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Great Apes: Related State Statutes

Statute Name Citation Summary
AK - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   AK ST 03.55.100 - 190; AK ST 11.61.140 - 145   This section comprises Alaska's anti-cruelty and animal fighting laws, which were amended in 2010. A person commits cruelty to animals if the person: knowingly inflicts severe and prolonged physical pain or suffering on an animal; with criminal negligence, fails to care for an animal and, as a result, causes the death of the animal or causes severe physical pain or prolonged suffering to the animal; kills or injures an animal by the use of a decompression chamber; intentionally kills or injures a pet or livestock by the use of poison; knowingly kills or injures an animal with the intent to intimidate, threaten, or terrorize another person; or knowingly engages in sexual conduct with an animal, films such activity, induces such activity, or intentionally permits this to occur on premises under the person's control. The court may also prohibit or limit the defendant's ownership, possession, or custody of animals for up to 10 years for convictions under this section.  
AK - Fish and Game - Chapter 05. Fish and Game Code   AK ST 16.05.150; 16.05.255, 16.05.270, 16.05.920; 16.05.925, 16.05.940   These provisions concern Alaska's Department of Fish and Game (DFG). The enforcement authority is defined and another statute gives power to the Board of Game to adopt regulations for game animals. Under § 16.05.920, a person may not take, possess, transport, sell, offer to sell, purchase, or offer to purchase fish, game, or marine aquatic plants, or any part of fish, game, or aquatic plants, or a nest or egg of fish or game unless permitted by regulation. "Game" is defined as any species of bird, reptile, and mammal, including a feral domestic animal, found or introduced in the state, except domestic birds and mammals.  
AK - Fish and Game - Chapter 05. Powers and Duties of Commissioners of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation   AK ST 03.05.011, 03.05.013, 03.05.050, 03.05.090, 03.05.100   This set of Alaska laws sets forth the powers of the commissioner of environmental conservation. Additionally, the commissioner of environmental conservation may employ or appoint a person to act as the state veterinarian to carry out and enforce the requirements of this title. The penalties for violation of provisions under this chapter are also described.  
AK - Zoo - 09.65.180. Civil liability of zoos   AK ST 09.65.180   The Alaska law provides that, except as provided in (b), a person who owns or operates a zoo is strictly liable for injury to a person or property if the injury is caused by an animal owned by or in the custody of the zoo.  
AL - Cruelty - Alabama Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   AL ST 13A-11-14 to 16; 13A-11-240 to 247; 13A-12-4 - 6; 3-1-8 to 29; 2-15-110 to 114  

These Alabama provisions contain the state's anti-cruelty laws.  The first section (under Article 1 of Chapter 11) provides that a person commits a Class A misdemeanor if he or she subjects any animal to cruel mistreatment, neglect (as long as he or she has custody of the animal), or kills or injures without good cause any animal belonging to another. However, if any person intentionally or knowingly violates Section 13A-11-14, and the act of cruelty or neglect involved the infliction of torture to the animal, that person has committed an act of aggravated cruelty and is guilty of a Class C felony.  The next section (Article 11 of Chapter 11 entitled, "Cruelty to Cats and Dogs"), provides that a person commits the crime of cruelty to a dog or cat in the first degree if he or she intentionally tortures any dog or cat or skins a domestic dog or cat or offers for sale or exchange or offers to buy or exchange the fur, hide, or pelt of a domestic dog or cat. Cruelty to a dog or cat in the first degree is a Class C felony.

 
AL - Fish and Wildlife - Article 3. Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries   AL ST 9-2-60 to 67   This set of laws establishes the Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries within the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources and outlines the powers and duties of various officials within that division.  
AL - Ordinances - Article 4. General Police Powers   AL ST 11-47-110, 117, 118   This set of statutes authorizes all cities and towns to enact local ordinances to prevent dangerous, unwholesome, or offensive conditions and to abate public nuisances.  
AL - Ordinances - Article 5. Powers as to Health, Sanitation, and Quarantine   AL ST 11-47-130 to 131   This set of laws authorizes all cities and towns to regulate animals and animal related conditions that pose a threat to the public health.  
AL - Ordinances - Section 11-3A-2. Powers for Public Welfare, Health, and Safety; Authorization; Scope.   AL ST 11-3A-2   This statute authorizes each county commission to enact ordinances for the control of animals and animal nuisances.  
AL - Public Nuisances - Chapter 10. Nuisances Menacing Public Health   AL ST 22-10-1 - 3   This set of laws lists various animal-related actions and conditions that are considered nuisances per se because of their significant public health risks. In addition, it addresses the methods by which such nuisances may be abated, up to and including the destruction of property without compensation.  
AL - Wildlife - 9-2-13. Commissioner of Conservation and Natural Resources -- Authority to prohibit importation of birds, animals, fish, etc.   AL ST 9-2-13   This Alabama law provides that the Commissioner of Conservation and Natural Resources may, by regulation, prohibit the importation of any animal when such importation is not in the best interest of the state. However, this does not apply to those animals used for display purposes at circuses, carnivals, zoos, and other shows or exhibits. Importing a prohibited animal into the state is a Class C misdemeanor with a fine of $1,000 - 5,000, or jail for 30 days, or both.  
AL - Wildlife, Captive - Article 11. Possession of Wildlife for Public Exhibition Purposes.   AL ST 9-11-320 to 328   This set of Alabama laws relates to the possession of captive wildlife. The Commissioner of Conservation and Natural Resources may issue an annual permit to possess wildlife for public exhibition to a person qualified by education or experience in the care and treatment of wildlife at at a cost of $25.00. Violation of any provision of the article results in a fine of not more than $500.00, imprisonment for not more than three months, or both. Notably, the provisions of the article do not apply to any municipal, county, state or other publicly owned zoo or wildlife exhibit, privately owned traveling zoo or circus or pet shop.  
AR - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty/Animal Fighting Laws   AR ST 5-62-101 -126; 5-14-122   This section contains the Arkansas anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she knowingly abandons any animal, subjects any animal to cruel mistreatment, fails to supply an animal in his or her custody with a sufficient quantity of wholesome food and water, fails to provide an animal in his or her custody with adequate shelter, kills or injures any animal belonging to another without legal privilege or consent of the owner, or carries an animal in or upon any motorized vehicle or boat in a cruel or inhumane manner. Aggravated cruelty to a cat, dog, or horse is a Class D felony if the offense involves the torture.  
AR - Primates - Subchapter 6. Nonhuman Primates   A.C.A. 20-19-601 - 610   This new 2013 Act prohibits the importing, possession, selling, or breeding of apes, baboons, and macques. It is unlawful under the act for a person to allow a member of the public to come into direct contact with a primate. Further, a person cannot tether a primate outdoors or allow a primate to run at-large. The section does not apply to accredited AZA institutions, AWA regulated research facilities, wildlife sanctuaries, temporary holding facilities, licensed veterinarians providing treatment, law enforcement officers, circuses holding AWA Class C licenses as provided, and those temporarily in the state. The act has a grandfathering provision that allows a person at least 18 years of age to continue to possess the restricted primate if within 180 days after the effective date of the act the person registers the animal per § 20-19-605 and follows other listed requirements.  
AZ - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty/Animal Fighting Statutes   AZ ST 13-2910 - 09; 13-1411   The Arizona section contains the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  A person commits cruelty to animals if he or she intentionally, knowingly or recklessly subjects any animal under the person's custody or control to cruel neglect or abandonment, fails to provide medical attention necessary to prevent protracted suffering to any animal under the person's custody or control, inflicts unnecessary physical injury to any animal, or recklessly subjects any animal to cruel mistreatment, among other things.  Animal is defined as a mammal, bird, reptile or amphibian.  Exclusions include hunting and agricultural activities in accordance with those laws and regulations in Arizona.  Intentionally attending a dogfight is a felony under this provision whereas attendance at a cockfight is a misdemeanor.  
AZ - Fish and Wildlife - Title 17. Game and Fish (enforcement sections)   AZ ST 17-101; AZ ST 17-104; AZ ST 17-201; AZ ST 17-231; AZ ST 17-238; AZ ST 17-306; AZ ST 17-309   This set of statutes is comprised of the sections within Arizona's Game and Fish Code that are relevant to the possession of wildlife, including: the authority of the Department of Game and Fish and the Game and Fish Commission to regulate wildlife, enforcement authority and duties, definitions, restrictions on the possession of wildlife, licenses, and violations.  
CA - Abandonment - 597f. Failure to care for animals; duty of peace or humane officers; disposal of abandoned, sick or disabled animals; notice to owner; lien; injured cats and dogs in public places   CA PENAL 597f   Every owner of any animal, who permits the animal to be without proper care and attention, shall, on conviction, be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor. It shall be the duty of any peace officer, officer of the humane society, or officer of a pound or animal regulation department of a public agency, to take possession of the animal so abandoned or neglected and care for the animal until it is redeemed by the owner. Every sick, disabled, infirm, or crippled animal, except a dog or cat, may, if after due search no owner can be found therefor, be killed by the officer. all injured cats and dogs found without their owners in a public place directly to a veterinarian known by the officer or agency to be a veterinarian that ordinarily treats dogs and cats for a determination of whether the animal shall be immediately and humanely destroyed or shall be hospitalized under proper care and given emergency treatment.
 
