated for administration of this chapter and that such exemption will aid in the effective administration of this chapter.

(c) Personal slaughtering; custom slaughtering; name and address of the poultry producer or processor in lieu of other labeling requirements; small enterprises; slaughterers or processors of specified number of turkeys; poultry producers raising poultry on own farms

(1) The Secretary shall, by regulation and under such conditions, including sanitary standards, practices, and procedures, as he may prescribe, exempt from specific provisions of this chapter--

(A) the slaughtering by any person of poultry of his own raising, and the processing by him and transportation in commerce of the poultry products exclusively for use by him and members of his household and his nonpaying guests and employees;

(B) the custom slaughter by any person of poultry delivered by the owner thereof for such slaughter, and the processing by such slaughterer and transportation in commerce of the poultry products exclusively for use, in the household of such owner, by him and members of his household and his nonpaying guests and employees: Provided, That such custom slaughterer does not engage in the business of buying or selling any poultry products capable of use as human food;

(C) the slaughtering and processing of poultry products in any State or
Territory or the District of Columbia by any poultry producer on his own premises with respect to sound and healthy poultry raised on his premises and the distribution by any person solely within such jurisdiction of the poultry products derived from such operations, if, in lieu of other labeling requirements, such poultry products are identified with the name and address of such poultry producer, and if they are not otherwise misbranded, and are sound, clean, and fit for human food when so distributed; and

(D) the slaughtering of sound and healthy poultry or the processing of poultry products of such poultry in any State or territory or the District of Columbia by any poultry producer or other person for distribution by him solely within such jurisdiction directly to household consumers, restaurants, hotels, and boarding houses, for use in their own dining rooms, or in the preparation of meals for sales direct to consumers, if, in lieu of other labeling requirements, such poultry products are identified with the name and address of the processor, and if they are not otherwise misbranded and are sound, clean, and fit for human food when distributed by such processor.

The exemptions provided for in clauses (C) and (D) above shall not apply if the poultry producer or other person engages in the current calendar year in the business of buying or selling any poultry or poultry products other than as specified in such clauses.

(2) In addition to the specific exemptions provided herein, the Secretary shall, when he determines that the protection of consumers from adulterated or misbranded poultry products will not be impaired by such action, provide by regulation, consistent with subparagraph (3), for the exemption of the operation and products of small enterprises (including poultry producers), not exempted under subparagraph (1), which are engaged in any State or Territory or the District of Columbia in slaughtering and/or cutting up poultry for distribution as carcasses or parts thereof solely for distribution within such jurisdiction, from such provisions of this chapter as he deems appropriate, while still protecting the public from adulterated or misbranded products, under such conditions, including sanitary requirements, as he shall prescribe to effectuate the purposes of this chapter.

(3) No exemption under subparagraph (1) (C) or (D) or subparagraph (2) shall apply to any poultry producer or other person who, in the current calendar year--

(A) slaughters or processes the products of more than 20,000 poultry; or

(B) slaughters or processes the products of poultry at a facility used for slaughtering or processing of the products of poultry by any other poultry producer or person.

Notwithstanding clause (B), the Secretary may grant such exemption to any poultry producer or other person if the Secretary determines, upon application of such poultry producer or other person, that granting such exemption will not impair effectuating the purposes of this chapter.

(4) The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to poultry producers with respect to poultry of their own raising on their own farms if (i) such producers slaughter not more than 1,000 poultry during the calendar year for which this exemption is being determined; (ii) such poultry producers do not engage in buying or selling poultry products other than those produced from poultry raised on their own farms; and (iii) none of such poultry moves in commerce (as defined in section 453(a) of this title).

(d) Pizzas containing poultry products

(1) Under such terms and conditions as the Secretary shall prescribe through rules and regulations issued under this section that may be necessary to ensure food safety and protect public health such as special handling procedures, the Secretary shall exempt pizzas containing a poultry product from the inspection requirements of this chapter if--

(A) the poultry product components of the pizzas have been prepared, inspected, and passed in a cured or cooked form as ready-to-eat in compliance with the requirements of this chapter; and

(B) the pizzas are to be served in public or private nonprofit institutions.

