Statutes

Statute by category Citationsort descending Summary
MI - Cruelty - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code. M.C.L.A. 750.50b This is the felony animal cruelty law in Michigan. Under the law, a person is guilty of killing or torturing animals if they: (a) knowingly kill, torture, mutilate, maim, or disfigure an animal; (b) commit a reckless act knowing or having reason to know that the act will cause an animal to be killed, tortured, mutilated, maimed, or disfigured; (c) knowingly administer poison to an animal, or knowingly expose an animal to any poisonous substance, with the intent that the substance be taken or swallowed by the animal; or (d) violate or threaten to violate subdivision (a) or (c) with the intent to cause mental suffering or distress to a person or to exert control over a person. Whether the offense becomes a first, second, or third degree felony depends on listed factors, including whether the animal is a companion animal (as defined in the law). A first degree felony conviction results in imprisonment up to 10 years, a fine of not more than $5,000, and/or community service for not more than 500 hours. As a part of the sentence, the court may order the defendant to pay the costs of the prosecution and the costs of the care, housing, and veterinary medical care for the animal victim, and the court may order the defendant to not own or possess an animal for ANY period of time including permanent relinquishment. Lawful killing of animals including fishing, hunting, pest control, and scientific research are excluded.
MI - Service Animal - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code. M.C.L.A. 750.50c This statute outlines the penalty for the intentional physical harm or interference with a police dog or horse. The statute provides for a misdemeanor in the case of interference to the animal and a five-year felony where the animal was killed or seriously physically injured. If the interference was committed during the commission of another felony, then the penalty rises to a potential two-year imprisonment.
MI - Cruelty - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code. M.C.L.A. 750.52 (Repealed by P.A.2015, No. 210, § 1(f), Eff. March 14, 2016) Note: Repealed by P.A.2015, No. 210, § 1(f), Eff. March 14, 2016. This statute provides that it is the duty of the officials involved in animal cruelty investigations to arrest and prosecute those committing the offenses where there is knowledge or reasonable notice of the acts. The failure or neglect by an officer involved to do so may result in a misdemeanor.
MI - Forfeiture - Chapter 750. Michigan Penal Code. The Michigan Penal Code M.C.L.A. 750.53 This statute provides that a person violating any of the animal cruelty statutes may be arrested without warrant, similar to the arrest of those found disturbing the peace.  Further, the official making the arrest has a duty to seize the animals involved and place them in the custody of the jurisdiction.
MI - Constitutional Provisions - § 5. State lands M.C.L.A. Const. Art. 10, § 5 This section describes the State legislature's authority over all state land and the requirement that all departments that have supervision or control of any state land submit an annual report as to the status of such land to the legislature
MA - Police animals - 9A Emergency treatment of police dogs M.G.L.A. 111C § 9A This 2022 Massachusetts law mandates that EMS personnel provide emergency treatment to a police dog injured in the line of duty and transport such police dog by ambulance to a veterinary care facility equipped to provide emergency treatment to dogs. EMS personnel shall not transport an injured police dog if providing such transport would inhibit their ability to provide emergency medical attention or transport to a person requiring such services. The law also outlines training for EMS personnel in treating police dogs.
MA - Veterinary - Veterinary Practice Laws M.G.L.A. 112 § 54 - 60 These are the state's veterinary practice laws. Among the provisions include licensing requirements, laws concerning the state veterinary board, veterinary records laws, and the laws governing disciplinary actions for impaired or incompetent practitioners.
MA - Cruelty, reporting - § 85. Department employees reporting animal cruelty, abuse or neglect; immunity from liability M.G.L.A. 119 § 85 This Massachusetts statute provides that a state employee acting within the scope of his or her employment, who has knowledge of or observes an animal whom he knows or reasonably suspects has been the victim of animal cruelty, abuse or neglect may report it to the entities that investigate these reports or any local animal control. The statute describes how to make the report, timing to submit, and who can make the report if 2 or more employees witness the abuse. The statute also makes clear that no person who makes a report shall be liable in any civil or criminal action if the report was made in good faith.
MA - Equine Activity Liability Statute - Chapter 128. Agriculture. M.G.L.A. 128 § 2D This Massachusetts law provides that an equine activity sponsor, an equine professional, or any other person shall not be liable for an injury to or the death of a participant resulting from the inherent risks of equine activities. The statute sets out several definitions related to equine activities, but specifically notes that the term "engage in an equine activity" shall not include being a spectator at an equine activity, except in cases where the spectator places himself in an unauthorized area or in immediate proximity to the equine activity. Liability is not limited by this statute where the equine professional knowingly provided faulty tack or equipment, failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the equine activity, owns or otherwise is in lawful possession of the land or facilities upon which the participant sustained injuries because of a known, dangerous latent condition, or if he or she commits an act or omission that constitutes willful or wanton disregard for the safety of the participant or intentionally injures the participant.
