Great Apes: Related Statutes

Statute by category Citationsort descending Summary
VT - Exotic pet, wildlife - § 4709. Importation, stocking wild animals 10 V.S.A. § 4709

This Vermont law provides that a person may not bring into the state or possess any live wild bird or animal of any kind, unless the person obtains from the commissioner a permit to do so. Applicants shall pay a permit fee of $100.00.

VT - Endangered Species - Chapter 123. Protection of Endangered Species 10 V.S.A. § 5401 - 10

These Vermont statutes set out the state's endangered species provisions, including the related definitions, rules for listing species, and regulations for establishing the committees.  Violation of the provisions against taking incur criminal enforcement and restitution.  Interestingly, there is a provision that provides for the location of listed endangered species to be kept confidential.

DE - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes 11 Del.C. § 1325 - 1327;16 Del.C. § 3001F - 3008F; 11 Del.C. § 775

These Delaware sections comprise the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  Delaware's anti-cruelty section provides that cruelty to animals is when a person intentionally or recklessly subjects any animal (excluding fish, crustacea or molluska) to cruel mistreatment, cruel neglect, or kills or injures any animal belonging to another person.  Actively engaging in animal fighting activities is a class F felony while being a spectator at a fight is a class A misdemeanor.

ME - Exotic Pets - Subchapter 15. Wildlife Importation and Possession, Permits and Requirements, 12 M. R. S. A. § 12151 - 12161

These Maine statutes prohibit keeping wildlife in captivity, importing, breeding or releasing wildlife into the wild, with exceptions for a person holding a license. Taking reptiles, amphibians, and certain nonmarine invertebrates from the wild is also prohibited without a license. Provisions for the disposition of wolf hybrids are included. Penalties for violations incur fines that range from $100 to $500. Three or more such violations are considered to be a Class E criminal offense.

ME - Endangered Species - Subchapter 3. Endangered Species; Management and Research. 12 M. R. S. A. § 12801 - 12810

These Maine statutes set forth the legislative intent to protect vulnerable species and list the relevant species.  By statute, a person is guilty of "misuse of an endangered or threatened species" if he or she imports into the State, hunts, takes or possesses, or deliberately baits, feeds, or harasses a listed species.  A warning is issued for the first infraction while the second infraction constitutes a Class E crime. 

VT - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes 13 V.S.A. § 351 - 400; 20 V.S.A. § 2365b; 24 V.S.A. § 1943

This Vermont statutory section contains the amended anti-cruelty and animal fighting laws.  Animal cruelty, as defined by § 352, occurs when a person overworks, overloads, tortures, torments, abandons, administers poison to, cruelly beats or mutilates an animal, or deprives an animal which a person owns or possesses of adequate food, water, shelter, rest , sanitation, or necessary medical attention.  It is also animal cruelty  if one owns, possesses, keeps or trains an animal engaged in an exhibition of fighting.  The section excludes scientific research activities, hunting, farming, and veterinary activities among others.

US - Apes - Great Apes Conservation Act of 2000 16 USC 6301 - 6305 The law assists in the conservation of great apes by supporting and providing financial resources for the conservation programs of countries within the range of great apes. Under the law, Great apes include the chimpanzee, gorilla, bonobo, orangutan, and gibbon. The law authorizes the Secretary of the Interior, through the Director of the Fish and Wildlife Service, to award grants to entities that will promote the conservation of great apes in the wild. The authorization for appropriations is $5 million per year through 2005 with 3% or $80,000, whichever is greater, expended to administer the grants program.
OK - Cruelty - Animal Facilities Protection Act/Consolidated Cruelty Laws 21 Okl. St. Ann. 1680 - 1700; 21 Okl. St. Ann. § 886

These Oklahoma statutes comprise the Animal Protection Act.  The main thrust of the act is the prohibition of animal cruelty and animal fighting.  Included in the provisions are the definitions (including the statutory definition of "animal") and the prohibited acts related to animal facilities.  The statute further provides that no one shall intentionally damage the enterprise conducted at an animal facility (including releasing animals there with the intent to deprive the owner of such facility).  Violation incurs a felony with a fine of up to $5,000 or imprisonment up to seven years or both.

