Federal

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US - Native American - RFRA (Religious Freedom Restoration Act)

RFRA provides that the government may not substantially burden an individual's free exercise of religion unless it is in furtherance of a compelling government interest and it is done through the least restrictive means.  For discussion of federal Eagle Act, see Detailed Discussion .

US - Native American - American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIFRA)


This act created an executive policy of respect for Native American religious ideas and practices.  While it does not create any substantive right of action by a Native American, AIFRA has been used substantiate claims against federal acts that infringe the exercise of Native American religions (policy affirmed by a 1994 executive order).  For discussion of federal Eagle Act, see

Detailed Discussion

.

US - MMPA - Legislative History of 1972


This document contains most of the legislative history surrounding the 1972 adoption of the Marine Mammal Protection Act.

US - Migratory Birds - Migratory Bird Permits; Regulations for Double-Crested Cormorant Management


The purpose of this depredation order is to reduce the occurrence and/or minimize the risk of adverse impacts to public resources (fish, wildlife, plants, and their habitats) caused by double-crested cormorants.

US - Migratory Birds - Final List of Bird Species to Which the Migratory Bird Treaty Act Does Not Apply


We are publishing a final list of the nonnative bird species that have been introduced by humans into the United States or its territories and to which the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) does not apply. This action is required by the Migratory Bird Treaty Reform Act (MBTRA) of 2004. The MBTRA amends the MBTA by stating that it applies only to migratory bird species that are native to the United States or its territories, and that a native migratory bird is one that is present as a result of natural biological or ecological processes. This notice identifies those species that are not protected by the MBTA, even though they belong to biological families referred to in treaties that the MBTA implements, as their presence in the United States and its territories is solely the result of intentional or unintentional human-assisted introductions.

US - Migratory Birds - Draft List of Bird Species to Which the Migratory Bird Treaty Act


This is a published draft list of the nonnative bird species that have been introduced by humans into the United States or its territories and to which the Migratory Bird Treaty Act MBTA does not apply. This action is required by the Migratory Bird Treaty Reform Act (MBTRA) of 2004. The MBTRA amends the MBTA by stating that it applies only to migratory bird species that are native to the United States or its territories, and that a native migratory bird is one that is present as a result of natural biological or ecological processes. This notice identifies those species that are not protected by the MBTA, even though they belong to biological families referred to in treaties that the MBTA implements, as their presence in the United States and its territories is solely the result of intentional or unintentional human-assisted introductions.  It should be noted as with all changes to federal rules, public comment is sought.

US - Migratory Bird - Migratory Bird Treaty Act


This law implements the treaties that the US has signed with a number of countries protecting birds that migrate across our national borders.  It makes illegal the taking, possessing or selling of protected species. For more, see the Topical Introduction to the MBTA.

US - Migratory Bird - Migratory Bird Permits; Regulations for Double-Crested Cormorant Management


Increasing populations of the double-crested cormorant have caused biological and socioeconomic resource conflicts. In November 2001, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or we) completed a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) on double-crested cormorant management. In March 2003, a proposed rule was published to establish regulations to implement the DEIS proposed action, Alternative D. In August 2003, the notice of availability for a Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) was published, followed by a 30- day comment period. This final rule sets forth regulations for implementing the FEIS preferred alternative, Alternative D (establishment of a public resource depredation order and revision of the aquaculture depredation order). It also provides responses to comments we received during the 60-day public comment period on the proposed rule. The Record of Decision (ROD) is also published here.

US - Migratory - Migratory Bird Hunting and Conservation Stamp Act


The Migratory Bird Hunting and Conservation Stamp Act, or the "Duck Stamp Act," as this March 16, 1934, authority is commonly called, requires each waterfowl hunter 16 years of age or older to possess a valid Federal hunting stamp.  Receipts from the sale of the stamp are deposited in a special Treasury account known as the Migratory Bird Conservation Fund and are not subject to appropriations.  A contest is held each year by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to select the design of the stamp.

US - Meat Inspection - Labeling (Historical)

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