MA - Pet Sales Age Restriction - Chapter 129. Livestock Disease Control M.G.L.A. 129 § 39G; § 43 This statute provides that any dog or cat brought or shipped into the commonwealth shall be accompanied by an official health certificate issued by an accredited veterinarian, a copy of which shall be sent to the commissioner of agricultural resources. Further, a commercial establishment, pet shop, firm or corporation shall not import into the commonwealth, for sale or resale in the commonwealth, a cat or dog less than 8 weeks of age.
MA - Equine transport - License plates for vehicles transporting equine animals M.G.L.A. 129 § 46 - 48 This Massachusetts law provides that vehicles transporting equines must have a special license plate. Also, the use of multiple deck vehicles or the so-called "possum belly" vehicle used in the transportation of equine animals is prohibited.
MA - Exotic pet, breeding - Chapter 131. Inland Fisheries and Game and Other Natural Resources. M.G.L.A. 131 § 23 Massachusetts bans private possession of exotic pets, and requires licenses for those who deal and propagate wild species for other reasons. The Massachusetts director of the Division of Fisheries and Wildlife also issues a list of exempted species for which no permit is needed.
MA - Hunting - Chapter 131. Inland Fisheries and Game and Other Natural Resources. M.G.L.A. 131 § 5C This law reflects Massachusetts' hunter harassment provision. Under the law, no person shall obstruct, interfere with or otherwise prevent the lawful taking of fish or wildlife by another at the locale where such activity is taking place. Acts prohibited include, but are not limited to, driving or disturbing wildlife, harassing another engaged in lawful taking of fish or wildlife, interjecting oneself into the line of fire, or erecting barriers to prevent access. A person may seek an injunction to prevent violation of this section and a person who sustains damages from any act in violation of the law may bring a civil action for punitive damages.
MA - Hunting, Internet - § 65A. Online Shooting or Spearing M.G.L.A. 131 § 65A This statute prohibits hunting via the Internet and the operation of online hunting businesses within the state of Massachusetts. Violation is punished by imprisonment in the house of correction for not more than 2 1/2 years or by a fine of not more than $2,500, or by both a fine and imprisonment.
MA - Possession - Chapter 131. Inland Fisheries and Game and Other Natural Resources. M.G.L.A. 131 § 75A Massachusetts specifically protects the eagle as a bird of prey from hunting or possession, unless provided by permit. The law further prohibits the possession, harassment or harming of the eggs and nests of birds of prey. Notably, sale and transportation are not specifically listed under the statute.
MA - Exotic Pets - Chapter 131. Inland Fisheries and Game and Other Natural Resources. M.G.L.A. 131 § 77A Massachusetts bans hybrid animals, those offspring of mating between a domestic animal and its wild counterpart, usually wolves and dogs. No individual may possess or own a hybrid as a pet.
MA - Fur - Chapter 131. Inland Fisheries and Game and Other Natural Resources. M.G.L.A. 131 § 80A Massachusetts law provides that a person may not use or possess any trap for capturing furbearing mammals except for common mouse and rat traps, nets, and box or cage traps. Traps designed to capture and hold a furbearing mammal by gripping the mammal's body, or body part are prohibited, including steel jaw leghold traps, padded leghold traps, and snares. This prohibition does not apply to federal, state, or municipal departments for the protection from threats to human health and safety (e.g., beaver or muskrat caused flooding or damage).
MA - Endangered Species - Chapter 131A. Massachusetts Endangered Species Act M.G.L.A. 131A § 1 - 7 This Massachusetts statute comprises the state's endangered species act. "Endangered species", any species of plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range including those species listed under the federal ESA. The director shall conduct investigations and consult with the natural heritage and endangered species advisory committee in order to determine whether any species of plant or animal constitutes an endangered or threatened species or species of special concern. Habitat alteration permits are required under this act when any person undertakes a project that may alter a significant portion of habitat.
MA - Lost Property - Chapter 134. Lost Goods and Stray Beasts M.G.L.A. 134 § 1 - 7 This section comprises Massachusetts' Lost Goods and Stray Beasts Act.
MA - Leash - § 174B. Restraint of dogs in public highway rest areas; penalty M.G.L.A. 140 § 174B This Massachusetts law states that whoever is the owner or keeper of a dog shall restrain said dog by a chain or leash when in an officially designated public highway rest area. Whoever violates the provisions of this section shall be punished by a fine of not more than $100.