IL - Pet Shops - Chapter 225. Professions and Occupations. 225 I.L.C.S. 605/1 - 22

This section comprises Illinois' Animal Welfare Act.  The Act is primarily aimed at regulating commercial pet dealers, such as kennels, breeders, and retail pet shops.  The provisions include restrictions on the age at which both dogs and cats can be separated from their mothers (8 weeks).

OK - Endangered Species - Part 4. Protected Game 29 Okl. St. Ann. 5-402, 412, 412.1; 29 Okl. St. Ann. § 2-109, 135

Under Oklahoma law, no person may possess, hunt, chase, harass, capture, shoot at, wound or kill, take or attempt to take, trap or attempt to trap any endangered or threatened species or subspecies without specific written permission of the Director.  Violation incurs a $100 - 1,000 penalty with up to 30 days in jail.

OK - Wildlife - Part 5. Possession of Wildlife. 29 Okl.St.Ann. § 7-501 - 504

Under these Oklahoma statutes, no person may possess any wildlife or parts thereof during the closed season, any endangered or threatened species or parts thereof at any time, or any native bear or native cat that will grow to reach the weight of 50 lbs. or more, with exceptions. A conviction could result in a fine of $100-$500 and/or by imprisonment up to 30 days. In addition, no person may buy, barter, trade, or sell all or any part of any fish or wildlife or the nest or eggs of any bird protected by law, with exceptions. A first violation could result in a fine of $100 to $500 and/or by imprisonment up to 60 days.

DE - Exotic Pets - CHAPTER 72. POSSESSION OF MAMMALS OR REPTILES EXOTIC TO DELAWARE 3 Del.C. § 7201 - 7203

This Delaware law requires a permit to possess, sell, or import any non-native wild animal. No such permits will be granted for non-native venomous snakes.

PA - Endangered Species - Chapter 104. Wild Resource Conservation 34 Pa.C.S.A. § 2167; 34 Pa.C.S.A. § 2924; 34 Pa.C.S.A. § 925; 32 P.S. §§ 5301 - 14

This set of Pennsylvania laws comprises the state's endangered species provisions. Section 2167 makes it unlawful for any person to bring into or remove from this Commonwealth, or to possess, transport, capture or kill, or attempt, aid, abet or conspire to capture or kill, any wild bird or wild animal, or any part thereof, or the eggs of any wild bird, which are endangered or threatened species. It is the duty of every officer having authority to enforce this title to seize all wild birds or wild animals, or any part thereof, or the eggs of any wild bird, which have been declared endangered or threatened. Any commerce in endangered species is also prohibited. For a first violation, a person may have his or her hunting privileges revoked for 7 years. A second violation during that period may result in forfeiture of the privilege to hunt for 10 years. A third violation brings the forfeiture to 15 years.

PA - Permits - Chapter 29. Special Licenses and Permits. Subchapter A. General Provisions. 34 Pa.C.S.A. § 2901 - 2908

This chapter of Pennsylvania laws allows the commission to issue permits to take wildlife. Among the permit categories include endangered or threatened species permits, wildlife menagerie, wildlife (exotic) dealer, and wildlife (exotic) possession permits. It is unlawful to exercise any of the privileges granted by a permit issued under this title without first securing the required permit.

PA - Exotic Pets - Subchapter D. Permits Relating to Wildlife; Chapter 147. Special Permits. Subchapter N. Exotic Wildlife Posse 34 Pa.C.S.A. § 2961 - 2965; 58 Pa. Code § 147.261 - 262

These Pennsylvania statutes represent the state's exotic pet laws. “Exotic wildlife" includes all bears, coyotes, lions, tigers, leopards, jaguars, cheetahs, cougars, wolves and any crossbreed of these animals. The commission may issue a permit to a person to act as an exotic wildlife dealer. No permit shall be granted by the commission until it is satisfied that the provisions for housing and caring for the exotic wildlife and protection for the public are proper and adequate and in accordance with the standards which may be established by regulations. It is unlawful to release any exotic wildlife into the wild, fail to exercise due care in safeguarding the public, or recklessly engage in conduct that places another person in danger of attack from exotic wildlife.