CA - Animal Defined - 599b. Words and phrases; imputation of knowledge to corporation   CA PENAL 599b   This statute defines words, such as "animal," as they are used in Title 14, the Malicious Mischief section, of the California Penal Code.  Title 14 is where all of the California Penal Code sections pertaining to animal cruelty are found.  
CA - Circus - 25989.1. Notice to animal control services agency of performances to be conducted   CA HLTH & S 25989.1   This California section provides that any traveling circus or carnival must notify entity that provides animal control services for a city, county, or city and county in which the traveling circus or carnival intends to perform of its intent to perform within that jurisdiction at least 14 days prior to the first performance in that city, county, or city and county. Violation results in a fine of $500 - 2,000 for a first violation, and $1,500 - 5,000 for any subsequent violation.  
CA - Crimes - 597. Cruelty to animals   CA PENAL 597  

This statutes states that anyone who maliciously and intentionally maims, mutilates, tortures, or wounds a living animal, or maliciously and intentionally kills an animal, is guilty of an offense punishable by imprisonment in the state prison, or by a fine of not more than twenty thousand dollars ($ 20,000), or by both the fine and imprisonment, or, alternatively, by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year, or by a fine of not more than twenty thousand dollars ($ 20,000), or by both the fine and imprisonment.  The statute also defines specific forms of torture and mistreatment that qualifies as a crime under this section.

 
CA - Crimes, warrants - 599a. Violations involving animals or birds; procedure for issuing warrant; authority of officer; attempts   CA PENAL 599a   If a complainant believes that any provision of law relating to, or in any way affecting, dumb animals or birds, is being, or is about to be violated in any particular building or place, a magistrate may issue and deliver immediately a warrant directed to law enforcement, authorizing him to enter and search that building or place, and to arrest any person there present violating, or attempting to violate, any law relating to, or in any way affecting, dumb animals or birds.  
CA - Cruelty - Part 9. Societies for Prevention of Cruelty to Children and Animals.   CA CORP 10400 - 10406   This set of statutes outlines the rights and responsibilities of corporations that are formed for the prevention of cruelty to animals.  
CA - Cruelty, exemptions - 599c. Construction of title; game laws; destruction of dangerous animals or reptiles; killing for food; authorized scientific experiments or investigations   CA PENAL 599c   This statute makes it clear that the title is not meant to interfere with “game laws” or the right to destroy venomous reptiles or other dangerous animal. Neither is there an intent to interfere with laws regarding the destruction of certain birds, interfere with the right to kill animals used for food or with scientific experiments.  
CA - Enforcement - Chapter 5. Arrest, by Whom and How Made.   CA PENAL 837, 847   This set of provisions authorizes private citizens to make arrests and explains when and how citizen arrests may be made.  
CA - Entertainment - Title 4. Motion Pictures (use of animals)   CA CIVIL 3504 - 3508.2   This section of laws provides that it is a nuisance to exhibit a motion picture that depicts any intentional killing of, or cruelty to, a human being or an animal where such intentional killing of, or cruelty to, a human being or an animal actually occurred in the production of the motion picture for the purpose of such production created after January 1, 1979. An action may be brought to abate and prevent the nuisance by the relevant county's district attorney or the California Attorney General. Any violation or disobedience of an injunction or order expressly provided for by this title is punishable as a contempt of court by a fine of not less than two hundred dollars ($200) nor more than one thousand dollars ($1,000).  
CA - Fish & Game - Chapter 6.5. Control of Illegally Taken Fish and Wildlife   CA FISH & G 2580 - 2589   This set of laws outlines various violations involving the possession and movement of illegally obtained animals and imposes liability for those activities.  
CA - Fish & Game - Chapter 1. General Definitions   CA FISH & G 1 - 89.1   This chapter includes the general definitions for the Fish and Game Code.  
CA - Importation - Chapter 2. Of Other and Miscellaneous Offenses (653o - 653r)   CA PENAL 653o - 653r   These California laws relate to the importation of certain animals parts for commercial purposes. Under the law, it is unlawful to import into this state for commercial purposes, to possess with intent to sell, or to sell within the state, the dead body, or any part or product thereof, of any polar bear, leopard, ocelot, tiger, cheetah, jaguar, sable antelope, wolf (Canis lupus), zebra, whale, cobra, python, sea turtle, colobus monkey, kangaroo, vicuna, sea otter, free-roaming feral horse, dolphin or porpoise (Delphinidae), Spanish lynx, or elephant. Starting in 2015, it shall be unlawful to import into this state for commercial purposes, to possess with intent to sell, or to sell within the state, the dead body, or any part or product thereof, of any crocodile or alligator. Section 653p makes it unlawful to posses with the intent to sell any part or dead body of any species on the federal endangered species list or species covered under the MMPA. Section 653q makes it illegal to import for commercial purposes, to possess with intent to sell, or to sell within the state, the dead body, or any part or product thereof, of any seal.  
CA - Importation - Chapter 3. Importation of Wild Animals.   CA HLTH & S 121775 - 121870   This California set of law relates to the importation of "wild animals" (defined as any animal of the class Aves (birds) or class Mammalia (mammals) that either is not normally domesticated in this state or not native to this state). The violation of any provision of this chapter shall be a misdemeanor. The department may issue a permit to import a wild animal provided that a determination is made that public health or safety will not be endangered.  
CA - Impound - 597t. Confined animals   CA PENAL 597t   This statute requires an animal kept in an enclosed area be provided with an adequate exercise area.  It also states that if the animal is restricted by a leash, rope, or chain, the leash, rope, or chain shall be affixed in such a manner that it will prevent the animal from becoming entangled or injured and permit the animal's access to adequate shelter, food, and water.  
CA - Research Animals - Chapter 5. Regulation of Use of Animals in Diagnostic Procedures and Medical Research   CA HLTH & S 1650 - 1677   This section regulates the use of animals in medical research. The California Department of Health Services is directed to make rules and regulations providing for satisfactory shelter, food, sanitation, record keeping, and for the humane treatment of animals by persons authorized by the board to raise, keep or to use animals medical research. The department is also authorized to inspect any premises where animals used for the purposes of this section are kept. Violations constitute a misdemeanor.
 
