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Horse: Related Statutes

Statute Name Citation Summary
AK - Bite - Killing dogs annoying or evincing tendency to bite animals or fowls.   AK ST 03.55.030  

This Alaska statute provides that any dog that habitually annoys any wild deer, reindeer, sheep, cattle, horse, or other animal or bird either domestic or wild, or evinces a disposition which makes it likely that it will without provocation bite an animal or fowl, may be lawfully killed by any person when it is found at large. The owner or keeper of the dog, if known or reasonably identifiable, shall be notified and given reasonable opportunity to restrain the dog before it is lawful to kill it.

 
AK - Equine - Equine Activity Liability Statute   AK ST 09.65.145; AK ST 09.65.290   Two Alaska statutes are provided here that relate to the limitation of liability for equine activities.  The first is the equine activity liability statute, which states that livestock are unpredictable and inherently dangerous and all persons who knowingly place themselves in proximity to livestock for any reason involving an activity that includes livestock are considered a participant in livestock activity and assume the risk.  Exclusions include gross negligence of the equine sponsor, knowledge of faulty tack or equipment, and failure to properly ascertain the level of competence by the participant.  The second statute reiterates that a person who participates in a sports or recreational activity assumes the inherent risks in that sports or recreational activity, including horseback riding.  
AL - Equine - Immunity of those involved in equine activities.   AL ST 6-5-337   This Alabama statute embodies the legislature's recognition that persons who participate in equine activities may incur injuries as a result of the risks involved in those activities.  This statute provides that for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, and safety, and to encourage equine activities, civil liability of those involved in equine activities is limited by law.  Liability is not limited when the equine sponsor intentionally injures a participant or engages in willful or wanton behavior that causes injury or death.   
AR - Equine - Equine Activity Liability   AR ST 16-120-201 to 202  

This Arkansas statute provides that an equine activity sponsor, an employee of an equine activity sponsor, a livestock sponsor, an employee of a livestock sponsor, a livestock owner, a livestock facility, or a livestock auction market are not liable for an injury to or the death of a participant resulting from the inherent risks of an equine activities activity or a livestock activity.   Liability is not limited when the equine activity sponsor or an employee of an equine activity sponsor, a livestock sponsor, an employee of a livestock sponsor, a livestock owner, a livestock facility, or a livestock auction market knows or should know the equipment or tack is faulty, fails to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant, was aware of dangerous latent condition on the land, committs an act or omission that constitutes willful or wanton disregard for the safety of the participant, or when the participant is intentionally injured.  Warning signs alerting participants to the assumption of risk in equine activities are also required by law.

 
AZ - Equine Activity Liability Statute   AZ ST 12-553   This Arizona statute provides that an equine agent or owner is not liable for injury if the participant took control of the equine prior to injury, if a parent or guardian signed a release on behalf of a minor, if the owner or agent has properly installed suitable tack or the participant has personally tacked the equine, or the owner or agent assigns a suitable equine based on a reasonable interpretation of the person's representation of his or her skills, health and experience with and knowledge of equines.  Liability is not limited, however, when an equine owner or agent is grossly negligent or commits willful, wanton or intentional acts or omissions.  
AZ - Equine Transport - Transporting equine in a cruel manner; violation; classification; definitions. 28-912. Vehicles transporting equine; violation; classification; definitions   AZ ST 3-1312; 28-912   These Arizona laws provide the requirements for transporting equines to slaughter. A vehicle used to transport equine for slaughter may have no more than one level or tier in the compartment containing the equine. Violation of the laws constitutes a misdemeanor.  
AZ - Horse slaughter - Article 4. Horsemeat.   A.R.S. 3-2121 - 2132   This Arizona article deals with horsemeat. A license shall be obtained from the division before slaughtering a horse for human consumption. There shall be an antemortem and a postmortem inspection of each horse slaughtered. All horsemeat food products shall be conspicuously branded, marked, tagged or labeled, “horsemeat” or “horsemeat product.” It is unlawful to offer horsemeat for sale for human consumption unless there is prominently displayed in conjunction therewith a sign bearing the words, in letters not less than eight inches in height and three inches in width, “horsemeat for human consumption.”  
AZ - Humane Slaughter - Slaughter of Animals   AZ ST 3-2001 - 2017   This Arizona statutory section covers the slaughter of animals.  Among its provisions include license requirements for the slaughter meat, recordkeeping requirements, and a section relating to humane slaughter.  The humane slaughter law requires that a livestock animal is rendered insensible to pain prior to being hoisted or shackled; however, none of the provisions apply to one who slaughters an animal for his or her own uses.  Interestingly, while the other provisions relating to adulterated meat and licensing requirements describe the penalty for violation, no penalty is listed under the humane slaughter statute.  
CA - Abandonment - 597.2. Equines; abandoned or relinquished; auction and adoption programs   CA PENAL 597.2   This California statute sets forth the requirements for the sale of equines at a private or public auction and that the minimum price must be above the animal's slaughter price.  It also provides that a sale to an individual who buys an equine under the personal use provision shall submit a written statement declaring that the person is adopting the equine for personal use and not for purposes of resale, resale for slaughter, or holding or transporting the equine for slaughter.  
CA - Burro - 4600. Killing or capturing undomesticated burro; prima facie evidence   CA FISH & G 4600   This section makes it unlawful to kill, wound, capture, or have in possession any undomesticated burro. An undomesticated burro is a wild burro or a burro which has not been tamed or domesticated for a period of three years after its capture.  
CA - Docking - 597n. Docked horses; prohibition of docking; importation or use of unregistered animals   CA PENAL 597n  

This law was amended in 2009 to prohibit the docking or cutting of the solid part of any horse or cattle. Violation of the law constitutes a misdemeanor. The new law does provide an exclusion for the docking of any cattle's tail in an emergency for the purpose of saving the cattle's life or relieving the cattle's pain provided that the emergency treatment is performed consistent with the Veterinary Medicine Practice Act.

 
CA - Euthanasia - 599e. Killing unfit animals after notice by officer; offense of refusal to kill; killing by officer; exception   CA PENAL 599e   This statute requires an owner of an animal deemed to be unfit for employment to kill the animal within 12 hours, after being notified by any peace officer, or be subject to criminal penalties.  
CA - Horse - 21759. Caution in passing animals   CA VEHICLE 21759   This California law provides that the driver of any vehicle that approaches a horse drawn vehicle, any ridden animal, or livestock must exercise proper control of his vehicle and shall reduce speed or stop as may appear necessary to avoid frightening the animal and to insure safety of the person in charge of the animal.  
CA - Horse docking - 597p. Docked horses; registration; time; fee; certificate   CA PENAL 597p   This statute requires every owner, or user of any docked horse, within the State of California, to register his or her docked horse.  
CA - Horse docking - 597q. Docked horses; unregistered; prima facie evidence   CA PENAL 597q   This statute provides that driving, working, keeping, racing or using any unregistered docked horse 60 days after the passage of this act is prima facie evidence of the fact that the party engaged in such activity docked the tail of such horse.  
CA - Horse slaughter - 597o. Humane transportation of equine to slaughter; vehicle requirements; segregation of animals; violations   CA PENAL 597o   This statute outlines the requirements for transporting equine to slaughter, including, but limited to, proper ventilation, sufficient space for equine to stand, and the use of ramps and floors with nonskid surfaces.  
CA - Horse slaughter - 598c. Horse slaughter for human consumption   CA PENAL 598c   This statute makes it unlawful to possess, to import into or export from the state, or to sell, buy, give away, hold, or accept any equine with the intent of killing it for the purpose of human consumption. Violations could result in a felony conviction with a prison sentence of up to three years.
 
CA - Horse slaughter - 598d. Sale of horsemeat for human consumption   CA PENAL 598d   This statute prohibits the sale of horsemeat for human consumption. No  restaurant, cafe, or other public eating place may offer horsemeat for sale for human consumption. A first time violation is a misdemeanor.
 