US - Chimpanzees - § 283m. Sanctuary system for surplus chimpanzees (CHIMP Act) 42 U.S.C.A. § 283m

This Act provides a system of sanctuaries to provide for the lifetime care of chimpanzees not needed for research that have been used, or were bred or purchased for use, in research conducted or supported by the National Institutes of Health, the Food and Drug Administration, or other agencies of the Federal Government. The Act lists, among other things, requirements for the sanctuaries, criteria for "acceptable" chimpanzees, restrictions on further research of these chimpanzees, and establishment of contracts to entities providing care in the system. For more on the act, see Detailed Discussion of CHIMP Act

DE - Endangered Species - CHAPTER 6. ENDANGERED SPECIES 7 Del.C. § 601 - 605

Delaware prohibits the importation, transportation, possession, or sale of any part, hide or an endangered species of fish or wildlife. Delaware also prohibits the intent to import, transport, or sell any part or hide of an endangered species. The only lawful way to take an endangered species is by a license or permit from the Division of Fish and Wildlife and violation of this statute is a class A environmental misdemeanor.

IL - Exotic pets - 5/48-10. Dangerous animals 720 I.L.C.S. 5/48-10 This Illinois law states that no person shall have a right of property in, keep, harbor, care for, act as custodian of or maintain in his or her possession any dangerous animal or primate except at a properly maintained zoological park, federally licensed exhibit, circus, college or university, scientific institution, research laboratory, veterinary hospital, hound running area, or animal refuge in an escape-proof enclosure. A "dangerous animal" is defined as a lion, tiger, leopard, ocelot, jaguar, cheetah, margay, mountain lion, lynx, bobcat, jaguarundi, bear, hyena, wolf or coyote.This Section does not prohibit a person who had lawful possession of a primate before January 1, 2011, from continuing to possess that primate if the person registers the animal by providing written notification to the local animal control administrator on or before April 1, 2011. Violation is a Class C misdemeanor.
AZ - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty/Animal Fighting Statutes A. R. S. § 12-1011; § 13-2910 - 09; § 13-1411

The Arizona section contains the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  A person commits cruelty to animals if he or she intentionally, knowingly or recklessly subjects any animal under the person's custody or control to cruel neglect or abandonment, fails to provide medical attention necessary to prevent protracted suffering to any animal under the person's custody or control, inflicts unnecessary physical injury to any animal, or recklessly subjects any animal to cruel mistreatment, among other things.  Animal is defined as a mammal, bird, reptile or amphibian.  Exclusions include hunting and agricultural activities in accordance with those laws and regulations in Arizona.  Intentionally attending a dogfight is a felony under this provision whereas attendance at a cockfight is a misdemeanor.

AR - Primates - Subchapter 6. Nonhuman Primates A.C.A. § 20-19-601 - 610

This new 2013 Act prohibits the importing, possession, selling, or breeding of apes, baboons, and macques. It is unlawful under the act for a person to allow a member of the public to come into direct contact with a primate. Further, a person cannot tether a primate outdoors or allow a primate to run at-large. The section does not apply to accredited AZA institutions, AWA regulated research facilities, wildlife sanctuaries, temporary holding facilities, licensed veterinarians providing treatment, law enforcement officers, circuses holding AWA Class C licenses as provided, and those temporarily in the state. The act has a grandfathering provision that allows a person at least 18 years of age to continue to possess the restricted primate if within 180 days after the effective date of the act the person registers the animal per § 20-19-605 and follows other listed requirements.

AL - Cruelty - Alabama Consolidated Cruelty Statutes Ala. Code 1975 § 13A-11-14 - 16; § 13A-11-240 to 247; § 13A–11–260 to 264; § 13A-12-4 - 6; § 3-1-8 to 29; § 2-15-110 to 114

These Alabama provisions contain the state's anti-cruelty laws.  The first section (under Article 1 of Chapter 11) provides that a person commits a Class A misdemeanor if he or she subjects any animal to cruel mistreatment, neglect (as long as he or she has custody of the animal), or kills or injures without good cause any animal belonging to another. However, if any person intentionally or knowingly violates Section 13A-11-14, and the act of cruelty or neglect involved the infliction of torture to the animal, that person has committed an act of aggravated cruelty and is guilty of a Class C felony.  The next section (Article 11 of Chapter 11 entitled, "Cruelty to Cats and Dogs"), provides that a person commits the crime of cruelty to a dog or cat in the first degree if he or she intentionally tortures any dog or cat or skins a domestic dog or cat or offers for sale or exchange or offers to buy or exchange the fur, hide, or pelt of a domestic dog or cat. Cruelty to a dog or cat in the first degree is a Class C felony.