CA - Wild Animal - Chapter 2. Importation, Transportation, and Sheltering of Restricted Live Wild Animals.   CA FISH & G 2116 - 2203  

The California Legislature adopted this act based on a findings that wild animals are captured for importation and resold in California and that some populations of wild animals are being depleted, that many animals die in captivity or transit, and that some keepers of wild animals lack sufficient knowledge or facilities for the proper care of wild animals.  It was the intention of the Legislature to regulate the importation, transportation, and possession of wild animals to protect the native wildlife and agricultural interests against damage from the existence at large of certain wild animals, and to protect the public health and safety in this state.  The act defines "wild animal" and classifies them by species.  Among other things, the act also includes inspection and permit provisions that govern the treatment of wild animals and the actions that may be taken where they are concerned.

 
CO - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty/Animal Fighting Statutes   CO ST 18-9-201 - 209; 35-42-101 - 115   This Colorado section contains the anti-cruelty and animal fighting laws. A person commits cruelty to animals if he or she knowingly, recklessly, or with criminal negligence overdrives, overloads, overworks, torments, deprives of necessary sustenance, unnecessarily or cruelly beats, allows to be housed in a manner that results in chronic or repeated serious physical harm, carries or confines in or upon any vehicles in a cruel or reckless manner, or otherwise mistreats or neglects any animal.  A person commits aggravated cruelty to animals if he or she knowingly tortures, needlessly mutilates, or needlessly kills an animal.  Cruelty to animals is a class 1 misdemeanor and aggravated cruelty or a second conviction of animal cruelty is class 6 felony.  This section also prohibits animal fighting (not limited to certain species such as dogs or chickens). Violation of this law results in a class 5 felony.  This section also makes it illegal to  own a dangerous dog and "tamper" with livestock.  
CO - Pet Shop - Article 80. Pet Animal Care and Facilities Act   CO ST 35-80-101 to 117   This Colorado Act regulates pet animal facilities (i.e., shelters, large kennels, and breeders).  The Act covers licensing of the facilities and those activities deemed unlawful, such as selling a kitten or puppy under the age of 8 weeks and refusing a lawful inspection.  
CT - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Laws   CT ST 53-242 - 254; 29-108a - 108i   This Connecticut section contains the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  Any person who overdrives, drives when overloaded, overworks, tortures, deprives of necessary sustenance, mutilates or cruelly beats or kills or unjustifiably injures any animal, or fails to give an animal in his or her custody proper care, among other things shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year or both; a subsequent offense is a Class D felony.  Any person who maliciously and intentionally maims, mutilates, tortures, wounds or kills an animal is also guilty of a Class D felony. Animal fighting is also prohibited under this section as a Class D felony.  Connecticut has a cruelty to poultry law that provides that any crate or other container used for the purpose of transporting, shipping or holding for sale any live poultry must be in a sanitary condition with sufficient ventilation and warmth to prevent unnecessary suffering.  Other provisions include laws against dyeing chicks and rabbits, docking horses' tails, and the use of animals, birds, or reptiles to solicit money.  
CT - Exotic Pets - 26-40a. Possession of potentially dangerous animal; Chapter 490. Fisheries and Game   CT ST 26-1, 26-40a; 26-54, 55, 61   These Connecticut states reflect the state's laws on the keeping of wild animals. Under § 26-40a, no person shall possess a potentially dangerous animal, which includes wildlife such as the  lion, leopard, cheetah, jaguar, ocelot, jaguarundi cat, puma, lynx, bobcat, wolf, coyote, all species of bears, gorilla, chimpanzee and orangutan. The Department of Environmental Protection shall issue a bill to the owner or person in illegal possession of such potentially dangerous animal for all costs of seizure, care, maintenance, relocation or disposal of such animal. Additionally, any person who violates any provision of this section shall be assessed a civil penalty not to exceed $2000, and is guilty of a class A misdemeanor. Under § 26-55, no person shall import or introduce into the state, possess or let loose, any live fish, wild bird, wild mammal, reptile, amphibian or invertebrate unless such person has obtained a permit. Again, a violator is responsible for expenses from the seizure, maintenance, and relocation of the illegally imported animal. The penalty includes a civil fine up to $1000 and results in a class C misdemeanor.  
D.C. - Exotic Pets - 8-1808. Prohibited conduct.   DC ST 8-1808   Among other things covered under the law, this D.C. law prohibits the importation into the District, possession, display, offering for sale, trading, bartering, exchanging, or adopting, or giving as a household pet any living member of the animal kingdom including those born or raised in captivity, except the following: domestic dogs (excluding hybrids with wolves, coyotes, or jackals), domestic cats (excluding hybrids with ocelots or margays), domesticated rodents and rabbits, captive-bred species of common cage birds, nonpoisonous snakes, fish, and turtles, traditionally kept in the home for pleasure rather than for commercial purposes, and racing pigeons (when kept in compliance with permit requirements).  
DC - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   DC ST 22-1001 - 1015   This D.C. statutory section comprises the anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  Whoever knowingly overdrives, overloads, drives when overloaded, overworks, tortures, torments, deprives of necessary sustenance, cruelly chains, cruelly beats or mutilates, any animal, or knowingly causes such acts, or one who unnecessarily fails to provide proper food, drink, air, light, space, veterinary care, shelter, or protection from the weather, faces imprisonment up to180 days, or a fine of $250, or both.  Actions that result in serious bodily injury or death to the animal result in felony prosecution with imprisonment not exceeding 5 years or a fine of $25,000, or both.  "Animal" is defined by statute as all living and sentient creatures (human beings excepted).  This section also prohibits animal fighting as either a felony (i.e., wagering or conducting the fight) or a misdemeanor (knowingly being present).  
DE - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   DE ST TI 11 1325 - 1327; DE ST TI 3 7901 - 8007; DE ST TI 11 775 (formerly DE ST TI 11 777)   These Delaware sections comprise the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  Delaware's anti-cruelty section provides that cruelty to animals is when a person intentionally or recklessly subjects any animal (excluding fish, crustacea or molluska) to cruel mistreatment, cruel neglect, or kills or injures any animal belonging to another person.  Actively engaging in animal fighting activities is a class F felony while being a spectator at a fight is a class A misdemeanor.  
DE - Endangered Species - CHAPTER 6. ENDANGERED SPECIES   DE ST TI 7 601 - 605   Delaware prohibits the importation, transportation, possession, or sale of any part, hide or an endangered species of fish or wildlife. Delaware also prohibits the intent to import, transport, or sell any part or hide of an endangered species. The only lawful way to take an endangered species is by a license or permit from the Division of Fish and Wildlife and violation of this statute is a class A environmental misdemeanor.  
DE - Exotic Pets - CHAPTER 72. POSSESSION OF MAMMALS OR REPTILES EXOTIC TO DELAWARE   DE ST TI 3 7201 - 7203   This Delaware law requires a permit to possess, sell, or import any non-native wild animal. No such permits will be granted for non-native venomous snakes.  
FL - Agriculture & Consumer Services - Department Duties and Enforcement   FL ST 585.001 - 585.007   This set of laws explains the powers and duties of the Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services in enforcing the Animal Industry laws (Chapter 585). Any person or officer that is charged with a duty under the Animal Industry laws may be compelled to perform the same by mandamus, injunction, or other court-ordered remedy. Department employees are authorized to enter any premises in the state for the purposes of carrying out their duties under the Animal Industry laws and it is illegal for any person to interfere with the discharge of those duties.  