MA - Dog - Consolidated Dog Laws M.G.L.A. 2 § 14; M.G.L.A. 112 § 12Z; M.G.L.A. 128A § 14E; M.G.L.A. 266 § 47; M.G.L.A. 140 § 136A - § 174F; M.G.L.A. 129 § 39G; M.G.L.A. 131 § 20, 21, 21A, 82 These Massachusetts statutes comprise the state's dog laws. Among the provisions include licensing laws, dangerous dog laws, and rabies vaccination provisions.
MA - Cat of commonwealth - Chapter 2. Arms, Great Seal and Other Emblems of the Commonwealth. M.G.L.A. 2 § 30 The Tabby cat shall be the official cat of the Massachusetts commonwealth.
MA - Pet Trust - Chapter 203. Trusts. M.G.L.A. 203E § 408 In 2011, Massachusetts enacted this law, which allows the creation of a trust for the continuing care of an animal alive during the settlor's lifetime. The trust terminates upon the death of the last animal named in the trust. A court may reduce the amount of property held by the trust if it determines that the amount substantially exceeds the amount required for the intended use and the court finds that there will be no substantial adverse impact in the care, maintenance, health or appearance of the covered animal. The statute was renumbered in 2012.
MA - Domestic Violence - § 11. Possession, care and control of domesticated animal owned by persons involved in certain protecti M.G.L.A. 209A § 11 This Massachusetts law, effective October of 2012, allows the court to order the possession, care and control of any domesticated animal owned, possessed, leased, kept or held by either party or a minor child residing in the household to the plaintiff or petitioner in a no contact or restraining order. The court may order the defendant to refrain from abusing, threatening, taking, interfering with, transferring, encumbering, concealing, harming or otherwise disposing of such animal.
MA - Lien - § 24. Domestic animals; care and custody M.G.L.A. 255 § 24 Persons having proper charges due them for pasturing, boarding or keeping horses or other domestic animals which are brought to their premises or placed in their care by or with the consent of the owners thereof shall have a lien on such animals for such charges.
MA - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes M.G.L.A. 272 § 77 - 95; M.G.L.A. 22C § 57; M.G.L.A. 272 § 34 These Massachusetts laws contain the state's anti-cruelty provisions. Sec. 77 is the operative anti-cruelty statute and provides that whoever overdrives, overloads, drives when overloaded, overworks, tortures, torments, deprives of necessary sustenance, cruelly beats, mutilates or kills an animal, and whoever uses in a cruel or inhuman manner in a race, game, or contest, or in training, as lure or bait a live animal (except as bait in fishing), or knowingly and willfully authorizes or permits it to be subjected to unnecessary torture, suffering or cruelty of any kind shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for not more than 7 years or imprisonment for not more than 2 1/2 years or by a fine of not more than $5,000, or by both such fine and imprisonment. Other laws prohibit the dyeing of baby chicks, the docking of horse tails, and animal fighting, among other provisions. In 2010, the state made non-medically necessary devocalization of dogs or cats illegal.
MA - Horse - § 3. Sleigh or sled; bells M.G.L.A. 89 § 3 This Massachusetts law states that no person shall travel on a way with a sleigh or sled drawn by a horse, unless there are at least three bells attached to some part of the harness.
MA - Assistance Animal - Assistance Animal/Guide Dog Laws M.G.L.A. 90 § 14A; M.G.L.A. 129 § 1, 39C, 39D, 39F, 43; M.G.L.A. 272 § 98A; M.G.L.A. 272 § 85B; M.G.L.A. 140 § 139 The following statutes comprise the state's relevant assistance animal and service dog laws.
MA - Vehicle - § 22H. Safe transportation of animals M.G.L.A. 90 § 22H In Massachusetts, transporting an animal in the back of a motor vehicle on a public way unless such space is enclosed or has side and tail racks to a height of at least 46 inches extending vertically from the floor, the animal is cross tethered to the vehicle, the animal is protected by a secured container or cage or the animal is otherwise protected in a manner which will prevent the animal from being thrown or from falling or jumping from the vehicle results in a fine of not less than $50.
MA - Fur, labeling - Chapter 94. Inspection and Sale of Food, Drugs and Various Articles. M.G.L.A. 94 § 277A This law represents Massachusetts' fur labelling law. Under the law, all natural, dyed or imitation furs, and all articles made wholly or partly therefrom, sold at retail within the commonwealth, shall be plainly marked or labelled with an accurate statement of the material which they contain, together with the name and address of the seller. Whoever violates any provision of this section shall be punished by a fine of not more than two hundred dollars.
