|THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF ANIMAL RIGHTS OR THE CREATION OF A NEW EQUILIBRIUM BETWEEN SPECIES||Jean-Marc Neumann||19 Animal L. 63 (2012)||This Essay is a translation of the author’s original French text. It examines the Universal Declaration of Animal Rights of 1978, which lays out fundamental rights for animals in fourteen articles. This Essay explores the origins of and influences behind the original Declaration, as well as details the changes which were brought to it in a revised version in 1989. It then examines the scope of the Declaration and why it has not had the far-reaching implications its authors once hoped for. Finally, this Essay questions what the Declaration means for the future of animal rights and whether the document will have any lasting impact.||Article|
|French and Spanish Animal Laws||
French and Spanish Animal Laws
1. Law of July 2,1850 relating to maltreatments on domestic animals Loi du 2 juillet 1850 relative aux mauvais traitements exercés envers les animaux domestiques .
|Detailed Discussion of Anti-maltreatment Laws in France and Spain||Loïs Laimene Lelanchon||Animal Legal & Historical Center||
In terms of animal protection, France has paved the way for Spain to adopt a solid legislation. French and Spain legislations are based on the Roman law tradition and encounter difficulties to detach themselves from the concept of animal-machine. The penal protection was at first initiated in both countries on the ground of the protection of public morality. Later on, the criminal provisions relating to intentional cruelty towards animals have been shaped around the notion of maltreatment.