FL - Cruelty, Humane Slaughter - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes/Humane Slaughter Laws   FL ST 828.01 - 828.43   This section comprises the Florida anti-cruelty laws.  Under this section, the word "animal" includes every living dumb creature.  The misdemeanor violation of animal cruelty (section 828.12) occurs when a person unnecessarily overloads, overdrives, torments, deprives of necessary sustenance or shelter, or unnecessarily mutilates, or kills any animal, or carries in or upon any vehicle, any animal in a cruel or inhumane manner.  A person who intentionally commits an act to any animal, or a person who owns or has the custody or control of any animal and fails to act, which results in the cruel death, or excessive or repeated infliction of unnecessary pain or suffering is guilty of a felony of the third degree.  Psychiatric or psychological counseling are also mandatory for convicted offenders.  The section also criminalizes animal abandonment and neglect as well as animal fighting.  
FL - Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services - Animal Disease Control   FL ST 585.01 - 585.69   This set of laws addresses the role of the Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services, Division of Animal Industry in the prevention, control, or eradication of any contagious, infectious, or communicable disease among domestic or wild animals. The Department is authorized to regulate the importation, transportation, transfer of ownership, and maintenance of animals; establish quarantine areas; and inspect, test, treat, condemn, and destroy animals and animal housing facilities as necessary for the eradication of communicable diseases or the detection of harmful biological and chemical residues in food animals. The laws also direct the Department to develop a list of dangerous transmissible diseases. All veterinarians and animal owners are required to report suspected and confirmed cases of dangerous transmissible diseases to the State Veterinarian; failure to do so is a felony of the second degree.  
FL - Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services - Enforcement   FL ST 570.073, 570.15, 570.16   This set of laws authorizes the establishment of the Office of Agricultural Law Enforcement within the Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services for the enforcement of laws relating to wild or domesticated animals or animal products. Law enforcement officers employed by the Department have statewide jurisdiction and have full law enforcement powers granted to other peace officers of the state, including the authority to make arrests, carry firearms, serve court process, and seize contraband and the proceeds of illegal activities. It is a misdemeanor of the second degree to threaten, interfere with, or impersonate an enforcement officer or other employee of the Department.  
FL - Endangered - Endangered and Threatened Species Act   FL ST 379.2291 - 379.231 (formerly FL ST 372.072 - 074)   These Florida statutes define endangered and threatened species and provide the State's intent to protect these species.  Under statute, the intentional killing or wounding of a listed species incurs a third degree felony.  Interestingly, the state has a reward program for the arrest and conviction of those who violate state endangered species laws.  
FL - Exhibition - Deformed Animals - Chapter 877. Miscellaneous Crimes.   FL ST 877.16   This law makes it illegal to exhibit any deformed, mutilated or disfigured animal for compensation.  
FL - Fish and Wildlife Conservation - Part V. Law Enforcement   FL ST 379.33 - 379.343   This set of laws describes the scope and methods of enforcement of the state's fish and wildlife laws.  
FL - Wildlife - Chapter 379. Fish and Wildlife Conservation.   FL ST 379.231 - 504   These Florida laws concern the keeping and taking of captive wildlife. Places where wildlife is held in captivity are subject to inspection by the officers of the state commission at any time. The commission shall promulgate rules defining Class I, Class II, and Class III types of wildlife. A companion statutory section provides that, in order to assure humane treatment of captive wildlife, no person, firm, corporation or association shall be in possession of captive wildlife for public display unless a permit has been obtained. The cost of the permit depends on whether the species fall into Class I, II, or III (also see Link to Administrative Regulations).  
GA - Cruelty - Cruelty to Animals   GA ST 16-12-4; GA ST 16-6-6   This comprises Georgia's anti-cruelty provisions.  Under the statute, "animal" does not include any fish or any pest that might be exterminated or removed.  A person commits the offense of cruelty to animals when he or she causes death or unjustifiable physical pain or suffering to any animal by an act, an omission, or willful neglect. Any person convicted of a violation of this subsection shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, but subsequent convictions incur enhanced penalties.  A person commits the offense of aggravated cruelty to animals when he or she knowingly and maliciously causes death or physical harm to an animal by rendering a part of such animal's body useless or by seriously disfiguring such animal.  
GA - Exotic pets, wildlife - Chapter 5. Wild Animals   GA ST 27-5-1 to 12   These Georgia wildlife provisions embody the General Assembly's finding that it is in the public interest to ensure the public health, safety, and welfare by strictly regulating in this state the importation, transportation, sale, transfer, and possession of certain wild animals. Animals such as kangaroos, certain non-human primates, wolves, bears, big cats, hippopotamus, and crocodile, among others, are considered to be inherently dangerous to human beings and are subject to the license or permit and insurance requirements outlined in the laws. The section also details specifications for the humane handling, care, confinement and transportation of certain wild animals.  
HI - Cruelty - Hawaii Cruelty to Animals Provisions (Chapter 711)   HI ST 711-1100 - 1110.5   Under this set of Hawaii laws, a person commits the misdemeanor offense of cruelty to animals if the person intentionally, knowingly, or recklessly overdrives, overloads, tortures, torments, cruelly beats or starves any animal, deprives a pet animal of necessary sustenance, mutilates, poisons, or kills without need any animal other than insects, vermin, or other pests, or engages in animal fighting enterprises.  Dog fighting constitutes a felony where the person owns or trains the dog to fight.  The section has enhanced penalties for cruelty to guide or service animals or interference with their duties.  
HI - Importation - Chapter 150A. Plant and Non-Domestic Animal Quarantine and Microorganism Import   HI ST 150A-5 - 150A-15   These laws concern the importation of animals, plants, and microorganisms into the State of Hawaii.  
HI - Wildlife - Chapter 183D. Wildlife.   HI ST 183D-1 - 183D-65   These statutes comprise Hawaii's wildlife provisions.  
IA - Cruelty - Injury to Animals other than Livestock   IA ST 717B.1 - 717E.3   Under Title XVI of Iowa's criminal code, there are several chapters that outlaw forms of animal cruelty and animal fighting.  The main animal cruelty provisions are contained in chapter 717B (Injuries to Animals other than Livestock). This chapter defines "animal" as any nonhuman vertebrate.  However, it excludes livestock, game, fur-bearing animal, fish, reptile, or amphibian unless a person owns, confines, or controls the game, fur-bearing animal, fish, reptile, or amphibian, and any nongame considered a "nuisance."  There are separate prohibitions against animal abuse, animal neglect, animal torture, abandonment of a cat or dog, and injury to a police service dog.  Under both the animal abuse and animal torture sections, a first offense results in an aggravated misdemeanor.  However, animal torture requires a mandatory psychological evaluation and graduates subsequent convictions to felony status.  Exclusions under the various sections include veterinary care, hunting, animal husbandry, and scientific research, among others.  Other criminal chapters include chapters 717C.1 (Bestiality), 717D (Animal Contest Events), and 717E (Pets as Prizes).  
IA - Dangerous - Chapter 717F. Dangerous Wild Animals   IA ST 717F.1 - 13  

This Iowa set of laws concerns the keeping of dangerous wild animals. Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, a person shall not own or possess a dangerous wild animal or cause or allow a dangerous wild animal owned by a person or in the person's possession to breed. Further, a person shall not transport a dangerous wild animal into this state. There is a grandfather provision that allows a person who owns or possesses a dangerous wild animal on July 1, 2007 to continue to own or possess the dangerous wild animal subject the provisions of the laws. A person owning or possessing a dangerous wild animal who violates a provision of this chapter is subject to a civil penalty of not less than two hundred dollars and not more than two thousand dollars for each dangerous wild animal involved in the violation.