(2) The Secretary may withdraw or modify any exemption under this subsection whenever the Secretary determines such action is necessary to ensure food safety and to protect public health. The Secretary may reinstate or further modify any exemption withdrawn or modified under this subsection.

(e) Applicability of adulteration and misbranding provisions to articles exempted from inspection

The adulteration and misbranding provisions of this chapter, other than the requirement of the inspection legend, shall apply to articles which are exempted from inspection under this section, except as otherwise specified under paragraphs (a) and (d).

(f) Suspension or termination of exemption

The Secretary may by order suspend or terminate any exemption under this section with respect to any person whenever he finds that such action will aid in effectuating the purposes of this chapter.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 15, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 447; Pub.L. 90-492, § 14, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 803; Pub.L. 97-206, §§ 1, 2, June 30, 1982, 96 Stat. 136; Pub.L. 102-237, Title X, § 1016(b), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1903.)

 

§ 465. Limitations upon entry of poultry products and other materials into official establishments

The Secretary may limit the entry of poultry products and other materials into any official establishment, under such conditions as he may prescribe to assure that allowing the entry of such articles into such inspected establishments will be consistent with the purposes of this chapter.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 16, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 448; Pub.L. 90-492, § 15, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 805.)

 

§ 466. Imports

(a) Compliance with standards and regulations; status after importation

No slaughtered poultry, or parts or products thereof, of any kind shall be imported into the United States unless they are healthful, wholesome, fit for human food, not adulterated, and contain no dye, chemical, preservative, or ingredient which renders them unhealthful, unwholesome, adulterated, or unfit for human food and unless they also comply with the rules and regulations made by the Secretary of Agriculture to assure that imported poultry or poultry products comply with the standards provided for in this chapter. All imported, slaughtered poultry, or parts or products thereof, shall after entry into the United States in compliance with such rules and regulations be deemed and treated as domestic slaughtered poultry, or parts or products thereof, within the meaning and subject to the provisions of this chapter and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C.A. § 301 et seq.], and Acts amendatory of, supplemental to, or in substitution for such chapter and Act.

(b) Rules and regulations; destruction and exportation of refused imports

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to make rules and regulations to carry out the purposes of this section and in such rules and regulations the Secretary of Agriculture may prescribe the terms and conditions for the destruction of all slaughtered poultry, or parts or products thereof, offered for entry and refused admission into the United States unless such slaughtered poultry, or parts or products thereof, be exported by the consignee within the time fixed therefor in such rules and regulations.

(c) Storage, cartage and labor charges for imports refused admission

All charges for storage, cartage, and labor with respect to any product which is refused admission pursuant to this section shall be paid by the owner or consignee, and in default of such payment shall constitute a lien against any other products imported thereafter by or for such owner or consignee.

(d) Domestic standards and processing facilities applicable; enforcement

(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, all poultry, or parts or products of poultry, capable of use as human food offered for importation into the United States shall--

(A) be subject to inspection, sanitary, quality, species verification, and residue standards that achieve a level of sanitary protection equivalent to that achieved under United States standards; and

(B) have been processed in facilities and under conditions that achieve a level of sanitary protection equivalent to that achieved under United States standards.

(2)(A) The Secretary may treat as equivalent to a United States standard a standard of an exporting country described in paragraph (1) if the exporting country provides the Secretary with scientific evidence or other information, in accordance with risk assessment methodologies determined appropriate by the Secretary, to demonstrate that the standard of the exporting country achieves the level of sanitary protection achieved under the United States standard. For the purposes of this subsection, the term “sanitary protection” means protection to safeguard public health.

(B) The Secretary may--

(i) determine, on a scientific basis, that the standard of the exporting country does not achieve the level of protection that the Secretary considers appropriate; and

(ii) provide the basis for the determination in writing to the exporting country on request.