AL - Wildlife, Captive - Article 11. Possession of Wildlife for Public Exhibition Purposes. Ala. Code 1975 § 9-11-320 - 328

This set of Alabama laws relates to the possession of captive wildlife. The Commissioner of Conservation and Natural Resources may issue an annual permit to possess wildlife for public exhibition to a person qualified by education or experience in the care and treatment of wildlife at at a cost of $25.00. Violation of any provision of the article results in a fine of not more than $500.00, imprisonment for not more than three months, or both. Notably, the provisions of the article do not apply to any municipal, county, state or other publicly owned zoo or wildlife exhibit, privately owned traveling zoo or circus or pet shop.

AL - Wildlife - § 9-2-13. Commissioner of Conservation and Natural Resources -- Authority to prohibit importation of birds, anim Ala. Code 1975 § 9-2-13

This Alabama law provides that the Commissioner of Conservation and Natural Resources may, by regulation, prohibit the importation of any animal when such importation is not in the best interest of the state. However, this does not apply to those animals used for display purposes at circuses, carnivals, zoos, and other shows or exhibits. Importing a prohibited animal into the state is a Class C misdemeanor with a fine of $1,000 - 5,000, or jail for 30 days, or both.

AL - Fish and Wildlife - Article 3. Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries Ala. Code 1975 § 9-2-60 - 67

This set of laws establishes the Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries within the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources and outlines the powers and duties of various officials within that division.

AK - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes AS § 03.55.100 - 190; AS § 11.61.140 - 145

This section comprises Alaska's anti-cruelty and animal fighting laws, which were amended in 2010. A person commits cruelty to animals if the person: knowingly inflicts severe and prolonged physical pain or suffering on an animal; with criminal negligence, fails to care for an animal and, as a result, causes the death of the animal or causes severe physical pain or prolonged suffering to the animal; kills or injures an animal by the use of a decompression chamber; intentionally kills or injures a pet or livestock by the use of poison; knowingly kills or injures an animal with the intent to intimidate, threaten, or terrorize another person; or knowingly engages in sexual conduct with an animal, films such activity, induces such activity, or intentionally permits this to occur on premises under the person's control. The court may also prohibit or limit the defendant's ownership, possession, or custody of animals for up to 10 years for convictions under this section.

AK - Zoo - § 09.65.180. Civil liability of zoos AS § 09.65.180

The Alaska law provides that, except as provided in (b), a person who owns or operates a zoo is strictly liable for injury to a person or property if the injury is caused by an animal owned by or in the custody of the zoo.

AK - Fish and Game - Chapter 05. Fish and Game Code AS § 16.05.150; § 16.05.255, § 16.05.270, § 16.05.920; § 16.05.925, § 16.05.940

These provisions concern Alaska's Department of Fish and Game (DFG). The enforcement authority is defined and another statute gives power to the Board of Game to adopt regulations for game animals. Under § 16.05.920, a person may not take, possess, transport, sell, offer to sell, purchase, or offer to purchase fish, game, or marine aquatic plants, or any part of fish, game, or aquatic plants, or a nest or egg of fish or game unless permitted by regulation. "Game" is defined as any species of bird, reptile, and mammal, including a feral domestic animal, found or introduced in the state, except domestic birds and mammals.

CT - Exotic Pets - § 26-40a. Possession of potentially dangerous animal; Chapter 490. Fisheries and Game C. G. S. A. § 26-1, § 26-40a; § 26-54, 55, 61

These Connecticut states reflect the state's laws on the keeping of wild animals. Under § 26-40a, no person shall possess a potentially dangerous animal, which includes wildlife such as the  lion, leopard, cheetah, jaguar, ocelot, jaguarundi cat, puma, lynx, bobcat, wolf, coyote, all species of bears, gorilla, chimpanzee and orangutan. The Department of Environmental Protection shall issue a bill to the owner or person in illegal possession of such potentially dangerous animal for all costs of seizure, care, maintenance, relocation or disposal of such animal. Additionally, any person who violates any provision of this section shall be assessed a civil penalty not to exceed $2000, and is guilty of a class A misdemeanor. Under § 26-55, no person shall import or introduce into the state, possess or let loose, any live fish, wild bird, wild mammal, reptile, amphibian or invertebrate unless such person has obtained a permit. Again, a violator is responsible for expenses from the seizure, maintenance, and relocation of the illegally imported animal. The penalty includes a civil fine up to $1000 and results in a class C misdemeanor.