CA - Horse tack - 597k. Bristle bur, tack bur, etc.; use on animals   CA PENAL 597k   This section makes it a misdemeanor to use a bristle bur, tack bur, or similar device, to be used on a horse or any other animal. A violation is punishable with imprisonment and/or imprisonment.
 
CA - Horse transportation - 597x. Disabled equine; sale or transport for commercial slaughter; misdemeanor   CA PENAL 597x   This statute makes it a misdemeanor to sell, load, or transport, any live equine that is disabled, if it is intended to be sold, loaded, or transported for commercial slaughter out of the state.  
CA - Horse Tripping - Poling or tripping a horse; offenses; exceptions   CA PENAL 597g  

This section makes it a misdemeanor to pole or trip a horse for entertainment or sport. Poling is a method of training a horse to jump by forcing, persuading, or enticing a horse to lift its legs higher over a jump by hitting its front legs with a pole, rope, stick, etc. Tripping a horse is using a wire, pole, stick, rope, etc. to cause a horse to fall or lose its balance.

 
CA - Horses docking - 597r. Docked horses; exception of imported stock; registration   CA PENAL 597r   This statute makes it a misdemeanor to violate any of the horse docking provisions, but creates an exception from the provisions of Sections 597n, 597p, and 597q, to persons owning or possessing any docked purebred stallions and mares imported from foreign countries for breeding or exhibition purposes only.  
CA - Humane Slaughter - Chapter 6. Slaughter   CA FOOD & AG 19501 - 19503   This California section constitutes the humane slaughter provisions for cattle, calves, horses, mules, sheep, swine, goats, fallow deer, and poultry.  The law provides that the animal shall be rendered insensible to pain by a captive bolt, gunshot, electrical or chemical means, or any other means that is rapid and effective before being cut, shackled, hoisted, thrown, or cast, with the exception of poultry which may be shackled.  Note that despite the section covering poultry, it does not apply to the slaughter of spent hens and small game birds, as defined by the department by regulation.   
CA - Rodeos - 596.7. Rodeos; veterinarians present at performances; violation of section   CA PENAL 596.7   This statute regulating rodeos requires that animals involved have access to veterinary care and mandates treatment of injured rodeo animals. This statute forbids the use of  an electric prod once an animal is in the holding chute, unless necessary to protect participants or spectators. Violations of this section are infractions punishable by a fine.
 
CA - Service Animal - 600. Horses or dogs used by peace officers; willful and malicious harm or interference; punishment; restitution   CA PENAL 600   This statute makes it an offense to willfully, maliciously and with no legal justification harm, injure, obstruct, or interfere with a horse or dog under the supervision of law enforcement in the discharge of official duties. Violations are punishable by a fine and/or imprisonment. Punishment depends on the seriousness of the injury to the animal. Upon conviction, a defendant must also pay restitution for damages.  
CA - Slaughter - Part 3. Slaughtered Animals. Chapter 6. Slaughter   CA FOOD & AG 19501 - 19503   These sections enumerate the prescribed methods for slaughtering cattle, calves, horses, mules, sheep, swine, goats, fallow deer, and poultry.  The regulations adopted under this chapter are required to conform as far as possible to the regulations of the United States Department of Agriculture governing methods of slaughtering.  
CA - Slaughter - 599f. Nonambulatory animals; slaughter houses, stockyards, auctions, market agencies, or dealers; transactions; processing; euthanasia; movement; violations   CA PENAL 599f    As used in this section, "nonambulatory" means unable to stand and walk without assistance.  This statute prohibits a slaughterhouse that is not inspected by the United States Department of Agriculture, stockyard, or auction shall buy, sell, or receive a nonambulatory animal.  Effective July 2008, the law also states that no slaughterhouse shall sell meat from non-ambulatory animals for human consumption. The penalty was also increased from an unspecified misdemeanor to a penalty of up to one year in jail or a fine of up to $20,000 or both.  
CO - Equine Activity Liability Statute - Article 21. Damages.   CO ST 13-21-119   This Colorado statute embodies the intent of the general assembly to encourage equine activities and llama activities by limiting the civil liability of those involved in such activities.  This section also contains specific provisions related to llama activities.  Liability is not limited by this statute where the equine or llama sponsor provided faulty equipment or tack, failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the activity, owned or otherwise possessed the land upon which an injury occurred where there was a known latent condition, or if he or she commits an act or omission that constitutes willful or wanton disregard for the safety of the participant or intentionally injures the participant.   
CO - Humane Slaughter - Article 33. Custom Processing of Meat Animals.   CO ST 35-33-101 to 407   This Colorado section includes both the meat processing laws and the humane slaughter provisions.  It covers livestock, which are defined as cattle, calves, sheep, swine, horses, mules, goats, and any other animal which may be used in and for the preparation of meat or meat products.  No processor shall shackle, hoist, or otherwise bring livestock into position for slaughter or shall slaughter livestock except by humane methods as defined by regulation; the use of a manually operated hammer, sledge, or poleax is not permitted.  Additionally, poultry shall be slaughtered in accordance with "good commercial practices" and in a manner that will result in thorough bleeding.  Any person who violates any provision is subject to a civil penalty of not more than $750 per violation for each day of violation and commits a class 2 misdemeanor.  
CT - Equine Activity Liability Statute - Chapter 925. Statutory Rights of Action and Defenses   CT ST 52-557p   This unusually short Connecticut statute limits the liability of equine sponsors by providing that each person engaged in recreational equestrian activities assumes the risk for any injury arising out of the hazards inherent in equestrian sports.  However, if the the injury was proximately caused by the negligence of the person providing the horse or by the failure to guard or warn against a dangerous condition, use, structure or activity, liability if not limited by law.  
CT - Horse Meat - 21a-22. Sale of equine meat in public eating places   C. G. S. A. 21a-22   This Connecticut law states that a public eating place shall not sell or offer equine meat without without indicating such contents of each item in print. Any person, or the responsible agent of any firm or corporation, who violates any provision of this section shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than 1 year or both.  
DC - Horses - Chapter 20. Horse-Drawn Carriages.   DC ST 8-2001 - 2013   This DC regulation makes it unlawful to operate a horse-drawn carriage trade without a license and an ID card. The regulations forbid certain types of bits and require that each horse wear a diaper. Horses may not be worked or driven for more than 8 hours a day. Horses must be rested, provided with food and water. A violation of the regulations may result in a fine of $300 (1st offense). A serious intentional injury to the horse by neglect or inhumane treatment shall be fined up to $2,500.  
DE - Equine Activity Liability - 8140. CHAPTER 81. PERSONAL ACTIONS.   DE ST TI 10 8140   This Delaware statute provides that an equine activity sponsor, an equine professional or any other person shall not be liable for an injury to or the death of a participant resulting from the inherent risks of equine activities.  Liability is not limited, however, when the equine professional knowingly used faulty tack, failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage in the activity, owns or otherwise is in lawful possession of the land upon which the participant sustained injuries because of a dangerous latent condition which was known, commits an act or omission that constitutes willful or wanton disregard for the safety of the participant, or intentionally injures the participant.  Equine professionals and sponsors are also required to post warning signs alerting the participants to the limitation of liability by law.  
FL - Equine Activity Liability Statute- Chapter 773. Equine Activities.   FL ST 773.01 - 773.06   This Florida statute provides that an equine activity sponsor, an equine professional, or any other person shall not be liable for an injury to or the death of a participant resulting from the inherent risks of equine activities.  Liability will not be limited by statute, however, where the equine professional or sponsor knew the tack or equipment was faulty, failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the equine activity, owns or is otherwise in lawful possession of the land or facilities where the injury is attributable to a known dangerous latent condition, commits an act or omission that constitutes willful or wanton disregard for the safety of the participant, or intentionally injures the participant.  Posting of warning signs alerting participants to the limitation of liability by law is also required.  
FL - Horse Slaughter - Chapter 828. Animals: Cruelty; Sales; Animal Enterprise Protection.   FL ST 828.125   Florida Governor Charlie Crist signed this amendment into law on May 17, 2010 making it a second-degree felony for any person to willfully and unlawfully, by any means whatsoever, kill, maim, mutilate, or cause great bodily harm or permanent breeding disability to any animal of the genus Equus (horse). Any person who commits a violation of this subsection shall be sentenced to a minimum mandatory fine of $3,500 and a minimum mandatory period of incarceration of 1 year.  
GA - Equine Liability Act - Chapter 12. Injuries from Equine or Llama Activities.   GA ST 4-12-1 to 5   This act stipulates that an equine sponsor or professional, or a llama sponsor or professional, or any other person, including corporations, are immune from liability for the death or injury of a participant, which resulted from the inherent risks of equine or llama activities.  However, there are exceptions to this rule:  A person will be held liable for injuries if they display a willful and wanton or intentional disregard for the safety of the participant and if they fail to make reasonable and prudent efforts in ensuring the safety of the participant.  
GA - Horse Meat - Article 4. Advertisement and Sale of Meat Generally.   Ga. Code Ann., 26-2-150 - 161   As stated in the legislative intent, the General Assembly declares that purchasers and consumers have a right to expect and demand honesty and fair practices in the sale of meat for human consumption. It is the purpose of this Code to ensure that honest, fair, and ethical practices are followed in the advertising and sale of meat for human consumption. With regard to horsemeat, the Code prohibits the slaughter a horse in this state for the purpose of selling or offering for sale for human consumption or for other than human consumption the horse meat derived from such slaughtered animal unless certain conditions are met. Further, no horse meat shall be sold or offered for sale in this state for human consumption unless at the place of sale there shall be posted in a conspicuous location a sign bearing the words “HORSE MEAT FOR SALE.”  
GA - Horses - Chapter 13. Humane Care for Equines.   GA ST 4-13-1 to 4-13-10   This section comprises Georgia's Humane Care for Equines Act. The act states that it is unlawful for the owner of any equine to fail to provide adequate food and water to such equine; to fail to provide humane care for such equine; or to unnecessarily overload, overdrive, torment, or beat any equine or to cause the death of any equine in a cruel or inhumane manner. The Act also outlines procedures for the care impounded of equines as well as disposal procedures, which includes auction and euthanasia, when the owner cannot be found or refuses to enter into a consent order. Violation of this chapter results a misdemeanor.  
HI - Equine Activity Liability Statute   HI ST 663B-1, B-2  