(3) Any such imported poultry article that does not meet such standards shall not be permitted entry into the United States.

(4) The Secretary shall enforce this subsection through--

(A) random inspections for such species verification and for residues; and

(B) random sampling and testing of internal organs and fat of carcasses for residues at the point of slaughter by the exporting country, in accordance with methods approved by the Secretary.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 17, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 448; Pub.L. 99-198, Title XVII, § 1701(a), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1633; Pub.L. 103-182, Title III, § 361(e), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2123; Pub.L. 103-465, Title IV, § 431(k), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4969, 4970.)

 

§ 467. Inspection services

(a) Refusal or withdrawal; hearing; business unfitness based upon certain convictions; persons responsibly connected with the business

The Secretary may (for such period, or indefinitely, as he deems necessary to effectuate the purposes of this chapter) refuse to provide, or withdraw, inspection service under this chapter with respect to any establishment if he determines, after opportunity for a hearing is accorded to the applicant for, or recipient of, such service, that such applicant or recipient is unfit to engage in any business requiring inspection upon this chapter because the applicant or recipient or anyone responsibly connected with the applicant or recipient, has been convicted, in any Federal or State court, within the previous ten years of (1) any felony or more than one misdemeanor under any law based upon the acquiring, handling, or distributing of adulterated, mislabeled, or deceptively packaged food or fraud in connection with transactions in food; or (2) any felony, involving fraud, bribery, extortion, or any other act or circumstances indicating a lack of the integrity needed for the conduct of operations affecting the public health. For the purpose of this paragraph a person shall be deemed to be responsibly connected with the business if he was a partner, officer, director, holder, or owner of 10 per centum or more of its voting stock or employee in a managerial or executive capacity.

(b) Hearing to determine validity of withdrawal or refusal of inspection services; continuation of withdrawal or refusal

Upon the withdrawal of inspection service from any official establishment for failure to destroy condemned poultry products as required under section 455 of this title, or other failure of an official establishment to comply with the requirements as to premises, facilities, or equipment, or the operation thereof, as provided in section 456 of this title, or the refusal of inspection service to any applicant therefor because of failure to comply with any requirements under section 456 of this title, the applicant for, or recipient of, the service shall, upon request, be afforded opportunity for a hearing with respect to the merits or validity of such action; but such withdrawal or refusal shall continue in effect unless otherwise ordered by the Secretary.

(c) Finality and conclusiveness of determination; judicial review; record

The determination and order of the Secretary when made after opportunity for hearing, with respect to withdrawal or refusal of inspection service under this chapter shall be final and conclusive unless the affected applicant for, or recipient of, inspection service files application for judicial review within thirty days after the effective date of such order in the United States Court of Appeals as provided in section 457 of this title. Judicial review of any such order shall be upon the record upon which the determination and order are based. The provisions of section 194 of Title 7 shall be applicable to appeals taken under this section.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 18, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 448; Pub.L. 90-492, § 16, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 805.)

 

§ 467a. Administrative detention; duration; pending judicial proceedings; notification of government authorities; release; removal of official marks

Whenever any poultry product, or any product exempted from the definition of a poultry product, or any dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry is found by any authorized representative of the Secretary upon any premises where it is held for purposes of, or during or after distribution in, commerce or otherwise subject to this chapter, and there is reason to believe that any such article is adulterated or misbranded and is capable of use as human food, or that it has not been inspected, in violation of the provisions of this chapter or of any other Federal law or the laws of any State or Territory, or the District of Columbia, or that it has been or is intended to be, distributed in violation of any such provisions, it may be detained by such representative for a period not to exceed twenty days, pending action under section 467b of this title or notification of any Federal, State, or other governmental authorities having jurisdiction over such article or poultry, and shall not be moved by any person, from the place at which it is located when so detained, until released by such representative. All official marks may be required by such representative to be removed from such article or poultry before it is released unless it appears to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the article or poultry is eligible to retain such marks.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 19, as added Pub.L. 90-492, § 17, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 805.)