 
IA - Pet Shop - Chapter 162. Care of Animals in Commercial Establishments.   IA ST 162.1 - 25  
The purpose of this chapter is to insure that all dogs and cats handled by boarding kennels, commercial kennels, commercial breeders, dealers, and public auctions are provided with humane care and treatment by regulating the transportation, sale, purchase, housing, care, handling, and treatment of such animals.
 
ID - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   ID ST 25-3501 - 3521; ID ST 18-6605   These Idaho statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  Every person who is cruel to any animal and whoever having the charge or custody of any animal subjects any animal to cruelty is guilty of a misdemeanor.  "Animal" means any vertebrate member of the animal kingdom, except humans.  "Cruelty" is defined as the intentional and malicious infliction of pain, physical suffering, injury or death upon an animal as well as the negligent deprivation of necessary sustenance, among other things.  Dogfighting and cockfighting exhibitions are also prohibited, but the rearing of gamecocks regardless of their later intended use is not prohibited.  
ID - Exotic - Chapter 39. Importation or Possession of Deleterious Exotic Animals   ID ST 25-3901 - 3905   In Idaho, all apes and other nonhuman primates are classified as “deleterious exotic animals,” which are dangerous to the environment, livestock, agriculture, or wildlife of the state. According to Idaho’s legislature, it is in the public interest to strictly regulate the importation and possession of those animals.  
ID - Wildlife - Chapter 7. Captive Wildlife   ID ST 36-701 to 716   This section comprises Idaho's captive wildlife provisions. Under the law, no person shall engage in any propagation or hold in captivity any species of big game animal found wild in this state, unless the person has been issued a license or permit by the director. All other species of mammals, birds or reptiles that are found in the wild in this state and are not species of special concern or threatened and endangered species, may be held in captivity without permit so long as the possessor retains proof that such wildlife was lawfully obtained. The laws concerning commercial wildlife farms are also included in this section. Additionally, there is also a section on the transition of wolves from federal to state management (§ 36-715).  
IL - Cruelty Generally - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes (Humane Care for Animals Act)   IL ST CH 510 70/1 - 18; IL ST CH 720 5/12-35  

This comprehensive Humane Care of Animals Act from Illinois gives the requisite anti-cruelty provisions.  "Animal" means every living creature, domestic or wild, but does not include man.  Notably, the Act includes a provisions for psychological counseling for a person convicted of violating this section.  An individual is guilty of a Class B misdemeanor for the first offense and a second or subsequent violation is a Class 4 felony with every day that a violation continues constituting a separate offense.  The Act includes special provisions for juveniles and "companion animal hoarders" (510 ILCS 70/2.10).  The cruelty provisions are listed at 510 ILCS 70/3.01, 3.02, and 3.03.  The statute also prohibits the marketing and distribution of depictions of animal torture or cruelty for entertainment purposes (510 ILCS 70/3.03-1).

 
IL - Exotic pets - Act 585. Illinois Dangerous Animals Act   IL ST CH 720 585/0.1 - 4  

This section comprises the Illinois Dangerous Animals Act. Under the act, no person shall have a right of property in, keep, harbor, care for, act as custodian of or maintain in his possession any dangerous animal or primate except at a properly maintained zoological park, federally licensed exhibit, circus, college or university, scientific institution, research laboratory, veterinary hospital, hound running area, or animal refuge in an escape-proof enclosure. Any person violating this Act shall be guilty of a Class C misdemeanor.

 
IL - Pet Shops - Chapter 225. Professions and Occupations.   IL ST CH 225 605/1 - 22   This section comprises Illinois' Animal Welfare Act.  The Act is primarily aimed at regulating commercial pet dealers, such as kennels, breeders, and retail pet shops.  The provisions include restrictions on the age at which both dogs and cats can be separated from their mothers (8 weeks).  
IN - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   IN ST 35-46-3-.05 to 15; IN ST 36-8-3-18   These Indiana statutes set forth the anti-cruelty laws.  As used in this chapter, "animal" does not include a human being.  A person having a vertebrate animal in the person's custody who recklessly, knowingly, or intentionally abandons or neglects the animal commits cruelty to an animal, a Class B misdemeanor.  A person who knowingly or intentionally purchases or possesses an animal for the purpose of using the animal in an animal fighting contest commits a Class A misdemeanor.  
IN - Endangered Species - Chapter 34. Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation   IN ST 14-22-34-1 to 21   These Indiana statutes set out the definitions related to endangered species and prohibit any form of possession of listed species, including taking, transporting, purchasing or selling except by permit.  Listed species may be removed, captured, or destroyed if it is shown by good cause that the species are causing property damage or are a danger to human health.  
IN - Exotic pet - Chapter 26. Wild Animal Permit.   IN ST 14-22-26-1 to 14-22-26-6   This set of Indiana laws concerns the keeping of protected and dangerous wild animals. Under the law, a person must obtain a permit to possess these classes of animals. A permit may be suspended if an emergency exists (e.g., the animal is in peril or the animal is in a position to harm another animal). (See also Link to Sec. 87. "Exotic mammal" definition).
 
