Displaying 1 - 10 of 37
Titlesort ascending Author Citation Alternate Citation Agency Citation Summary Type
Scent Identification Procedures in the U.S. Have Different History and Different Procedures From Those Conducted in Europe John Ensminger Animal Legal & Historical Center Scent lineups, designed to use a dog’s behavior to establish that two scents, one from a crime scene and one from a suspect, derive from the same person, have been conducted in radically different ways in the U.S. and Europe. In the U.S., scent lineups are often performed outdoors, in fields or parking lots, while in Europe they have for decades only been conducted indoors, often in canine forensic laboratories. In the U.S., lineups of individuals, as opposed to scents taken from individuals, have been part of standard practice in some jurisdictions until recently, but this has not been done in Europe for decades. Tracking of a suspect through a police station has been accepted as a formal identification procedure in the U.S., but not in Europe. Article
Review of animal welfare legislation in the beef, pork, and poultry industries Peter Stevenson, Daniela Battaglia, Carmen Bullon, Arianna Carita Stevenson, Peter et al. (2014). Review of animal welfare legislation in the beef, pork, and poultry industries. Food and Agriculture Organization United Nations. This study aims to give an overview of the legal framework that applies to animal welfare in the EU and a group of non-EU countries. It focuses specifcally on beef cattle, pigs, broilers (the chickens reared for meat) and egg-laying hens while they are on the farm, in transit and at slaughter. Animal welfare standards of four international organizations, as well as a number of private standards established by major food businesses and animal welfare organizations are also analyzed. Article

Tratado de Amsterdão

Protocolo anexo ao Tratado que institui a Comunidade Europeia

Protocol on Animal Welfare Under Amsterdam Treaty

Short Section added to the treaty which created the European Union, the Amsterdam Treaty, which acknowledges animal welfare as a factor when creating policy positions.

Legal Protections for Chickens Veronica Hirsch

Brief Summary of the Legal Protections for the Domestic Chicken in the United States and Europe
Veronica Hirsch (2003)

Topical Introduction
Jippes v. van Landbouw Case C-189/01(ECJ)

Jippes, an ECJ case from 2001, involved a legal dispute over the hoof and mouth pandemic ravaging Europe at the time.  To stem spread of the disease, the EU passed a community directive banning the use of preventative vaccinations and mandating compulsory slaughter. The plaintiff—or “applicant,” as plaintiffs are referred to in Europe—owned a variety of farm animals, and, loathe to kill them,  argued that European law embraced a general principle that animals were shielded from physical pain and suffering. Such a principle, the applicant argued, could only be overridden when absolutely necessary; and the compulsory slaughter directive was in direct conflict with this principle. The ECJ, however, rejected the applicant’s argument, holding that the Animal Welfare Protocol of 1997 did not delineate any new important animal-friendly principles in European law, but merely codified old ones. 

International Comparative Animal Cruelty Laws (2003) Paige Tomaselli

Brief Summary of US-EU International Comparative Animal Cruelty Laws
Paige M. Tomaselli (2003)

Topical Introduction
European Union - Research - Protection of Animals Official Journal L 358, 18 December 1986, pp. 1-28 COUNCIL DIRECTIVE (86/609/EEC) The aim pursued by this Directive is to ensure the provisions laid down by law, regulation or administrative provisions in the Member States for the protection of animals used for research avoid affecting the market. In this directive, an experiment not entailing the use of animals is preferred over one that does if that experiment can obtain the same result and is reasonably and practically available. Furthermore, each Member State shall ensure that experiments using animals considered as endangered under Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora and Annex C.I of Regulation (EEC) No. 3626/82 are prohibited unless they are in conformity with the above-mentioned Regulation and the objects of the experiment are research aimed at preservation of the species in question, or essential biomedical purposes where the species in question exceptionally proves to be the only one suitable for those purposes. Administrative
European Union - Food Production - Regulations for Marketing Eggs Official Journal L 2/1 , 05/01/2001 No 5/2001 This European Union regulation amends No 1907/90 of the marketing standards for eggs by making it compulsory to indicate the farming method on eggs. Administrative
European Union - Farming - Protection of Laying Hens Official Journal L 203, 3 August 1999, pp. 53–57 COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 1999/74/EC This Directive establishes minimum standards for the protection of laying hens, particularly in respect to the equipment, drinking and feeding conditions, and facilities where the hens are kept. It does not apply to establishments with fewer than 350 laying hens, nor to establishments rearing breeding laying hens. It only applies to hens of the species Gallus gallus which have reached laying maturity and are kept for production of eggs not intended for hatching. Administrative