Hawaii is unique in how it treats liability for injuries incurred during equine activities.  The relevant section provides that, in any civil action for injury, loss, damage, or death of an equine participant, there shall be a rebuttable presumption that the injury, loss, damage, or death was not caused by the negligence of an equine activity sponsor, equine professional, or their employees or agents, if the injury, loss, damage, or death was caused solely by the inherent risk and unpredictable nature of the equine.  Liability is not limited by this statute where the equine professional knowingly provided faulty tack or equipment, failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the equine or activity, owns or otherwise is in lawful possession of the land or facilities upon which the participant sustained injuries because of a known, dangerous latent condition, or if he or she commits an act or omission that constitutes willful or wanton disregard for the safety of the participant or intentionally injures the participant. 

 
IA - Equine Activity Liability Statute - Chapter 673. Domesticated Animal Activities.   IA ST 673.1 - 673.5   This Iowa statute provides that a domesticated animal professional, sponsor, or exhibitor is not liable for the damages, injury, or death suffered by a participant or spectator resulting from the inherent risks of a domesticated animal activity.  However, this section shall not apply to the extent that the claim for damages, injury, or death is caused by an act committed intentionally, recklessly, or while under the influence of an alcoholic beverage or other drug, the knowing use of faulty equipment or tack, the failure to notify a participant of a known dangerous latent condition on real property in which the defendant holds an interest, a domesticated animal activity which occurs in a place designated as a place for persons who are not participants to be present, or a domesticated animal activity which causes damages, injury, or death to a spectator who is in a place where a reasonable person would not expect a domesticated animal activity to occur.  Not only does the statute require the displaying of warning signs alerting participants to the limitation of liability of the equine operators, but in cases where a written contract is executed, special provisions must be present on the contract.  
ID - Equine Activity Liability - CHAPTER 18. EQUINE ACTIVITIES IMMUNITY ACT.   ID ST 6-1801 - 1802  

This Idaho statute provides that an equine activity sponsor or an equine professional shall not be liable for any injury to or the death of a participant or equine engaged in an equine activity and no participant may maintain an action against an equine activity sponsor or professional.  Statutory definitions are provided, including "participant," "equine," and who is considered an "equine sponsor" or "equine professional."  Liability is not limited by this statute where the equine professional knowingly provided faulty tack or equipment, failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the equine activity, owns or otherwise is in lawful possession of the land or facilities upon which the participant sustained injuries because of a known, dangerous latent condition, or if he or she commits an act or omission that constitutes willful or wanton disregard for the safety of the participant or intentionally injures the participant. 

 
IL - Cruelty - Horse Mutilation Act   IL ST CH 720 315/0.01 - 1   This act was repealed in 2013. The former text  prevents the docking of horses' tails. Violation results in a Class A misdemeanor.  
IL - Equine Liability Act - Equine Activity Liability Act   IL ST CH 745 47/1 - 47/999  

This act stipulates that an equine sponsor or professional, or any other person, is immune from liability for the death or injury of a participant, which resulted from the inherent risks of equine activities.  However, there are exceptions to this rule:  a person will be held liable for injuries of an equine activity participant if he or she displays a willful and wanton or intentional disregard for the safety of the participant and if he or she fails to make reasonable and prudent efforts in ensuring the safety of the participant.  In addition, a person will also be held liable for the injury of an equine activity participant if he or she is injured on the land or at a facility due to a dangerous latent condition of which was known to the equine sponsor, professional or other person.

 
IL - Horse Meat Act - Chapter 225. Professions and Occupations.   225 ILCS 635/1 - 1.5   This Act prohibits the slaughter of horses for human consumption as well as importing, exporting, selling, giving, or even possessing horse meat if a person knows or should know that it will be used for human consumption.  Violation of this section of the Act is a Class C misdemeanor.  The Act does contain several exceptions. Notably, it does not apply to any commonly accepted noncommercial, recreational, or sporting activities.  
IN - Equine Activity Statute - Chapter 5. Equine Activities   IN ST 34-31-5-1 to 5  

This Indiana statute states that an equine activity sponsor or equine professional is not liable for an injury to a participant or the death of a participant resulting from an inherent risk of equine activities.  Liability is not limited by this statute where the equine professional knowingly provided faulty tack or equipment, failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the equine activity, owns or otherwise is in lawful possession of the land or facilities upon which the participant sustained injuries because of a known, dangerous latent condition, or if he or she commits an act or omission that constitutes reckless disregard for the safety of the participant or intentionally injures the participant.  The statute also requires the visible displaying of warning signs or warnings provided in contracts that alert participants to the limitation of liability by law.

 
IN - Humane Slaughter - Chapter 5. Meat and Poultry Inspection; Humane Slaughter Act   IN ST 15-17-5-1 to 31  

This Indiana statutory section comprises both the state's meat processing laws and humane slaughter provisions.   The state board responsible for carrying out this Act are empowered to adopt rules governing humane methods to make livestock or poultry insensible to pain before incision of an instrument for severance of the carotid arteries. The rules must conform as far as applicable to the regulations promulgated under the Federal Humane Slaughter Act.  Most of the laws in this section pertain to inspection of commercial livestock facilities and the labeling of postmortem and antemortem animals.  However, violation of the humane slaughter provisions appear to result in a Class B misdemeanor where there has been a "reckless violation."