KS - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty and Animal Fighting Laws   KS ST 21-6411 - 6418 (formerly KS ST 21-4310 - 4319); KS ST 21-5504 (formerly KS ST 21-3505)   The Kansas anti-cruelty statutes define cruelty to animals as knowingly killing, injuring, maiming, torturing, burning or mutilating any animal. Also included as cruelty are abandoning any animal, failing to provide food, horse-tripping, and poisoning any domestic animal, unlawful disposition of animals, dog and cock-fighting. Cruelty to animals may be a misdemeanor or a felony. Exceptions are made for such things as veterinary practices, research experiments, rodeo and farming practices, euthanasia, and pest control. It is also illegal to allow a dangerous animal to run at large or to engage in sodomy with an animal.  
KS - Pet Sales - Chapter 47. Livestock and Domestic Animals.   KS ST 47-1701 - 1737   The following statutes comprise Kansas' Pet Animal Act. The Act outlines the requirements for pet shop operator licensing and animal dealers.  
KY - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   KY ST 525.125 - 135; KY ST 436.610   These Kentucky statutes represent the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  Under the law, animal cruelty in the first-degree (a class D felony) occurs when a person causes four-legged animals to fight for pleasure or profit.  Exclusions under this section include, among others, the killing of animals when hunting, fishing, or trapping; as incident to the processing as food or for other commercial purposes; or for veterinary, agricultural, spaying or neutering, or cosmetic purposes.  
KY - Endangered Species - Chapter 150. Fish and Wildlife Resources.   KY ST 150.180, 183, 280, 990   Under Kentucky law, no person shall import, transport, possess for resale or sell any endangered species of wildlife.  The term "endangered species" means any species of wildlife seriously threatened with worldwide extinction or in danger of being extirpated from the Commonwealth of Kentucky.  Violation of the Act may result in fines or possible imprisonment depending on the statutory section violated, and license sanctions may also result.  
KY - Exotic Animals - Chapter 65. General Provisions Applicable to Counties, Cities, and Other Local Units. Ordinances and Regulations   KY ST 65.877   This Kentucky statue authorizes counties and cities to regulate or prohibit the holding of inherently dangerous wildlife. For example, the Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources has identified some of the following animals as being dangerous: African buffalo, Hippopotamus, Hyenas, Old world badger, Lions, jaguars, leopards, or tigers, Clouded leopard, Cheetah, Elephants, Rhinoceroses, Gorillas, Baboons, drills, or mandrills, Crocodiles, Alligators or caimans, certain snakes, Gila monsters or beaded lizards, Komodo dragon, Wolverine, Bears, Wolf, mountain lion.  
KY - Ordinances - Chapter 258. Animal Control and Protection.   KY ST 258.195   This Kentucky statute set up in 1954 the position of county dog warden.  Additionally in 1955, each county was to establish and maintain a dog pound as a means of facilitating and administration of this chapter.  It also provides that cities, urban-county governments, or charter county governments may enter into agreements with the counties for the enforcement of the county's ordinances.  
LA - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   LSA-R.S. 14:102 - .26   These Louisiana statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty provisions.  The term "cruel" is defined in the first section every act or failure to act whereby unjustifiable physical pain or suffering is caused or permitted.  The crime of cruelty to animals is subdivided into simple cruelty or aggravated cruelty. Simple cruelty occurs when a person intentionally or with criminal negligence overdrives, overloads, drives when overloaded, or overworks, torments, cruelly beats, or unjustifiably injures, or, having charge, custody, or possession of any animal, either as owner or otherwise, unjustifiably fails to provide any living animal with proper food, proper drink, proper shelter, or proper veterinary care.  
LA - Exotic animals - 2796.2. Limitation of liability for loss connected with festivals, programs, or activities sponsored by an animal sanctuary   LSA-R.S. 9:2796.2   This Louisiana law states that no person shall have a cause of action against any nonprofit organization which operates or maintains a tax-exempt animal sanctuary for any injury, death, loss, or damage in connection with the Chimp Haven Festival, Dixie Chimps art contest, Les Boutiques de Noel, SciPort and Chimp Haven events, Run Wild and Have a Field Day, Eye-20 Art Show Gala, Krewe of Barkus and Meow Paws parade, Krewe of Centaur parade, Krewe of Highland parade, garden tour, ChimpStock, and any other educational and public awareness activities in which the organization sponsors or participates, unless the loss or damage was caused by the deliberate and wanton act or gross negligence of the organization or any officer, employee, or volunteer thereof.  
MA - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   MA ST 272 77 - 95; MA ST 272 34; MA ST 22C 57   These Massachusetts laws contain the state's anti-cruelty provisions.  § 77 is the operative anti-cruelty statute and provides that whoever overdrives, overloads, drives when overloaded, overworks, tortures, torments, deprives of necessary sustenance, cruelly beats, mutilates or kills an animal, and whoever uses in a cruel or inhuman manner in a race, game, or contest, or in training, as lure or bait a live animal (except as bait in fishing), or knowingly and willfully authorizes or permits it to be subjected to unnecessary torture, suffering or cruelty of any kind shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for not more than 5 years or imprisonment for not more than 2 1/2 years or by a fine of not more than $2,500, or by both such fine and imprisonment.  Other prohibitions include the dyeing of baby chicks, the docking of horse tails, and both felony and misdemeanor penalties for animal fighting, depending on conduct. In 2010, the state made non-medically necessary devocalization of dogs or cats illegal.  
MA - Endangered Species - Chapter 131A. Massachusetts Endangered Species Act   MA ST 131A 1 - 7   This Massachusetts statute comprises the state's endangered species act.  "Endangered species", any species of plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range including those species listed under the federal ESA.  The director shall conduct investigations and consult with the natural heritage and endangered species advisory committee in order to determine whether any species of plant or animal constitutes an endangered or threatened species or species of special concern.  Habitat alteration permits are required under this act when any person undertakes a project that may alter a significant portion of habitat.  
MA - Exotic pet, breeding - Chapter 131. Inland Fisheries and Game and Other Natural Resources.   MA ST 131 23   Massachusetts bans private possession of exotic pets, and requires licenses for those who deal and propagate wild species for other reasons. The Massachusetts director of the Division of Fisheries and Wildlife also issues a list of exempted species for which no permit is needed. (See also link to § 77A. Wild canid and felid hybrids).  
MD - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   MD CRIM LAW 10-601 - 623; MD CRIM LAW 3-322   This Maryland statutory section comprises the state's anti-cruelty provisions.  Under the section, "animal" means a living creature except a human being.  "Cruelty" is defined as the unnecessary or unjustifiable physical pain or suffering caused or allowed by an act, omission, or neglect, and includes torture and torment.  Agricultural, veterinary, research, and "an activity that may cause unavoidable physical pain to an animal, including food processing, pest elimination, animal training, and hunting. . . " are excluded from the purview of the act.  
MD - Endangered Species - Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act   MD NAT RES 10-2A-01 - 09   These Maryland statutes comprise the Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act.  Under the Act, any species designated under the federal Endangered Species Act is deemed an endangered species as are other species designated by the state secretary based on habitat and population factors.  Violators of the Act shall be fined not more than $1,000 or be imprisoned not more than 1 year, or both and equipment used in the taking of designated species may be seized.  
MD - Exotic pets - Subtitle 6. Crimes Relating to Animals.   MD CRIM LAW 10-621   Under this Maryland law, a person may not import into the State, offer for sale, trade, barter, possess, breed, or exchange the following species of animals: foxes, skunks, raccoons, bears, caimans, alligators, crocodiles, wild cats, wolves, nonhuman primates, and venomous snakes. Animal sanctuaries, AWA licensed facilities, those holding valid permits from the Department of Natural Resources, and veterinarians are exempted. This section does not prohibit a person who had lawful possession of an animal listed above on or before May 31, 2006, from continuing to possess that animal if the person provided written notification to the local animal control authority on or before August 1, 2006. Violation results in a fine and seizure of the animal(s).  
ME - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   ME ST Tit. 7 3971 - 4041; ME ST Tit. 17 1011 - 1046   These Maine statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  The first section of laws occurs under Title 7, Agriculture and Animals.  Under these laws, a person commits animal cruelty if he or she kills the animal of another person; kills an animal by an inhumane method; injures, overworks, tortures, torments, abandons or cruelly beats or intentionally mutilates an animal; gives drugs to an animal with an intent to harm the animal; gives poison or alcohol to an animal; or exposes a poison with intent that it be taken by an animal.  The neglect component of the statute provides that a person commits cruelty if he or she deprives an animal that the person owns or possesses of necessary sustenance, necessary medical attention, proper shelter, protection from the weather or humanely clean conditions.  These acts are then cross-referenced under the criminal provisions of Title 17, which describes the penalties under § 1031.  Animal fighting is a class D crime under this section.  
ME - Endangered Species - Subchapter 3. Endangered Species; Management and Research.   ME ST T. 12 12801 - 12810  

These Maine statutes set forth the legislative intent to protect vulnerable species and list the relevant species.  By statute, a person is guilty of "misuse of an endangered or threatened species" if he or she imports into the State, hunts, takes or possesses, or deliberately baits, feeds, or harasses a listed species.  A warning is issued for the first infraction while the second infraction constitutes a Class E crime. 