CO - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty/Animal Fighting Statutes C. R. S. A. § 18-9-201 - 209; § 35-42-101 - 115

This Colorado section contains the anti-cruelty and animal fighting laws. A person commits cruelty to animals if he or she knowingly, recklessly, or with criminal negligence overdrives, overloads, overworks, torments, deprives of necessary sustenance, unnecessarily or cruelly beats, allows to be housed in a manner that results in chronic or repeated serious physical harm, carries or confines in or upon any vehicles in a cruel or reckless manner, or otherwise mistreats or neglects any animal.  A person commits aggravated cruelty to animals if he or she knowingly tortures, needlessly mutilates, or needlessly kills an animal.  Cruelty to animals is a class 1 misdemeanor and aggravated cruelty or a second conviction of animal cruelty is class 6 felony.  This section also prohibits animal fighting (not limited to certain species such as dogs or chickens). Violation of this law results in a class 5 felony.  This section also makes it illegal to  own a dangerous dog and "tamper" with livestock.

CO - Pet Shop - Article 80. Pet Animal Care and Facilities Act C. R. S. A. § 35-80-101 - 117

This Colorado Act regulates pet animal facilities (i.e., shelters, large kennels, and breeders).  The Act covers licensing of the facilities and those activities deemed unlawful, such as selling a kitten or puppy under the age of 8 weeks and refusing a lawful inspection.

SC - Exotic pets - Chapter 2. Large Wild Cats, Non-Native Bears and Great Apes Code 1976 § 47-2-10 to 70 This South Carolina chapter, effective January 1, 2018, makes it unlawful for a person to possess, keep, purchase, have custody or control of, breed, or sell within this State a large wild cat, non-native bear, or great ape, including transactions conducted via the Internet. A person in possession of such animal before January 1, 2018 who is the legal possessor of the animal may keep possession if he or she complies with seven conditions listed under Section 47-2-30. Authorities may confiscate large wild cats, non-native bears, or great apes held in violation of this chapter. Cities or counties may also adopt more restrictive ordinances than this chapter. A person who violates this chapter must be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than 30 days for a first offense, and must be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned for not more than 90 days for a second offense. Exempted entities include certain non-profit animal protection organizations, university research labs holding Class R registration under the AWA, any person who possesses a valid USDA Class A, B, or C license in good standing, and circuses that are incorporated and hold a Class C license under the AWA that are temporarily in this State, among others.
SC - Endangered Species - Chapter 15. Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act Code 1976 § 50-15-10 to 90

These statutes comprise the "South Carolina Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act."  Included in the provisions are definitions and criteria related to the listing of endangered species.  Violation of the provisions constitutes misdemeanors of varying penalties as well as forfeiture of equipment used in the illegal takings.

DC - Exotic Pets - § 8-1808. Prohibited conduct. DC CODE § 8-1808 This DC law outlines things an owner or custodian is prohibited from doing with regard to his or her animal. Among them is that an owner or custodian shall not allow his or her animal to go at large. An owner or custodian shall not leave his or her animal outdoors without human accompaniment or adequate shelter for more than 15 minutes during periods of extreme weather, unless the age, condition, and type of each animal allows the animal to withstand extreme weather (excluding cats). The law also states that a person shall not separate a puppy or a kitten from its mother until the puppy or kitten is at least 6 weeks of age. Certain animals are prohibited from being possessed or sold in the District, which are outlined in subsection (j).
GA - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Laws Ga. Code Ann., § 16-12-4, § 16-6-6

This comprises Georgia's anti-cruelty provisions.  Under the statute, "animal" does not include any fish or any pest that might be exterminated or removed.  A person commits the offense of cruelty to animals when he or she causes death or unjustifiable physical pain or suffering to any animal by an act, an omission, or willful neglect. Any person convicted of a violation of this subsection shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, but subsequent convictions incur enhanced penalties.  A person commits the offense of aggravated cruelty to animals when he or she knowingly and maliciously causes death or physical harm to an animal by rendering a part of such animal's body useless or by seriously disfiguring such animal.