 
KS - Equine Activity Liability - Article 40. Assumption of Risk of Domestic Animal Activity.   KS ST 60-4001 - 4004   This Kansas statute provides that any participant in domestic animal activities assumes the inherent risks of when such participant engages in a domestic animal activity.  This limitation of liability operates legally as an affirmative defense of assumption of risk pleaded by the domestic animal activity sponsor or domestic animal professional.  The statute also requires the visible displaying of warning signs that alert participants to the limitation of liability by law and any written contract must provide explicit language outlined in the statute.  
KY - Equine Activity Liability Statute - Chapter 247. Promotion of Agriculture and Horticulture. Farm Animal Activities.   KY ST 247.401 - 4029  

This Kentucky statute embodies the the legislative intent to encourage farm animal activities activities by limiting the civil liability of those involved in such activities.  Statutory definitions are provided, including "inherent risks of farm animal activities" and "engages in farm animal activity."  The statute also requires the visible displaying of warning signs that alert participants to the limitation of liability by law.  Failure to comply with the requirements concerning warning signs and notices provided in this section shall prevent a farm animal activity sponsor or farm animal professional from invoking the provisions of KRS 247.401 to 247.4029. 

 
KY - Horse - Chapter 189. Traffic Regulations   KY ST 189.510   This interesting Kentucky law provides that no person shall ride a horse, nor shall the owner of a horse consent to the racing of his horse, in a horse race on a highway.  
LA - Equine Activity Liability - 2795.1. Limitation of liability of farm animal activity sponsor or professional; exceptions; required warning   LA R.S. 9:2795.1 - 9:2795.3   The Louisiana law regarding equine activity liability is divided into two sections; one related to "farm animal activity" and one specific to "equine activity sponsors."  Both statutes have identical terms, save for the animal to which the statute pertains.  Under both, engaging in the farm animal or equine activity does not include being a spectator at a farm animal activity, except in cases where the spectator places himself in an unauthorized area and in immediate proximity to the farm animal or equine activity.  The statute also requires the visible displaying of warning signs that alert participants to the limitation of liability by law and any written contracts must include the statutory language provided.  Failure to comply with the requirements concerning warning notices provided prevents a farm animal activity sponsor or equine sponsor from invoking the privilege of immunity provided by this section.  
MA - Equine Activity Liability Statute - Chapter 128. Agriculture.   MA ST 128 2D   This Massachusetts law provides that an equine activity sponsor, an equine professional, or any other person shall not be liable for an injury to or the death of a participant resulting from the inherent risks of equine activities.  The statute sets out several definitions related to equine activities, but specifically notes that the term "engage in an equine activity" shall not include being a spectator at an equine activity, except in cases where the spectator places himself in an unauthorized area or in immediate proximity to the equine activity.  Liability is not limited by this statute where the equine professional knowingly provided faulty tack or equipment, failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the equine activity, owns or otherwise is in lawful possession of the land or facilities upon which the participant sustained injuries because of a known, dangerous latent condition, or if he or she commits an act or omission that constitutes willful or wanton disregard for the safety of the participant or intentionally injures the participant.   
MA - Equine transport - License plates for vehicles transporting equine animals   MA ST 129 46, 48   This Massachusetts law provides that vehicles transporting equines must have a special license plate. Also, the use of multiple deck vehicles or the so-called "possum belly" vehicle used in the transportation of equine animals is prohibited.  
MD - Equine Transport - Subtitle 9. Transporting Horses.   MD AGRIC 3-901 - 903   This Maryland section provides the requirements for transporting horses. The law states that "[a] person may not transport a horse in a vehicle that is not designed and constructed in a manner that at all times protects the health and well-being of the horse being transported." Of importance is the provision that limits the vehicle used to transport the horses to one level (e.g., no double-deck trailers are allowed). Violation of the law incurs a civil penalty in the amount of $500 per horse for the first offense and $1,000 for each subsequent offense.  
ME - Equine Liability - Chapter 743. Equine Activities   ME ST T. 7 4101 - 4103-A  

This act stipulates that an equine sponsor, equine professional, or any other person engaged in an equine activity, is immune from liability for the death or injury of a participant, as well as property damage, which resulted from the inherent risks of equine activities.  However, there are exceptions to this rule:  A person will be held liable for injuries of an equine activity participant if he or she displays a willful and wanton or intentional disregard for the safety of the participant and if he or she fails to make reasonable and prudent efforts in ensuring the safety of the participant.  In addition, a person will also be held liable for the injury of an equine activity participant if he or she is injured on the land or at a facility due to a dangerous latent condition of which was known to the equine sponsor, professional or other person.

 
ME - Horsemeat - 2163. Sale of horsemeat   22 M.R.S.A. 2163   This Maine statute provides that no person shall transport, receive for transportation, sell or offer for sale or distribution any equine meat or food products thereof unless said equine meat is plainly and conspicuously labeled, marked, branded and tagged “horsemeat” or “horsemeat products” unless such equine meat is conspicuously branded and labeled and a notice containing the words “horsemeat and horsemeat products sold here” is conspicuously displayed in said place of business. Any person, firm or corporation who shall violate any of the provisions of this section shall be punished by a fine of not more than $100 for the first offense and by a fine of not more than $200 for each subsequent offense, and the District and Superior Courts shall have concurrent jurisdiction of the offense.  
MI - Equine Liability - Chapter 691. Judiciary. Equine Activity Liability Act   MCLA 691.1661 - 1667   This statute sets out the liabilities for those that own and use horses: both commercial horse operations and horse shows. It limits liability of owners in certain circumstances.  
MI - Equine Liability Act - Chapter 691. Judiciary. Equine Activity Liability Act   MI ST 691.1661 - 1667  

This act stipulates that an equine sponsor or professional, or any other person, is immune from liability for the death or injury of a participant, which resulted from the inherent risks of equine activities.  However, there are exceptions to this rule:  a person will be held liable for injuries if he or she commits a negligent act or omission that results in the proximate cause of injury or death, and if he or she fails to make reasonable and prudent efforts in ensuring the safety of the participant.  In addition, a person will also be held liable for the injury of an equine activity participant if he or she is injured on the land or at a facility due to a dangerous latent condition of which was known to the equine sponsor, professional or other person.

 
MI - Service Animal - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code.   M.C.L.A. 750.50c   This statute outlines the penalty for the intentional physical harm or interference with a police dog or horse.  The statute provides for a misdemeanor in the case of interference to the animal and a five-year felony where the animal was killed or seriously physically injured.  If the interference was committed during the commission of another felony, then the penalty rises to a potential two-year imprisonment.  
MN - Equine Activity Liability - 604A.12. Livestock activities; immunity from liability.   MN ST 604A.12   This Minnesota statute comprises the state's equine activity liability statute.  The act is not limited to equines, but rather extends protection from liability to participants engaged in "livestock activities." It is important to note that this provision and exemption from liability applies only to non-profit entities. Liability is not limited where the livestock professional knowingly used faulty tack, the person failed to reasonable care to protect the participant from a known, human-made dangerous condition, the person is a livestock activity sponsor and fails to comply with the notice requirement, or the act or omission of the person was willful or negligent.   
MN - Meat - Chapter 31. Food. Meats, Generally   M. S. A. 31.60 -   This Minnesota chapter deals with sale and processing of meat in the state. Among the provisions include a prohibition on the sale of veal when calves are killed when less than four weeks old; the sale of horse meat for human consumption unless conspicuous notices are provided; and the sale of unwholesome game or poultry. The chapter also creates a Meat Industry Division in the Department of Agriculture who enforces and administers these laws.  
MO - Equine Activity Liability - Chapter 537. Torts and Actions for Damages.   MO ST 537.325  

This Missouri statute provides that an equine activity sponsor, an equine professional or any other person shall not be liable for an injury to or the death of a participant resulting from the inherent risks of equine activities and no participant shall make maintain an action against an equine operator.  Statutory definitions are provided, including "participant," "inherent risk," and who is considered an "equine sponsor" or "equine professional."  The term "engages in an equine activity" does not include being a spectator at an equine activity, except in cases where the spectator places him or herself in an unauthorized area.  The statute also requires the visible displaying of warning signs that alert participants to the limitation of liability by law.