MN - Research animals - 135A.191. Research dogs and cats M.S.A. § 135A.191 This Minnesota law states that a publicly-funded higher education facility that confines dogs or cats for science, education, or research purposes and plans on euthanizing a dog or cat for other than science, education, or research purposes must first offer the dog or cat to an animal rescue organization.
MN - Hospitals, nursing homes - § 144.573. Pets in certain institutions M.S.A. § 144.573 This Minnesota statute describes the level of care required for pets who live in institutional facilities with their owners.
MN - Hospitals and pets - § 144A.30. Pets in nursing homes M.S.A. § 144A.30 This Minnesota statute states that animal nursing homes must be "reasonable" in their care, type, and maintenance of pets.
MN - Veterinary - Chapter 156. Veterinarians. Board of Veterinary Medicine. M.S.A. § 156.001 - 20 These are the state's veterinary practice laws. Among the provisions include licensing requirements, laws concerning the state veterinary board, veterinary records laws, and the laws governing disciplinary actions for impaired or incompetent practitioners.
MN - Fur - Chapter 17. Department of Agriculture. Fur Farming M.S.A. § 17.351 - 17.37 This set of Minnesota laws relates to fur farming. Under the section, fur-bearing animals are domestic animals and products of fur-bearing animals are agricultural products. A fur farmer is engaged in an agricultural pursuit. A fur farmer may register annually with the state commissioner for $10. A registered fur farmer must file a verified report of the number of pelts of each species of fur-bearing animal sold during the preceding calendar year.
MN - Humane Slaughter - Chapter 31. Food. Slaughter of Livestock M.S.A. § 31.59 - 31.592 This section comprises Minnesota's humane slaughter laws. The law requires humane slaughter of livestock, defined as any method of slaughtering livestock which normally causes animals to be rendered insensible to pain by a single blow of a mechanical instrument or shot of a firearm or by chemical, or other means that are rapid and effective; or by methods of preparation necessary to Halal ritual slaughter, Jewish ritual slaughter and of slaughtering required by the ritual of the Islamic or Jewish faith. "Livestock" under this act is limited to cattle, horses, swine, sheep and goats.
MN - Trust - 501C.0408. Trust for care of animal M.S.A. § 501C.0408 This Minnesota law enacted in 2016 allows for the creation of a pet trust. A trust may be created to provide for the care of an animal alive during the settlor's lifetime. The trust terminates upon the death of the animal or, if the trust was created to provide for the care of more than one animal alive during the settlor's lifetime, upon the death of the last surviving animal. Interestingly, the trust may not be enforced for more than 90 years.
MN - Hunting, Internet - § 97B.115. Computer-assisted remote hunting prohibition M.S.A. § 97B.115 This statute prohibits computer-assisted remote hunting within the state of Minnesota. The statute also prohibits the operation or selling of any computer software or service that allows a person to engage in computer-assisted hunting. A person who violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor.
MN - Wolves - 97B.645. Gray wolves, Gray wolf management plan M.S.A. § 97B.645 - 97B.648 These Minnesota statutes deal with hunting and management of gray wolves. The gray wolf management plan is meant to ensure the long-term survival of the gray wolf in Minnesota, to reduce conflicts between gray wolves and humans, to minimize depredation of livestock and domestic pets, and to manage the ecological impact of wolves on prey species and other predators. If a gray wolf is posing an immediate threat to livestock or a domestic animal, it may be permissible to kill the wolf. Under 97B-647, a person may not take a wolf without a wolf hunting or wolf trapping license. In 2014, these statutes were amended to make a person who unlawfully takes, transports, or possesses a wolf in violation of the game and fish laws, and has one or more prior convictions involving the taking of wolves, is liable for a civil penalty equal to the restitution value for the wolf; the statutes also require the Commissioner of Natural Resources to compile a list that is updated quarterly on known wolf deaths, based on reporting by conservation officers. The list must specify the date and location of each wolf death and must be available on the department Web site.
Massachusetts 1854-1859: Chapter 96: An act to prevent cruelty to animals Mass. Gen, Laws ch. 96, §§ 1-2 (1859) Section 1 from Chapter 96 of Massachusetts General Laws of 1859 covers cruelty to animals.  Specifically, the law covers what qualifies as cruelty to animals and the punishment for it.
Massachusetts General Law Statutes 1860-1872: Chapter 344: Sections 1-3 Mass. Gen. L. ch. 344 (1869) The Massachusetts law from 1869 stated in Chapter 344 concerns the treatment of animals. The first section is a generic animal cruelty act. The second section details the punishment for owners of animals that allow their animals to be treated cruelly by a third party. The third section concerns the treatment of animals during transportation.