 

§ 467b. Seizure and condemnation

(a) Proceedings in rem; libel of information; jurisdiction; disposal by destruction or sale; proceeds into the Treasury; sales restrictions; bonds; court costs and fees, storage, and other expenses against claimants; jury trial; United States as plaintiff

(1) Any poultry product, or any dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, that is being transported in commerce or otherwise subject to this chapter, or is held for sale in the United States after such transportation, and that (A) is or has been processed, sold, transported, or otherwise distributed or offered or received for distribution in violation of this chapter, or (B) is capable of use as human food and is adulterated or misbranded, or (C) in any other way is in violation of this chapter, shall be liable to be proceeded against and seized and condemned, at any time, on a libel of information in any United States district court or other proper court as provided in section 467c of this title within the jurisdiction of which the article or poultry is found.

(2) If the article or poultry is condemned it shall, after entry of the decree,

(A) be distributed in accordance with paragraph (5), or (B) be disposed of by destruction or sale as the court may direct and the proceeds, if sold, less the court costs and fees, and storage and other proper expenses, shall be paid into the Treasury of the United States, but the article or poultry shall not be sold contrary to the provisions of this chapter, or the laws of the jurisdiction in which it is sold: Provided, That upon the execution and delivery of a good and sufficient bond conditioned that the article or poultry shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of contrary to the provisions of this chapter, or the laws of the jurisdiction in which disposal is made, the court may direct that such article or poultry be delivered to the owner thereof subject to such supervision by authorized representatives of the Secretary as is necessary to insure compliance with the applicable laws.

(3) When a decree of condemnation is entered against the article or poultry and it is released under bond, or destroyed, court costs and fees, and storage and other proper expenses shall be awarded against the person, if any, intervening as claimant of the article or poultry.

(4) The proceedings in such libel cases shall conform, as nearly as may be, to the proceedings in admiralty, except that either party may demand trial by jury of any issue of fact joined in any case, and all such proceedings shall be at the suit of and in the name of the United States.

(5)(A) An article that is condemned under paragraph (1) may as the court may direct, after entry of the decree, be distributed without charge to nonprofit, private entities or to Federal, State, or local government entities engaged in the distribution of food without charge to individuals, if such article--

(i) is capable of use as a human food;

(ii) has been inspected under this chapter and found to be wholesome and not to be adulterated within the meaning of paragraphs (1) through (7) of section 453(g) of this title and a determination is made at the time of the entry of the decree that such article is wholesome and not so adulterated; and

(iii) is plainly marked “Not for Sale” on such article or its container.

(B) The United States may not be held legally responsible for any article that is distributed under subparagraph (A) to a nonprofit, private entity or to a Federal, State, or local government entity, if such article--

(i) was found after inspection under this chapter to be wholesome and not adulterated within the meaning of paragraphs (1) through (7) of section 453(g) of this title and a determination was made at the time of the entry of the decree that such article was wholesome and not so adulterated; and

(ii) was plainly marked “Not for Sale” on such article or its container.

(C) The person from whom such article was seized and condemned may not be held legally responsible for such article, if such article--

(i) was found after inspection under this chapter to be wholesome and not adulterated within the meaning of paragraphs (1) through (7) of section 453(g) of this title and a determination was made at the time of entry of the decree that such article was wholesome and not so adulterated; and

(ii) was plainly marked “Not for Sale” on such article or its container.

(b) Condemnation or seizure under other provisions unaffected
The provisions of this section shall in no way derogate from authority for condemnation or seizure conferred by other provisions of this chapter, or other laws.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 20, as added Pub.L. 90-492, § 17, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 806, and amended Pub.L. 101-205, § 2, Dec. 7, 1989, 103 Stat. 1830.)