 
ME - Exotic Pets - Subchapter 15. Wildlife Importation and Possession, Permits and Requirements,   ME ST T. 12 12151 - 12161   These Maine statutes prohibit keeping wildlife in captivity, importing, breeding or releasing wildlife into the wild, with exceptions for a person holding a license. Taking reptiles, amphibians, and certain nonmarine invertebrates from the wild is also prohibited without a license. Provisions for the disposition of wolf hybrids are included. Penalties for violations incur fines that range from $100 to $500. Three or more such violations are considered to be a Class E criminal offense.  
MI - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes (MCL 750.49 - 70)   M. C. L. A. 750.49 - 70; M.C.L.A. 750.158   The Michigan Legislature has designed three primary provisions related to cruelty to animals: intentional infliction of pain and suffering, duty to provide care, and anti-animal fighting.  The intentional infliction of pain and suffering provision carries the most severe penalties for animal cruelty and a violation is automatically a felony.  A violation of the duty to provide care provision is initially a misdemeanor, which becomes a felony for a second or subsequent violation.  A violation of the anti-animal fighting provision is either a misdemeanor or a felony, depending on the severity of conduct related to fighting.  The provision does not apply to the lawful killing of livestock or customary animal husbandry of livestock, or lawful fishing, hunting, trapping, wildlife control, pest or rodent control, and animal research.  
MI - Endangered - Part 365. Endangered Species Protection   M. C. L. A. 324.36501 - 07   The state of Michigan defines an endangered species as "any fish, plant life, or wildlife that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant part of its range, other than a species of insecta determined by the department or the Secretary of the United States Department of the Interior to constitute a pest whose protection under this part would present an overwhelming and overriding risk to humans."  Violation of the taking provision constitutes a misdemeanor punishable up to 90-days in jail and/or up to $1,0000 in fines.  
MI - Enforcement - Chapters 760 to 777 Code of Criminal Procedure.   MI ST 764.16   This law authorizes private citizens to make arrests.  
MI - Fish & Wildlife Law Enforcement - Part 16. Enforcement of Laws for Protection of Wild Birds, Wild Animals, and Fish   M.C.L.A. 324.1501 - 1615   These sections lay out the powers, including the power to serve criminal process, and jurisdiction of conservation officers, peace officers, and volunteer conservation officers.  
MI - Livestock - Chapter 287. Animal Industry. Animal Industry Act   MI ST 287.701 - 747   This Michigan act is known as the “animal industry act." The act is intended to protect the health, safety, and welfare of humans and animals, by requiring disease testing of imported animals, certification, and reporting of infected animals. A newly amended section (287.746) also concerns the tethering or confinement of animals such as pregnant sows and veal calves in manners that restrict lying, standing, fully extending limbs, or turning freely.  
MI - Research - Chapter 333. Health. Public Health Code.   MI ST 333.2671 - 2678   This set of Michigan laws proclaims that "[t]he public health and welfare depend on the humane use of animals for the diagnosis and treatment of human and animal diseases." It also creates an animal research advisory board which may regulate and establish standards pursuant to section 2678 controlling the humane use of animals. Further, the department, its representative, or a member of the animal research advisory board may inspect any premises or property on or in which animals are kept for experimental purposes for the purpose of investigation of compliance with board standards. A person shall not keep or use animals for experimental purposes unless registered to do so by the department.  
MN - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   MN ST 343.01 - 40; MN ST 609.294   These Minnesota statute comprise the anti-cruelty laws in the state.  This section first allows the formation of private prevention of cruelty to animals societies and humane societies and sets forth their obligations by law.  "Animal" is defined by this section as every living creature except members of the human race.  No person shall overdrive, overload, torture, cruelly beat, neglect, or unjustifiably injure, maim, mutilate, or kill any animal, or cruelly work any animal when it is unfit for labor.  Under the neglect component, the statute states that no person shall deprive any animal over which the person has charge or control of necessary food, water, or shelter, among other things.  
MN - Endangered Species - Natural Resources (Ch. 83A-84). Chapter 84. Department of Natural Resources   MN ST 84.0895, 84.944, 97A.245, 97A.501   This statute protects endangered and threatened species in Minnesota, as defined in the statute.  Under the law, a person may not take, import, transport, or sell any portion of an endangered species of wild animal or plant, or sell or possess with intent to sell an article made with any part of the skin, hide, or parts of an endangered species of wild animal or plant.  Violation of the statute is a misdemeanor.  
MN - Exhibition - Chapter 97A. Game and Fish. General Provisions.   MN ST 97A.041   In Minnesota, a person may not possess wildlife in captivity for public exhibition purposes without a permit. The commissioner may issue a permit to an applicant qualified by education or experience in the care and treatment of wildlife. A permit shall include a condition that allows an enforcement officer to enter and inspect the facilities where the wildlife covered by the permit are held in captivity. A violation may result in the attorney general bringing an abatement action.  
MN - Exotic pet - 346.155. Possessing regulated animals   MN ST 346.155   This Minnesota law defines "regulated animal" to mean all members of the Felidae family except the domestic cat, bears, and all non-human primates. Unless a person possessed a regulated animal on or before January 1, 2005, and came into compliance with AWA regulations, possession of the above-mentioned regulated animals is unlawful. A person who lawfully possessed a regulated animal before that date, must comply with registration, microchipping, fee, and inspection requirements.  
MO - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   MO ST 578.005 - 188; MO ST 566.111   These Missouri statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty laws.  The term "animal" means every living vertebrate except a human being.  The provisions of sections 578.005 to 578.023 do not apply to the care or treatment performed by a licensed veterinarian, bona fide scientific experiments, hunting, fishing, or trapping, publicly funded zoological parks, rodeo practices, the killing of an animal by the owner, the lawful, humane killing of an animal by an animal control officer, the operator of an animal shelter, a veterinarian, or law enforcement or health official, normal or accepted practices of animal husbandry, the killing of an animal by any person at any time if such animal is outside of the property of the owner or if such animal is injuring any person or farm animal, the killing of house or garden pests, or field trials, training and hunting practices as accepted by the Professional Houndsmen of Missouri.  A person is guilty of animal neglect when he or she has custody or ownership or an animal and fails to provide adequate care, which results in substantial harm to the animal.  A person is guilty of abandonment when he or she has knowingly abandoned an animal in any place without making provisions for its adequate care.  Animal neglect and abandonment is a class C misdemeanor upon first conviction with enhancement to a class B misdemeanor for subsequent convictions.  A person is guilty of animal abuse when a person intentionally or purposely kills an animal in any manner not allowed by law, purposely or intentionally causes injury or suffering to an animal, or, having ownership or custody of an animal, knowingly fails to provide adequate care or control.  Animal abuse is a class A misdemeanor unless the person was previously convicted.  
MO - Endangered Species - Chapter 252. Department of Conservation--Fish and Game.   MO ST 252.020, 252.235, 252.240   This Missouri statute provides that the importation, transportation, or sale of any endangered species of fish or wildlife, or hides or other parts thereof, or the sale or possession with intent to sell any article made in whole or in part from the skin, hide or other parts of any endangered species of fish or wildlife is prohibited.  Violation of the statute constitutes a Class B misdemeanor.  
MO - Exotic pet - 578.023. Keeper of dangerous wild animals must register animals, exceptions--penalty   MO ST 578.023   This Missouri law states that no person may keep any lion, tiger, leopard, ocelot, jaguar, cheetah, margay, mountain lion, Canada lynx, bobcat, jaguarundi, hyena, wolf, bear, nonhuman primate, coyote, any deadly, dangerous, or poisonous reptile, or any deadly or dangerous reptile over eight feet long, in any place other than a properly maintained zoological park, circus, scientific, or educational institution, research laboratory, veterinary hospital, or animal refuge, unless such person has registered such animals with the local law enforcement agency in the county in which the animal is kept. Violation is a class C misdemeanor.  
MO - Fish and Game - Chapter 252 (The Wildlife and Forestry Law)   MO ST 252.002 - 252.333   This chapter establishes the Missouri Department of Conservation, outlines the agency's scope of authority, and includes all of the state's wildlife and endangered species statutes.  
MO - Ordinances -Chapter 77. Third Class Cities   MO ST 77.590, 79.110, 80.090, 82.300   This set of statutes authorizes municipal governments to regulate animals and animal-related nuisances.  
MS - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   MS ST 97-41-1 to 97-41-23; MS ST 97-29-59  