 
MS - Equine Activity Liability - Chapter 11. Liability Exemption for Livestock Shows and Equine Activities   MS ST 95-11-1 to 95-11- 7  

This Mississippi statute embodies the the intent of the Legislature to encourage equine and livestock activities by limiting the civil liability of those involved in such activities.  Liability is not limited by this statute where the equine professional knowingly provided faulty tack or equipment, failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the equine or livestock activity, owns or otherwise is in lawful possession of the land or facilities upon which the participant sustained injuries because of a known, dangerous latent condition, or if he or she commits an act or omission that constitutes willful or wanton disregard for the safety of the participant or intentionally injures the participant.  The statute also requires the visible displaying of warning signs that alert participants to the limitation of liability by law.

 
MS - Horses - Slaughter (Chapter 33. Meat, Meat-Food and Poultry Regulation and Inspection. Article 1. Meat, Meat-Food and Poultry Regulation and Inspection Law of 1960)   Miss. Code Ann. 75-33-3   Construes the phrase "unfit for human consumption" in the very broad Mississippi Meat Inspection Act of 1960 to apply to horse meat and meat-food products.     
MS - Slaughter - Chapter 35. Meat Inspection   MS ST 75-35-1 to 75-35-327   These Mississippi statutes regulate meat products, animal slaughter, inspection and branding. Animals to be slaughtered must examined and slaughtered humanely, which means being “rendered insensible to pain... before being shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast or cut.” Meat and meat products must be labeled “Mississippi inspected and passed.” Any violation of the provisions may result in imprisonment and/or a fine.  
MS - Slaughter - Chapter 35. Meat Inspection.   MS ST 75-35-7   This Mississippi statute, last amended in 2006, concerns the slaughter of livestock, such as cattle, pigs, and horses. The statute gives the Commissioner of Agriculture and Commerce in Mississippi the authority to: 1) inspect animals before slaughter to determine if any are diseased and should be slaughtered separately, and 2) inspect slaughter establishments for humane methods of slaughter.  
MS - Slaughter - Chapter 35. Meat Inspection.   Miss. Code Ann. 75-35-21   This Mississippi statute, last amended in 2006, concerns prohibited acts in the sale, transportation, and slaughter of livestock, such as cattle, pigs, and horses. This statute prohibits the sale or transportation of any animal that is adulterated or misbranded, as well as any act that causes adulteration or misbranding of any animal. This statute also prohibits any slaughter that is not considered humane.  
MT - Equine Activity Liability - Chapter 1. Availability of Remedies--Liability.   MT ST 27-1-725 to 27-1-728   The Montana equine activity liability act provides that it is the policy of the state of Montana that a person is not liable for damages sustained by another solely as a result of risks inherent in equine activities if those risks are or should be reasonably obvious, expected, or necessary to persons engaged in equine activities.  Liability is not limited by this statute where the equine professional knowingly provided faulty tack or equipment, failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the equine activity, owns or otherwise is in lawful possession of the land or facilities upon which the participant sustained injuries because of a known, dangerous latent condition, or if he or she commits an act or omission that constitutes willful or wanton disregard for the safety of the participant or intentionally injures the participant.  
MT - Trusts - Chapter 2. Upc--Intestacy, Wills, and Donative Transfers.   MT ST 72-2-1017   This Montana statute states that a trust for the care of a designated domestic or pet animal is valid (but for no longer than 21 years, even if the trust provides for a longer term).  The trust terminates when no living animal is covered by the trust.  Extrinsic evidence is admissible in determining the transferor's intent.  Except as expressly provided otherwise in the trust instrument, no portion of the principal or income may be converted to the use of the trustee or to any use other than for the trust's purposes or for the benefit of a covered animal and a court may reduce the amount of the property transferred if it determines that that amount substantially exceeds the amount required for the intended use.  
NC - Equine Activity Liability - Article 1. Equine Activity Liability   NC ST S 99E-1- 99E-3  

This act stipulates that an equine sponsor or equine professional, or any other person, including corporations and partnerships, are immune from liability for the death or injury of a participant, which resulted from the inherent risks of equine activities.  However, there are exceptions to this rule:  a person, corporation, or partnership will be held liable for injuries of an equine activity participant if he or she displays a willful and wanton or intentional disregard for the safety of the participant and if he or she fails to make reasonable and prudent efforts in ensuring the safety of the participant.

 
ND - Equine Activity - Chapter 53-10. Equine Activity Sponsor or Professional.   ND ST 53-10-01; ND ST 53-10-02   This North Dakota statute provides that an equine activity sponsor or an equine professional is not liable for an injury to or the death of a participant engaged in an equine activity and no participant may maintain an action against an equine activity sponsor or professional.  Statutory definitions are provided, including "participant," "equine activity," and who is considered an "equine sponsor" or "equine professional."   Liability is not limited by this statute where the equine professional knowingly provided faulty tack or equipment, failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the equine activity, owns or otherwise is in lawful possession of the land or facilities upon which the participant sustained injuries because of a known, dangerous latent condition, or if he or she commits an act or omission that constitutes willful or wanton disregard for the safety of the participant or intentionally injures the participant.  
NE - Equine Activity Liability - Article 21. Actions and Proceedings in Particular Cases. (EE) Equine Activities   NE ST 25-21,249 - 253   This Nebraska statute provides that an equine activity sponsor, an equine professional, or any other person shall not be liable for an injury to or the death of a participant resulting from the inherent risks of equine activities and no participant shall make any claim against, maintain an action against, or recover from an equine activity sponsor.  Statutory definitions are provided, including "participant," "inherent risk," and who is considered an "equine sponsor" or "equine professional."  Engages in an equine activity does not include being a spectator at an equine activity except in cases when the spectator places himself or herself in an unauthorized area.  The statute also requires the visible displaying of warning signs that alert participants to the limitation of liability by law.  
NE - Horse Slaughter - Article 19. Meat and Poultry Inspection. (a) Nebraska Meat and Poultry Inspection Law   Neb. Rev. St. 54-1901   The Nebraska Meat and Poultry Inspection Law assures that only wholesome meat and poultry products enter regular commercial channels of commerce and to provide that same are identified and truthfully labeled. It is unlawful under the act for any person to operate or maintain any establishment unless first licensed by the department. With regard to horses, it is unlawful for any person to sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or receive for transportation, in intrastate commerce any carcasses of horses, mules, or other equines or parts of such carcasses, or the meat or meat food products thereof, unless they are plainly and conspicuously marked or labeled or otherwise identified as required by regulations prescribed by the director to show the kinds of animals from which they were derived.  
NE - Licenses - Chapter 15. Cities of the Primary Class   NE ST 15-218   This Nebraska statue provides that a primary city shall have power, by ordinance, to regulate or prohibit the running at large of cattle, hogs, horses, mules, sheep, goats, dogs, and other animals and to cause these animals to be impounded and sold to discharge the cost of impoundment.  
NH - Equine Activity Liability - Chapter 508. Limitation of Actions.   N.H. Rev. Stat. 508:19   This New Hampshire statute provides that an equine activity sponsor, an equine professional, or any other person engaged in an equine activity, shall not be liable for an injury or the death of a participant resulting from the inherent risks of equine activities.  However, liability is not limited by this statute where the equine professional knowingly provided faulty tack or equipment, failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the equine activity, owns or otherwise is in lawful possession of the land or facilities upon which the participant sustained injuries because of a known, dangerous latent condition, or if he or she commits an act or omission that constitutes willful or wanton disregard for the safety of the participant or intentionally injures the participant.  The statute also sets out several definitions and specifically states that the term "engages in an equine activity" does not include being a spectator at an equine activity, except in cases where the spectator is in an unauthorized area and in immediate proximity to the equine activity.  
NH - Humane Slaughter - Chapter 427. Livestock and Meat Inspection. Humane Slaughter   N.H. Rev. Stat. 427:33 - 427:37   These laws comprise New Hampshire's humane slaughter provisions.  A humane method is defined as one where the animal is rendered insensible to pain by a single blow or shot of a mechanical instrument or by electrical, chemical or other means that is rapid and effective, before being shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast, or cut.  Ritual slaughter required by the ritual of the Jewish faith, whereby the animal suffers loss of consciousness by anemia of the brain is also allowed.  Any slaughterer who violates this subdivision shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.  
NJ - Equine Activity Liability - Chapter 15. Equestrian Activities.   NJ ST 5:15-1 to 5:15-1 12   This New Jersey equine activity liability statute fist begins by setting forth the legislative recognition of the importance of equine activities to the state and the fact that eliminating the inherent risks in engaging in them is impractical or impossible.  Further, a participant and spectator are deemed to assume the inherent risks of equine animal activities created by equine animals, and is assumed to know the range of his ability and it shall be the duty of each participant to conduct himself within the limits of such ability.  This acknowledgment of the assumption of risk serves as a complete bar of suit and shall serve as a complete defense to a suit against an operator by a participant for injuries resulting from the assumed risks (excluding the exceptions outlined in the statute).  
NJ - Horse Slaughter - 4:22-25.5. Prohibition upon slaughter of horses for human consumption; punishment   N. J. S. A. 4:22-25.5   This New Jersey law enacted in 2012 makes it a disorderly persons offense to knowingly slaughter a horse for human consumption. Additionally, it makes the knowing sale or barter of horseflesh for human consumption a disorderly persons offense. Violation incurs a fine of not less than $100 and a term of imprisonment of not less than 30 days.  
NJ - Pet Trusts - Trusts for care of domesticated animals   NJ ST 3B:11-38   This New Jersey statute provides that a trust for the care of a domesticated animal is valid.  Trusts under this section terminate when no living animal is covered by the trust, or at the end of 21 years, whichever occurs earlier.  
NM - Equine Activity Liability - Article 13. Equine Liability   NMSA 1978, 42-13-1 to 42-13-5  