 

§ 467c. Federal court jurisdiction of enforcement and injunction proceedings and other kinds of cases; limitations; United States as plaintiff; subpenas

The United States district courts, the District Court of Guam, the District Court of the Virgin Islands, the highest court of American Samoa, and the United States courts of the other territories, are vested with jurisdiction specifically to enforce, and to prevent and restrain violations of, this chapter, and shall have jurisdiction in all other kinds of cases arising under this chapter, except as provided in section 457(d) or 467 of this title. All proceedings for the enforcement or to restrain violations of this chapter shall be by and in the name of the United States. Subpenas for witnesses who are required to attend a court of the United States, in any district, may run into any other district in any such proceeding.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 21, as added Pub.L. 90-492, § 17, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 806.)

 

§ 467d. Administration and enforcement; applicability of penalty provisions; conduct of inquiries; power and jurisdiction of courts

For the efficient administration and enforcement of this chapter, the provision (including penalties) of sections 46, 48, 49 and 50 of Title 15 (except paragraphs (c) through (h) of section 46 and the last paragraph of section 49 of Title 15), and the provisions of section 409(l) of Title 47, are made applicable to the jurisdiction, powers, and duties of the Secretary in administering and enforcing the provisions of this chapter and to any person with respect to whom such authority is exercised. The Secretary, in person or by such agents as he may designate, may prosecute any inquiry necessary to his duties under this chapter in any part of the United States, and the powers conferred by said sections 49 and 50 of Title 15 on the district courts of the United States may be exercised for the purposes of this chapter by any court designated in section 467c of this title.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 22, as added Pub.L. 90-492, § 17, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 807.)

 

§ 467e. Non-Federal jurisdiction of Federally regulated matters; prohibition of additional or different requirements for establishments with inspection services and as to marking, labeling, packaging, and ingredients; recordkeeping and related requirements; concurrent jurisdiction over distribution for human food purposes of adulterated or misbranded and imported articles; other matters

Requirements within the scope of this chapter with respect to premises, facilities and operations of any official establishment which are in addition to, or different than those made under this chapter may not be imposed by any State or Territory or the District of Columbia, except that any such jurisdiction may impose recordkeeping and other requirements within the scope of paragraph (b) of section 460 of this title, if consistent therewith, with respect to any such establishment. Marking, labeling, packaging, or ingredient requirements (or storage or handling requirements found by the Secretary to unduly interfere with the free flow of poultry products in commerce) in addition to, or different than, those made under this chapter may not be imposed by any State or Territory or the District of Columbia with respect to articles prepared at any official establishment in accordance with the requirements under this chapter, but any State or Territory or the District of Columbia may, consistent with the requirements under this chapter exercise concurrent jurisdiction with the Secretary over articles required to be inspected under this chapter, for the purpose of preventing the distribution for human food purposes of any such articles which are adulterated or misbranded and are outside of such an establishment, or, in the case of imported articles which are not at such an establishment, after their entry into the United States. This chapter shall not preclude any State or Territory or the District of Columbia from making requirement or taking other action, consistent with this chapter, with respect to any other matters regulated under this chapter.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 23, as added Pub.L. 90-492, § 17, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 807.)

 

§ 467f. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act applications

(a) Exemptions; authorities under food, drug, and cosmetic provisions unaffected

Poultry and poultry products shall be exempt from the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C.A. § 301 et seq.] to the extent of the application or extension thereto of the provisions of this chapter, except that the provisions of this chapter shall not derogate from any authority conferred by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act prior to August 18, 1968.

(b) Enforcement proceedings; detainer authority of representatives of Secretary of Health and Human Services

The detainer authority conferred by section 467a of this title shall apply to any authorized representative of the Secretary of Health and Human Services for purposes of the enforcement of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C.A. § 301 et seq.] with respect to any poultry carcass, or part or product thereof, that is outside any official establishment, and for such purposes the first reference to the Secretary in section 467a of this title shall be deemed to refer to the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 24, as added Pub.L. 90-492, § 17, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 807.)