GA - Exotic pets, wildlife - Chapter 5. Wild Animals Ga. Code Ann., § 27-5-1 to 12

These Georgia wildlife provisions embody the General Assembly's finding that it is in the public interest to ensure the public health, safety, and welfare by strictly regulating in this state the importation, transportation, sale, transfer, and possession of certain wild animals. Animals such as kangaroos, certain non-human primates, wolves, bears, big cats, hippopotamus, and crocodile, among others, are considered to be inherently dangerous to human beings and are subject to the license or permit and insurance requirements outlined in the laws. The section also details specifications for the humane handling, care, confinement and transportation of certain wild animals.

RI - Endangered Species - Chapter 37. Endangered Species of Animals and Plants. Gen. Laws, 1956, § 20-37-1 to 5

These Rhode Island statutes set out the legislative policy and definitions related to state endangered species law, including the definition of "animal" and what constitutes an "endangered species."  By statute commerce is strictly prohibited, as it it illegal to "buy, sell, offer for sale, store, transport, import, export, or otherwise traffic in any animal or plant or any part of any animal or plant whether living, dead, processed, manufactured, preserved, or raw if the animal or plant has been declared to be an endangered species by either the United States secretaries of the interior or commerce or the director of the Rhode Island department of environmental management."  Violation of the Act results in fines from $500-5,000 or up to one year imprisonment, or both.

RI - Exotic Pets - Chapter 18. Importation of Wild Animals Gen. Laws, 1956, § 4-18-1 to 15

This chapter of Rhode Island laws proclaims that its intent is to provide safeguards for the protection of persons in the state from disease hazards associated with imported wild animals. Under the chapter, no person shall import into, receive, or possess in this state without first obtaining a permit from the department, animals of the following orders, families, and genera: primates, carnivores, amphibia, reptilia, canidae, and insecta. Personal pets under a special permit are exempted from the importation permit requirement. A permit may be granted by the department to import a wild animal as a personal pet, if a written affidavit or declaration under penalty of perjury is completed at the time of entry at the site of first arrival. This chapter also requires that certain species undergo quarantine for specified periods of time. Any person who violates any provisions of this chapter shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars ($100), and the loss of any specimen referred to in this chapter.

HI - Importation, quarantine - Chapter 150A. Plant and Non-Domestic Animal Quarantine and Microorganism Import H R S § 150A-5 - 15

These laws concern the importation of animals, plants, and microorganisms into the State of Hawaii.

HI - Wildlife - Chapter 183D. Wildlife. H R S § 183D-1 - 66

These statutes comprise Hawaii's wildlife provisions.

IA - Pet Shop - Chapter 162. Care of Animals in Commercial Establishments. I. C. A. § 162.1 to 25
The purpose of this chapter is to insure that all dogs and cats handled by boarding kennels, commercial kennels, commercial breeders, dealers, and public auctions are provided with humane care and treatment by regulating the transportation, sale, purchase, housing, care, handling, and treatment of such animals.
IA - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Laws I. C. A. § 717B.1 - 717E3

Under Title XVI of Iowa's criminal code, there are several chapters that outlaw forms of animal cruelty and animal fighting.  The main animal cruelty provisions are contained in chapter 717B (Injuries to Animals other than Livestock). This chapter defines "animal" as any nonhuman vertebrate.  However, it excludes livestock, game, fur-bearing animal, fish, reptile, or amphibian unless a person owns, confines, or controls the game, fur-bearing animal, fish, reptile, or amphibian, and any nongame considered a "nuisance."  There are separate prohibitions against animal abuse, animal neglect, animal torture, abandonment of a cat or dog, and injury to a police service dog.  Under both the animal abuse and animal torture sections, a first offense results in an aggravated misdemeanor.  However, animal torture requires a mandatory psychological evaluation and graduates subsequent convictions to felony status.  Exclusions under the various sections include veterinary care, hunting, animal husbandry, and scientific research, among others.  Other criminal chapters include chapters 717C.1 (Bestiality), 717D (Animal Contest Events), and 717E (Pets as Prizes).