This act stipulates that any person, corporation or partnership is immune from liability for the death or injury of a rider, which resulted while the rider was engaged in an equine activity.  However, there are exceptions to this rule:  a person, corporation, or partnership will be held liable for injuries if he or she displays a conscious, reckless, or intentional disregard for the safety of the rider, and if the person, corporation, or partnership fails to make reasonable and prudent efforts in ensuring the safety of the rider.

 
NV - Trusts - Chapter 163. Trusts. Creation and Validity of Trusts. 163.0075. Validity of trust providing for care of one or more animals   N. R. S. 163.0075   This Nevada statute allows for a trust created for the care of one or more animals that are alive at the time of the settlor's death (note the statute does not state "domestic" or "pet" animal). Such a trust terminates upon the death of all animals covered by the terms of the trust. It further provides that a settlor's expression of intent must be liberally construed in favor of the creation of such a trust.  
NY - Racing - 220. Licenses for participants and employees at race meetings   McKinney's Racing, Pari Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Law 220   The state racing and wagering board issues licenses to owners, trainers, assistant trainers and jockeys, jockey agents, and stable employees for horse races, including steeplechases.  
OH - Equine Liability Act - Chapter 2305. Jurisdiction; Limitation of Actions. Miscellaneous Provisions.   R.C. 2305.321  

This act stipulates that an equine sponsor, equine activity participant, equine professional, veterinarian, farrier, or any other person is not liable in damages in a tort or other civil action for harm that an equine activity participant allegedly sustains during an equine activity, which resulted from the inherent risks of equine activities.  However, there are exceptions to this rule:  an equine sponsor, equine activity participant, equine professional, veterinarian, farrier, or any other person will be held liable for injuries of an equine activity participant if he or she displays a willful and wanton or intentional disregard for the safety of the participant and if he or she fails to make reasonable and prudent efforts in ensuring the safety of the participant.  In addition, an equine sponsor, equine activity participant, equine professional, veterinarian, farrier, or any other person will also be held liable for the injury of an equine activity participant if he or she is injured on the land or at a facility due to a dangerous latent condition of which was known to the equine sponsor, professional or other person.

 
OH - Horse slaughter - Chapter 919. Horse Meat   R.C. 919.01 - 919.99   These Ohio statutes deal with horse slaughter and horse meat. Any person who has any establishment that processes and sells horse meat for human food must be licensed by the department of agriculture. The statutes also stipulate certain labeling, signage, and record-keeping requirements. A violation is a first degree misdemeanor.  
OH - Humane Slaughter - Chapter 945. Humane Slaughter of Livestock.   R.C. 945.01 - 99   These laws comprise Ohio's humane slaughter provisions.  After July 1, 1967, no method of slaughtering livestock or handling in connection with the commercial slaughtering of livestock shall be utilized unless it is humane.  Humane methods are defined as those that render animals insensible to pain by a single blow or gunshot or an electrical, chemical, or other means that is rapid and effective.  Slaughter in accordance with the ritual requirements of the Jewish faith or any other religious faith that prescribes a method of slaughter whereby the animal suffers loss of consciousness by anemia of the brain is also allowed.  Violation of the act results in a fine of not more than one hundred dollars.  
OK - Equine Activity Liability - Title 76. Torts. Livestock Activities Liability Limitation Act.   76 Okl. St. Ann. 50.1 - 50.4   The Oklahoma Livestock Activities Liability Limitation Act provides that it is the intent of the Oklahoma Legislature to encourage livestock activities by limiting the civil liability of livestock activities sponsors, participants and livestock professionals involved in such activities.  A livestock activity sponsor, a participant or a livestock professional acting in good faith and pursuant to the standards of the livestock industry shall not be liable for injuries to any person engaged in livestock activities when such injuries result from the inherent risks of livestock activities.  Oklahoma also has a unique provision that explicitly states that two or more persons may agree, in writing, to extend the waiver of liability pursuant to the provisions of the Oklahoma Livestock Activities Liability Limitation Act.  
OK - Horse - Slaughter (Repealed: D. Horsemeat)   repealed, 63 Okl.St.Ann. 1-1135 - 1139   §§ 1-1135 to 1-1139. Repealed by Laws 2013, c. 2, § 3, eff. Nov. 1, 2013. Former text summary: It is unlawful to sell horsemeat for human consumption or to possess horsemeat with the intent to sell it for human consumption.  It is also unlawful to transfer horsemeat when the person transferring the horsemeat knows or reasonably should know that the person receiving the meat intends to sell the meat for human consumption.  The statute also identifies certain circumstances, such as the presence of horsemeat in a restaurant or cafe, as prima facie evidence of an intent to sell horsemeat for human consumption.  
OR - Animal Definitions - Chapter 87. Statutory Liens. Liens Generally. 87.142. Definitions   O. R. S. 87.142   This is Oregon's statutory definitions for Animal Statutes.  
OR - Equine Liability Act - Chapter 30. Actions and Suits in Particular Cases. Actions Arising Out of Equine Activities.   O. R. S. 30.687 - 697  

This act stipulates that an equine sponsor or an equine professional is immune from liability for the death or injury of a participant, arising out of riding, training, driving, grooming or riding as a passenger upon an equine.  However, there are exceptions to this rule:  an equine sponsor or professional will be held liable for injuries of an equine activity participant if he or she displays a willful and wanton or intentional disregard for the safety of the participant.