 

§ 468. Cost of inspection; overtime

The cost of inspection rendered under the requirements of this chapter, shall be borne by the United States, except the cost of overtime and holiday pay paid pursuant to the1 section 2219a of Title 7.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 25, formerly § 19, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 448, renumbered Pub.L. 90-492 § 17, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 805; Pub.L. 107-171, Title X, § 10703(c)(1), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 517.)

 

§ 469. Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 26, formerly § 20, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 449, renumbered Pub.L. 90-492, § 17, Aug. 18, 1968, 82 Stat. 805.)

 

§ 470. Omitted

 

§ 471. Safe Meat and Poultry Inspection Panel

(a) Review and evaluation

The advisory panel known as the “Safe Meat and Poultry Inspection Panel” established by section 679a of this title shall review and evaluate, as the panel considers necessary, the adequacy, necessity, safety, cost-effectiveness, and scientific merit of--

(1) inspection procedures of, and work rules and worker relations involving Federal employees employed in, plants inspected under this chapter;

(2) informal petitions or proposals for changes in inspection procedures, processes, and techniques of plants inspected under this chapter;

(3) formal changes in poultry inspection regulations promulgated under this chapter, whether in notice, proposed, or final form; and

(4) such other matters as may be referred to the panel by the Secretary regarding the quality or effectiveness of a safe and cost-effective poultry inspection system under this chapter.

(b) Reports

(1) In general
The Safe Meat and Poultry Inspection Panel shall submit to the Secretary a report on the results of each review and evaluation carried out under paragraph (1), including such recommendations as the panel considers appropriate.

(2) Reports on formal changes
In the case of a report concerning a formal change in poultry inspection regulations, the report shall be made within the time limits prescribed for formal comments on such changes.

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 30, as added Pub.L. 104-127, Title IX, § 918(a)(2), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1190.)

 

§ 472. Interstate shipment of poultry inspected by Federal and State agencies for certain small establishments

(a) Definitions

(1) Appropriate State agency
The term “appropriate State agency” means a State agency described in section 454(a)(1) of this title.

(2) Designated personnel
The term “designated personnel” means inspection personnel of a State agency that have undergone all necessary inspection training and certification to assist the Secretary in the administration and enforcement of this chapter, including rules and regulations issued under this chapter.

(3) Eligible establishment
The term “eligible establishment” means an establishment that is in compliance with--

(A) the State inspection program of the State in which the establishment is located; and

(B) this chapter, including rules and regulations issued under this chapter.

(4) Poultry item
The term “poultry item” means--

(A) a portion of poultry; and

(B) a poultry product.

(5) Selected establishment
The term “selected establishment” means an eligible establishment that is selected by the Secretary, in coordination with the appropriate State agency of the State in which the eligible establishment is located, under subsection

(b) to ship poultry items in interstate commerce.

(b) Authority of Secretary to allow shipments

(1) In general
Subject to paragraph (2), the Secretary, in coordination with the appropriate State agency of the State in which an establishment is located, may select the establishment to ship poultry items in interstate commerce, and place on each poultry item shipped in interstate commerce a Federal mark, stamp, tag, or label of inspection, if--

(A) the poultry item qualifies for the Federal mark, stamp, tag, or label of inspection under the requirements of this chapter;

(B) the establishment is an eligible establishment; and

(C) inspection services for the establishment are provided by designated personnel.

(2) Prohibited establishments
In carrying out paragraph (1), the Secretary, in coordination with an appropriate State agency, shall not select an establishment that--

(A) on average, employs more than 25 employees (including supervisory and nonsupervisory employees), as defined by the Secretary;

(B) as of the date of the enactment of this section, ships in interstate commerce carcasses, portions of carcasses, or poultry items that are inspected by the Secretary in accordance with this chapter;

(C)(i) is a Federal establishment;

(ii) was a Federal establishment as of the date of the enactment of this section, and was reorganized on a later date under the same name or a different name or person by the person, firm, or corporation that controlled the establishment as of the date of the enactment of this section; or

(iii) was a State establishment as of the date of the enactment of this section that--

(I) as of the date of the enactment of this section, employed more than 25 employees; and

(II) was reorganized on a later date by the person, firm, or corporation that controlled the establishment as of the date of the enactment of this section;

(D) is in violation of this chapter;

(E) is located in a State that does not have a State inspection program; or

(F) is the subject of a transition carried out in accordance with a procedure developed by the Secretary under paragraph (3)(A).