IA - Dangerous - Chapter 717F. Dangerous Wild Animals I. C. A. § 717F.1 - 13

This Iowa set of laws concerns the keeping of dangerous wild animals. Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, a person shall not own or possess a dangerous wild animal or cause or allow a dangerous wild animal owned by a person or in the person's possession to breed. Further, a person shall not transport a dangerous wild animal into this state. There is a grandfather provision that allows a person who owns or possesses a dangerous wild animal on July 1, 2007 to continue to own or possess the dangerous wild animal subject the provisions of the laws. A person owning or possessing a dangerous wild animal who violates a provision of this chapter is subject to a civil penalty of not less than two hundred dollars and not more than two thousand dollars for each dangerous wild animal involved in the violation.

IN - Exotic pet - Chapter 26. Wild Animal Permit. I.C. 14-22-26-1 to 6 This set of Indiana laws concerns the keeping of protected and dangerous wild animals. Under the law, a person must obtain a permit to possess these classes of animals. A permit may be suspended if an emergency exists (e.g., the animal is in peril or the animal is in a position to harm another animal).
IN - Endangered Species - Chapter 34. Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation I.C. 14-22-34-1 to 21

These Indiana statutes set out the definitions related to endangered species and prohibit any form of possession of listed species, including taking, transporting, purchasing or selling except by permit.  Listed species may be removed, captured, or destroyed if it is shown by good cause that the species are causing property damage or are a danger to human health.

ID - Exotic - Chapter 39. Importation or Possession of Deleterious Exotic Animals I.C. § 25-3901 - 3905

In Idaho, all apes and other nonhuman primates are classified as “deleterious exotic animals,” which are dangerous to the environment, livestock, agriculture, or wildlife of the state. According to Idaho’s legislature, it is in the public interest to strictly regulate the importation and possession of those animals.

ID - Wildlife - Chapter 7. Captive Wildlife I.C. § 36-701 to 716

This section comprises Idaho's captive wildlife provisions. Under the law, no person shall engage in any propagation or hold in captivity any species of big game animal found wild in this state, unless the person has been issued a license or permit by the director. All other species of mammals, birds or reptiles that are found in the wild in this state and are not species of special concern or threatened and endangered species, may be held in captivity without permit so long as the possessor retains proof that such wildlife was lawfully obtained. The laws concerning commercial wildlife farms are also included in this section. Additionally, there is also a section on the transition of wolves from federal to state management (§ 36-715).

KS - Pet Sales - Chapter 47. Livestock and Domestic Animals. K. S. A. 47-1701 to 1737

The following statutes comprise Kansas' Pet Animal Act. The Act outlines the requirements for pet shop operator licensing and animal dealers.

KY - Endangered Species - Chapter 150. Fish and Wildlife Resources. KRS § 150.180, 183, 260, 280, 990

Under Kentucky law, no person shall import, transport, possess for resale or sell any endangered species of wildlife.  The term "endangered species" means any species of wildlife seriously threatened with worldwide extinction or in danger of being extirpated from the Commonwealth of Kentucky.  Violation of the Act may result in fines or possible imprisonment depending on the statutory section violated, and license sanctions may also result.

KY - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes KRS § 525.125 - 135; KRS § 436.600 - 610

These Kentucky statutes represent the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  Under the law, animal cruelty in the first-degree (a class D felony) occurs when a person causes four-legged animals to fight for pleasure or profit.  Exclusions under this section include, among others, the killing of animals when hunting, fishing, or trapping; as incident to the processing as food or for other commercial purposes; or for veterinary, agricultural, spaying or neutering, or cosmetic purposes.

KY - Exotic Animals - Chapter 65. General Provisions Applicable to Counties, Cities KRS § 65.877

This Kentucky statue authorizes counties and cities to regulate or prohibit the holding of inherently dangerous wildlife. For example, the Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources has identified some of the following animals as being dangerous: African buffalo, Hippopotamus, Hyenas, Old world badger, Lions, jaguars, leopards, or tigers, Clouded leopard, Cheetah, Elephants, Rhinoceroses, Gorillas, Baboons, drills, or mandrills, Crocodiles, Alligators or caimans, certain snakes, Gila monsters or beaded lizards, Komodo dragon, Wolverine, Bears, Wolf, mountain lion.

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