 
OR - Humane Slaughter - Chapter 603. Meat Dealers and Slaughterers. Meat Dealers and Slaughterers, in General.   O. R. S. 603.010 - 992   These Oregon laws comprise the state's slaughter laws.  Among the provisions is the humane slaughter law, which requires that cattle, equines, sheep, or swine are slaughtered by by any method which renders the animal insensible to pain by a single blow or gunshot or by an electrical, chemical or other means that is rapid and effective; or by a method in accordance with the ritual requirements of any religious faith that prescribes a method of slaughter whereby the animal suffers loss of consciousness by anemia of the brain.  Violation of ORS 603.065 (the humane slaughter law) is a Class B misdemeanor.  
PA - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   18 Pa.C.S.A. 5511 - 5511.3; 18 Pa.C.S.A. 3129   This section constitutes the Pennsylvania anti-cruelty provisions.  The section distinguishes between misdemeanor and felony cruelty and the type of animal involved.  Misdemeanor cruelty (a fine of $500) occurs when a person kills, maims or disfigures any domestic animal of another person, administers or exposes a domestic animal to poison, or interferes with a guide or service animal.  A person commits a felony of the third degree if he or she willfully and maliciously kills, maims or disfigures any zoo animal in captivity or intentionally administers poison to such. Any person convicted of violating the provisions of this paragraph shall be sentenced to pay a fine of not less than $1,000 or to imprisonment for not more than two years, or both, and the court may also order a presentence mental evaluation.  A subsequent conviction under this paragraph shall be a felony of the third degree. Also included in these provisions is the Horse Transport Law, which prohibits the transporting of horses stacked on top of each other. Exclusions under the act include the killing of animals found to be destroying domestic animals, the hunting of game animals, the killing of dogs declared nuisances, and pest control.  
PA - Equine - Chapter 13. Equine Activity.   4 P.S. 601 - 606   These statutes comprise Pennsylvania's Equine Activity Act, which sent into effect on February 21, 2006. Under the law, liability for negligence shall only be barred where knowing voluntary assumption of risk is proven in a particular case. However, the Act provides immunity only where a sign that states, "You assume the risk of equine activities pursuant to Pennsylvania law," is conspicuously posted on the premises in two or more locations.  
PA - Humane Slaughter - Slaughter and Processing of Domestic Animals   3 Pa.C.S.A. 2361 - 2362   These laws comprise Pennsylvania's humane slaughter provisions.  The section begins with the enabling statute that grants authority to the relevant state agency.  It then declares that humane methods shall be used in the handling of domestic animals for slaughter and in the actual bleeding and slaughter of domestic animals except in the cases of slaughter for ritual purposes or individual (e.g., non-commercial) consumption.  The law itself does not proscribe penalties for non-compliance (but such may be listed in departmental regulations).  
RI - Equine Activity Liability - Chapter 21. Exemption from Liability Arising from Equine Activities   Gen. Laws, 1956 4-21-1 - 4   This Rhode Island section provides that an equine professional, or any other person, shall not be liable for an injury to or the death of a participant resulting from the inherent risks of equine activities unless the equine activity sponsor, professional or other person are demonstrated to have failed to exercise due care under the circumstances towards the participant.  Liability is not limited by this statute where the equine professional knowingly provided faulty tack or equipment, failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the equine activity, owns or otherwise is in lawful possession of the land or facilities upon which the participant sustained injuries because of a known, dangerous latent condition, or if he or she commits an act or omission that constitutes willful or wanton disregard for the safety of the participant or intentionally injures the participant.  
RI - Humane Slaughter - Chapter 17. Humane Slaughter of Livestock   Gen. Laws, 1956, 4-17-1 - 7   This section comprises Rhode Island's humane slaughter provisions.  It begins first by declaring it to be the policy of the state that the slaughter of all livestock and the handling of livestock, in connection with slaughter, be carried out only by humane methods.  A "humane method" is defined as a method through which the animal is rendered insensible to pain by mechanical, electrical, chemical or other means that is rapid and effective before being shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast, or cut; or a method in accordance with the ritual requirements of the Jewish faith or any other religious faith through which the animal suffers loss of consciousness by anemia of the brain.  Any person who violates any provision of this chapter shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not more than five hundred ($500) dollars, or by imprisonment for not more than one year.  
SC - Equine Activity Liability - Article 7. Equine Liability Immunity.   Code 1976 47-9-710 - 730   This South Carolina section provides that an equine activity sponsor or an equine professional is not liable for an injury to or the death of a participant resulting from an inherent risk of equine activity.  The statute also requires the visible displaying of warning signs that alert participants to the limitation of liability by law.  Failure to comply with the requirements concerning warning signs and notices provided in this section prevents an equine activity sponsor or equine professional from invoking the privileges of immunity provided by this article.  
SD - Equine Activity Liability - Chapter 42-11. Equine Activities.   S D C L 42-11-1 - 5  

This act stipulates that an equine sponsor, equine professional, doctor of veterinary medicine or any other person, is immune from liability for the death or injury of a participant, which resulted from the inherent risks of equine activities.  However, there are exceptions to this rule:  a person will be held liable for injuries of an equine activity participant if he or she displays a willful and wanton or intentional disregard for the safety of the participant and if he or she fails to make reasonable and prudent efforts in ensuring the safety of the participant.  In addition, a person will also be held liable for the injury of an equine activity participant if he or she is injured on the land or at a facility due to a dangerous latent condition of which was known to the equine sponsor, professional or other person.

 
TN - Equine Activity Liability - Chapter 20. Equine Activities--Liability   T. C. A. 44-20-101 - 105  

This act stipulates that an equine sponsor or equine professional, or any other person, including corporations and partnerships, are immune from liability for the death or injury of a participant, which resulted from the inherent risks of equine activities.  However, there are exceptions to this rule:  a person, corporation, or partnership will be held liable for injuries of an equine activity participant if he or she displays a willful and wanton or intentional disregard for the safety of the participant and if he or she fails to make reasonable and prudent efforts in ensuring the safety of the participant.  In addition, a person will be held liable for the injury of an equine activity participant if he or she is injured on the land or at a facility due to a dangerous latent condition of which was known to the equine sponsor, professional or other person.

 
TX - Equine Activity Liability - Chapter 87. Liability Arising from Equine Activities or Livestock Shows.   V. T. C. A., Civil Practice & Remedies Code 87.001 - 005   This Texas section provides that any person, including an equine activity sponsor, equine professional, livestock show participant, or livestock show sponsor, is not liable for property damage or damages arising from the personal injury or death of a participant in an equine activity or livestock show if the property damage, injury, or death results from the dangers or conditions that are an inherent risk of an equine activity or the showing of an animal on a competitive basis in a livestock show.  The statute also requires the visible displaying of "clearly readable" warning signs that alert participants to the limitation of liability by law.  
TX - Horse - Sale of Horsemeat (Chapter 149. Sale of Horsemeat for Human Consumption)   V. T. C. A., Agriculture Code 149.001 - 007   These statutes prohibit the sale of horsemeat, the possession of horsemeat with the intent to sell, and the knowing transfer of horsemeat to a person who intends to sell it for human consumption. Horsemeat is defined as the flesh of an animal of the genus equus.  Prima facie evidence of an offense is prescribed by these statues and includes, for example, the presence of horsemeat in a restaurant or cafe.  The penalty for an offense may be a fine of up to a $1,000, confinement for not less than 30 days and not more than two years, or both a fine and confinement.  
US - Food Animal - Humane Methods of Livestock Slaughter   7 USC 1901 - 1907   These statutory sections comprise what is commonly termed the Humane Slaughter Act.  Included in these sections are Congress' statement that livestock must be slaughtered in a humane manner to prevent needless suffering, research methods on humane methods of slaughter, the nonapplicability of these statutes to religious or ritual slaughter, and the investigation into the care of nonambulatory livestock.  
US - Food Animal - Twenty Eight Hour Law of 1877   49 USC 80502   This Federal law addresses the transportation of animals, including those raised for food or in food production, across state lines. The statute provides that animals cannot be transported by "rail carrier, express carrier or common carrier" (except by air or water) for more than 28 consecutive hours without being unloaded for five hours for rest, water and food.  
US - Horse - Restore Our American Mustangs Act   HR 1018 (2009)  

The House of Representatives passed the Restore Our American Mustangs Act (H.R. 1018) on July 17, 2009. This bill was introduced on February 12, 2009. This bill would amend the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act. In 2005, the Omnibus Appropriations Bill lifted the prohibition on the sale of wild horses and burros for commercial purposes and allowed the BLM to sell excess animals at public sales "without limitation" (e.g., for slaughter). Congressman Rahall's bill would restore the federal prohibition on the commercial sale and slaughter of wild free-roaming horses and burros. It would also prevent euthanization of any wild free-roaming horses or burros unless the animal is terminally ill.

 
US - Horse - Wild Horses and Burros Act   16 USC 1331 - 1340  

The Wild Horses and Burros Act approved December 15, 1971, provides for protection of wild, free-roaming horses and burros. It directs the Bureau of Land Management of the Department of the Interior and Forest Service of the Department of Agriculture to manage such animals on public lands under their jurisdiction.