(3) Establishments that employ more than 25 employees

(A) Development of procedure
The Secretary may develop a procedure to transition to a Federal establishment any establishment under this section that, on average, consistently employs more than 25 employees.

(B) Eligibility of certain establishments

(i) In general
A State establishment that employs more than 25 employees but less than 35 employees as of the date of the enactment of this section may be selected as a selected establishment under this subsection.

(ii) Procedures
A State establishment shall be subject to the procedures established under subparagraph (A) beginning on the date that is 3 years after the effective date described in subsection (i).

(c) Reimbursement of State costs
The Secretary shall reimburse a State for costs related to the inspection of selected establishments in the State in accordance with Federal requirements in an amount of not less than 60 percent of eligible State costs.

(d) Coordination between Federal and State agencies

(1) In general
The Secretary shall designate an employee of the Federal Government as State coordinator for each appropriate State agency--

(A) to provide oversight and enforcement of this section; and

(B) to oversee the training and inspection activities of designated personnel of the State agency.

(2) Supervision
A State coordinator shall be under the direct supervision of the Secretary.

(3) Duties of State coordinator

(A) In general
A State coordinator shall visit selected establishments with a frequency that is appropriate to ensure that selected establishments are operating in a manner that is consistent with this Act (including regulations and policies under this chapter).

(B) Quarterly reports
A State coordinator shall, on a quarterly basis, submit to the Secretary a report that describes the status of each selected establishment that is under the jurisdiction of the State coordinator with respect to the level of compliance of each selected establishment with the requirements of this chapter.

(C) Immediate notification requirement
If a State coordinator determines that any selected establishment that is under the jurisdiction of the State coordinator is in violation of any requirement of this chapter, the State coordinator shall--

(i) immediately notify the Secretary of the violation; and

(ii) deselect the selected establishment or suspend inspection at the selected establishment.

(4) Performance evaluations
Performance evaluations of State coordinators designated under this subsection shall be conducted by the Secretary as part of the Federal agency management control system.

(e) Audits

(1) Periodic audits conducted by Inspector General of the Department of Agriculture
Not later than 2 years after the effective date described in subsection (i), and not less often than every 3 years thereafter, the Inspector General of the Department of Agriculture shall conduct an audit of each activity taken by the Secretary under this section for the period covered by the audit to determine compliance with this section.

(2) Audit conducted by Comptroller General of the United States
Not earlier than 3 years, nor later than 5 years, after the date of the enactment of this section, the Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct an audit of the implementation of this section to determine--

(A) the effectiveness of the implementation of this section; and

(B) the number of selected establishments selected by the Secretary to ship poultry items under this section.

(f) Transition grants
The Secretary may provide grants to appropriate State agencies to assist the appropriate State agencies in helping establishments covered by this chapter to transition to selected establishments.

(g) Violations
Any selected establishment that the Secretary determines to be in violation of any requirement of this chapter shall be transitioned to a Federal establishment in accordance with a procedure developed by the Secretary under subsection (b)(3)(A).

(h) Effect
Nothing in this section limits the jurisdiction of the Secretary with respect to the regulation of poultry and poultry products under this chapter.

(i) Effective date
(1) In general
This section takes effect on the date on which the Secretary, after providing a period of public comment (including through the conduct of public meetings or hearings), promulgates final regulations to carry out this section.

(2) Requirement
Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this section, the Secretary shall promulgate final regulations in accordance with paragraph (1).

(Pub.L. 85-172, § 31, as added Pub.L. 110-234, Title XI, § 11015(b), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1365, and Pub.L. 110-246, § 4(a), Title XI, § 11015(b), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2127.)

 



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