Massachusetts General Law Statutes 1921: Sections 77-96 Mass. Gen. L., 77-96 (1921) The 1921 of Massachusetts General Laws sections 77-96 cover the following topics: animal cruelty, treatment of horses, bird fighting, shooting of pigeons, procedural issues concerning an arrest for cruelty to animals, and transportation of animals.
MT - Dogs - Consolidated Dog Laws MCA 7-23-101 to 7-23-105; 7-23-2108 to 7-23-4104; 7-23-4201 to 7-23-4203; 27-1-715; 81-7-401 to 81-7-403; 87-2-519, 521; 87-3-601, 602; 87-6-404 These Montana statutes comprise the state's dog laws. Among the provisions include strict liability for all dog bites, authority for counties to enact ordinances regarding dangerous dogs, barking dogs, and destruction of unlicensed dogs, as well as general laws related to registration and licensing.
MT - Bite - Chapter 1. Availability of Remedies--Liability. MCA 27-1-715 This Montana statute provides that the owner of any dog which shall without provocation bite any person while such person is on or in a public place or lawfully on or in a private place, including the property of the owner of such dog, located within an incorporated city or town shall be liable for such damages as may be suffered by the person bitten regardless of the former viciousness of such dog or the owner's knowledge of such viciousness.
MT - Equine Activity Liability - Chapter 1. Availability of Remedies--Liability. MCA 27-1-725 to 27-1-728 The Montana equine activity liability act provides that it is the policy of the state of Montana that a person is not liable for damages sustained by another solely as a result of risks inherent in equine activities if those risks are or should be reasonably obvious, expected, or necessary to persons engaged in equine activities. Liability is not limited by this statute where the equine professional knowingly provided faulty tack or equipment, failed to make reasonable and prudent efforts to determine the ability of the participant to engage safely in the equine activity, owns or otherwise is in lawful possession of the land or facilities upon which the participant sustained injuries because of a known, dangerous latent condition, or if he or she commits an act or omission that constitutes willful or wanton disregard for the safety of the participant or intentionally injures the participant.
MT - Veterinary - CHAPTER 18. VETERINARY MEDICINE MCA 37-18-101 to 37-18-606 These are the state's veterinary practice laws. Among the provisions include licensing requirements, laws concerning the state veterinary board, veterinary records laws, and the laws governing disciplinary actions for impaired or incompetent practitioners.
MT - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes MCA 45-8-209 - 211; 45-8- 217; 45-8-218; 7-23-4104 This section comprises Montana's anti-cruelty and dogfighting laws. A person commits the offense of cruelty to animals if he or she knowingly or negligently subjects an animal to mistreatment or neglect; fails to provide an animal in the person's custody with food and water of sufficient quantity or minimum protection for the animal from adverse weather conditions; or, in cases of immediate, obvious, serious illness or injury, fails to provide licensed veterinary or other appropriate medical care. Animal abandonment of a "helpless animal" or abandoning any animal on any highway, railroad, or in any other place where it may suffer is also considered cruelty. A first conviction results in a possible $1,000/1 year imprisonment with graduating penalty enhancements for subsequent convictions. This section does not prohibit a person humanely destroying an animal for just cause or the use of commonly accepted agricultural and livestock practices on livestock (among other things). Section 217 defines aggravated cruelty as either knowingly or purposely killing or inflicting cruelty to an animal with the purpose of terrifying, torturing, or mutilating the animal, or inflicting cruelty to animals on a collection, kennel, or herd of 10 or more animals.
MT - Assistance Animal - Assistance Animal/Guide Dog Laws MCA 49-4-202 to 49-4-222; 61-8-516 The following statutes comprise the state's relevant assistance animal and guide dog laws.
MT - Ordinance - Chapter 23. Domestic Animal Control and Protection. MCA 7-23-2108 This Montana statute provides that the governing body of the county may regulate, restrain, or prohibit the running at large of dogs by the adoption of an ordinance which substantially complies with state law provisions related to licensing. Violation of an ordinance adopted is a misdemeanor. Additionally, the county governing body is authorized to impound, sell, kill, or otherwise destroy dogs found at large contrary to ordinances.
MT - Dangerous - CHAPTER 23. DOMESTIC ANIMAL CONTROL AND PROTECTION. MCA 7-23-2109 This Montana statute provides that the county governing body may regulate, restrain, control, kill, or quarantine any vicious dog, whether such dog is licensed or unlicensed, by the adoption of an ordinance which substantially complies with state dangerous dog laws.

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