 
US - Horses - Sale of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros   PL 108-447  

These amendments to the Wild Horses Act, 16 U.S.C.A. § 1333, amended by Public Law 108-447, allow for the sale of animals for commercial purposes in some circumstances, specifically when the excess animal is more than 10 years old, or has been unsuccessfully offered for adoption on at least 3 occasions.  Once the excess animal is sold, it will no longer be considered a wild free-roaming horse or burro according to this Act.

 
UT - Equine Activity Liability - Part 2. Limitations on Liability for Equine and Livestock Activities   U.C.A. 1953 78B-4-201 - 203   This Utah section states that it is presumed that participants in equine or livestock activities are aware of and understand that there are inherent risks associated with these activities.  Thus, an equine activity sponsor, equine professional, livestock activity sponsor, or livestock professional is not liable for an injury to or the death of a participant due to the inherent risks associated with these activities.  The section also requires an equine professional to give notice to participants of the limitation of liability, either by the posting of a sign or by the execution of a written release.  
UT - Trusts - 75-2-1001. Honorary trusts--Trusts for pets   U.C.A. 1953 75-2-1001   This Utah statute provides that a trust for the care of a designated domestic or pet animal is valid. The trust terminates when no living animal is covered by the trust. Trusts under this section shall be liberally construed to presume against the merely precatory or honorary nature of the disposition, and to carry out the general intent of the transferor.  
VA - Equine - Chapter 62. Equine Activity Liability/Chapter 63. Ox Activity Liability   Va. Code Ann. 3.2-6200 - 6302   This Virginia section provides that an equine activity sponsor, an equine professional, or any other person shall not be liable for an injury to or death of a participant resulting from the intrinsic dangers of equine activities.  Liability is not limited where the equine professional intentionally injures the participant, commits an act or omission that constitutes negligence for the safety of the participant, or knowingly provides faulty equipment or tack that causes injury.  The statute seems to imply that a waiver should be executed when a participant engages in equine activities to adequately insulate the equine professional.  
VT - Equine - 1039. Equine activities; acceptance of inherent risks   12 V.S.A. 1039   This statute represents Vermont's equine activity liability law. Under the Act, no person shall be liable for an injury to, or the death of, a participant resulting from the inherent risks of equine activities, insofar as those risks are necessary to the equine activity and obvious to the person injured. An equine activity sponsor may (it does not say "shall") post and maintain signs which contain the warning notice specified in this subsection.  
VT - Humane Slaughter - Humane Slaughter of Livestock   6 V.S.A. 3131 - 3134   These statutes comprise Vermont's humane slaughter provisions.  The law requires the humane slaughter of all commercial livestock with a "humane method" defined as a method whereby the animal is rendered insensible to pain by mechanical, electrical, chemical or other means that is rapid and effective before being shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast or cut (with exemptions for religious ritual slaughter).  A person who violates this chapter shall be fined not more than $100.00 nor less than $50.00 or imprisoned not more than ninety days, or both, and in addition, the secretary may seek an injunction against a slaughterer.  
VT - Impound - Sub Chapter 2. Pounds and Impounds.   20 V.S.A. 3381 - 3485   The following Vermont statutes require that each organized Vermont town maintain a pound or else the town will be fined $30.00. The statutes also provide provisions for impounding an animal, retrieving an impounded animal, failing to retrieve an impounded animal, and assessing damages of an impounded animal, amongst other topics.  
WA - Equine Activity Liability - Chapter 4.24. Special Rights of Action and Special Immunities.   West's RCWA 4.24.530 - 540   This Washington section provides that an equine activity sponsor or an equine professional shall not be liable for an injury to or the death of a participant engaged in an equine activity, nor may he or she maintain an action against or recover from an equine activity sponsor or an equine professional for an injury to or the death while engaged in an equine activity.  Liability is not limited by this statute where the equine professional knowingly provided faulty tack or equipment, failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the equine activity, owns or otherwise is in lawful possession of the land or facilities upon which the participant sustained injuries because of a known, dangerous latent condition, or if he or she commits an act or omission that constitutes willful or wanton disregard for the safety of the participant or intentionally injures the participant.  
WA - Trusts - Chapter 11.118. Trusts--Animals   West's RCWA 11.118.005 - 110   The purpose of this chapter is to recognize and validate certain trusts that are established for the benefit of animals (nonhuman animal with vertebrae).  The trust can be for one or more animals provided they are individually identified or labeled in the instrument so that they may be easily identified.  Unless otherwise provided in the trust instrument or in this chapter, the trust will terminate when no animal that is designated as a beneficiary of the trust remains living.   
WI - Equine Activity Liability - 895.481. Civil liability exemption; equine activities   W. S. A. 895.481   Under this Wisconsin statute, a person is immune from civil liability for acts or omissions related to his or her participation in equine activities if a person participating in the equine activity is injured or killed as the result of an inherent risk of equine activities.  Notably, the statute provides that a person whose only involvement in an equine activity is as a spectator shall not be considered to be participating in the equine activity.  The statute also requires the visible displaying of warning signs or bold print in a written waiver that alerts participants to the limitation of liability by law.  
WI - Horsemeat - 97.45. Labeling of horsemeat   W.S.A. 97.45   This Wisconsin statute states that no person shall sell any horsemeat, unless it is conspicuously labeled, marked, branded or tagged “horsemeat.” Violation is a Class H felony.  
WV - Equine Activity Liability - Article 4. Equestrian Activities Responsibility Act.   W. Va. Code, 20-4-1 - 7   This West Virginia section expressly recognizes the value of equestrian activities to the state.  Thus, in order to limit liability to those who provide equine services, the duties of both the horsemen who provide such services and the participants who engage in such activities are stated.  Each participant in an equestrian activity expressly assumes the risk of and legal responsibility for any injury, loss or damage to person or property which results from participation in an equestrian activity.  Horsemen are required to ensure the safety of the participants and the equipment provided.  
WV - Horse Slaughter - Article 2B. Inspection of Meat and Poultry.   W. Va. Code, 19-2B-1 - 12   The stated purpose of this article is to provide for the inspection, labeling and disposition of animals, poultry, carcasses, meat products and poultry products which are to be sold or offered for sale through commercial outlets for human consumption, the licensing of commercial slaughterers, custom slaughterers and processors, and the inspection of slaughterhouses and processing plants located in the state of West Virginia. With regard to horse slaughter, the article makes it unlawful to add kangaroo meat, horse meat, mule meat or other equine meat to any animal meat, meat product or poultry product to be sold or offered for sale through commercial outlets or distributors for human consumption.  
WV - Humane Slaughter - Article 2E. Humane Slaughter of Livestock.   WV ST 19-2E-1 - 7   The West Virginia humane slaughter provisions apply to livestock, defined as cattle, swine, sheep or goats.  Humane methods of slaughtering livestock include those where the animal is rendered insensible to pain by a single blow, gunshot or by electrical, chemical or other means, or by slaughtering in accordance with the ritual requirements of the Jewish faith or any other religious faith that prescribes a method of slaughter by the simultaneous and instantaneous severance of the carotid arteries.  The section provides a graduating scheme of penalties for violation; a first offense results in a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of $100 - $500; a second offense results in a misdemeanor with a fine of $500 - 1,000 and suspension of the license to do business as a slaughtering establishment until the facility is in compliance.  
WY - Equine Activity Liability - Chapter 1. General Provisions as to Civil Actions   WY ST 1-1-122 to 123   The Wyoming equine liability provisions immunize equine professionals by declaring that those who engage in equine activities or any recreational activities assume the inherent risks in the sport or recreational opportunity.  However, actions based upon negligence of the provider wherein the damage, injury or death is not the result of an inherent risk of the sport or recreational opportunity shall be preserved pursuant to W.S. 1-1-109.  
WY - Horses - 11-30-115. Unlawful killing of wild horses   WY ST 11-30-115  

This Wyoming statute provides that it is a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of $750 with possible imprisonment of up to six months to maliciously kill a "wild horse" (one that is unbranded and unclaimed and lives on state or public land).  This was signed into law in March of 2001.

 

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