This section constitutes Mississippi's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions, which were recently amended in 2011. The pertinent anti-cruelty law, § 97-41-1, states that any person who intentionally or with criminal negligence overrides, overdrives, overloads, tortures, torments, unjustifiably injures, deprives of necessary sustenance, food, or drink, cruelly beats, or needlessly mutilates any living creature, is guilty of a misdemeanor. The cat and dog cruelty provision, § 97-41-16, was significantly amended in 2011. This section, known as the "Mississippi Dog and Cat Pet Protection Law of 2011," makes it a misdemeanor to intentionally or with criminal negligence wound, deprive of adequate food, water, or shelter, or carry or confine in a cruel manner, any domesticated cat or dog. Aggravated cruelty occurs when a person with malice intentionally tortures, mutilates, maims, burns, starves or disfigures any domesticated dog or cat.

 
MS - Endangered Species - Chapter 5. Fish, Game and Bird Protection and Refuges. Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act   MS ST 49-5-101 to 49-5-119   These Mississippi statutes provide the short title for the Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act, the definitions for the Act, the legislative findings, and the associated regulations of the Act.  Violations under the Act may incur up to a $1,000 fine and/or one-year term of imprisonment as well as equipment confiscation.  
MS - Exotic pet - Chapter 8. Importation, Sale and Possession of Inherently Dangerous Wild Animals.   MS ST 49-8-1 to 49-8-19   This Mississippi chapter states that it is in the public interest to ensure the public health, safety and welfare by strictly regulating the importation, sale, transfer and possession of those wild animals inherently dangerous to humans. Several species are listed under this section as inherently dangerous to humans, including non-human primates, wolves, bears, hyenas, big cats, and hippopotamus, among others. It is unlawful for a person to import, transfer, sell, purchase or possess any wild animal classified inherently dangerous by law or regulation unless that person holds a permit. Those persons who were in possession of such animals on or before May 1, 1997 were able to continue possession provided that they complied with the permit process. Prior to the issuance of a permit, the applicant must have provided proof of liability insurance in the amount of $100,000.00 for each wild animal up to a maximum of $1,000,000.00.  
MT - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   MT ST 45-8-209 to 45-8-211;45-8- 217; 7-23-4104; 45-5-505   This section comprises Montana's anti-cruelty and dogfighting laws.  A person commits the offense of cruelty to animals if he or she knowingly or negligently subjects an animal to mistreatment or neglect; fails to provide an animal in the person's custody with food and water of sufficient quantity or minimum protection for the animal from adverse weather conditions; or, in cases of immediate, obvious, serious illness or injury, fails to provide licensed veterinary or other appropriate medical care.  Animal abandonment of a "helpless animal" or abandoning any animal on any highway, railroad, or in any other place where it may suffer is also considered cruelty.  A first conviction results in a possible $1,000/1 year imprisonment with graduating penalty enhancements for subsequent convictions.  This section does not prohibit a person humanely destroying an animal for just cause or the use of commonly accepted agricultural and livestock practices on livestock (among other things). Section 217 defines aggravated cruelty as either knowingly or purposely killing or inflicting cruelty to an animal with the purpose of terrifying, torturing, or mutilating the animal, or inflicting cruelty to animals on a collection, kennel, or herd of 10 or more animals.  
MT - Endangered Species - Chapter 5. Wildlife Protection.   MT ST 87-5-101 to 87-5-132   These Montana statutes provide the short title for the Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act, the definitions associated with the Act, and the legislative policy behind the Act.  
MT - Exotic pets - Chapter 4. Commercial Activities.   MT ST 87-4-801 to 87-4-808   This set of Montana laws covers both "roadside menagerie" (any place where one or more wild animals are kept in captivity for the evident purpose of exhibition or attracting trade, excluding an educational institution or a traveling theatrical exhibition or circus based outside of Montana) and "wild animal menagerie" (any place where one or more bears or large cats, including cougars, lions, tigers, jaguars, leopards, pumas, cheetahs, ocelots, and hybrids of those large cats are kept in captivity for use other than public exhibition). The latter definition seems to cover the keeping of those listed species as exotic pets. Under the section, it is unlawful for any person to operate a roadside menagerie or wild animal menagerie without a permit. The annual permit fee for five or less animals is $10. The annual permit fee for more than five animals is $25.  
MT - Exotic wildlife - Part 7. Importation, Introduction, and Transplantation of Wildlife   MT ST 87-5-701 to 87-5-725   These Montana statutes control the importation, introduction, and transplantation of exotic wildlife into the state. The importation of any wildlife is prohibited unless the species poses no threat of harm to native wildlife and plants or to agricultural production and that the introduction has significant public benefits. Violations may result in a fine or imprisonment.
 
NC - Commerce - Chapter 113. Conservation and Development.   NC ST 113-294  

North Carolina law makes it a Class 2 misdemeanor to sell, possess for sale, or buy any wildlife. Further, the law specifically makes it a greater transgression (a Class 1 misdemeanor) to unlawfully take, possess, transport, sell, or buy any dead or alive bald or golden eagle, nest or egg.  The taking of other animals listed like bears and cougars also incurs greater penalty.  For discussion of federal Eagle Act, see Detailed Discussion.

 
NC - Cruelty - Article 47. Cruelty to Animals.   NC ST 14-360 to 14-363.2; 19A-1 - 70; 160A-182, 14-177   This section comprises the relevant North Carolina animal cruelty statutes.  The anti-cruelty statute provides that if any person shall maliciously kill, or cause or procure to be killed, any animal by intentional deprivation of necessary sustenance, that person shall be guilty of a Class H felony.  If any person shall maliciously torture, mutilate, maim, cruelly beat, disfigure, poison, or kill, or cause or procure to be tortured, mutilated, maimed, cruelly beaten, disfigured, poisoned, or killed, any animal, every such offender shall for every such offense be guilty of a Class H felony. This section also makes promoting or conducting a cock fight a misdemeanor and promoting or conducting a dogfight a felony. Other prohibited acts include abandoning an animal, conveying any animal in a cruel manner, and restraining a dog in a cruel manner. This section also includes the civil remedy provisions.  
NC - Endangered Species - Subchapter IV. Conservation of Marine and Estuarine and Wildlife Resources. Article 25. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Wildlife Species of Special Concern.   NC ST 113-331 to 113-350   This North Carolina statutory section comprises the state's endangered species provisions.  Endangered species is defined as any native or once-native species of wild animal whose continued existence as a viable component of the State's fauna is determined by the Wildlife Resources Commission to be in jeopardy or any species of wild animal determined to be an "endangered species" pursuant to the Endangered Species Act.  The statute empowers the Wildlife Resources Commission to list species and also outlines the criteria for listing.  
NC - Exotic pets - Chapter 153A. Counties.   NC ST 153A-131; NC ST 160A-187   These two North Carolina statutes provide that a city or county may by ordinance regulate, restrict, or prohibit the possession or harboring of animals which are dangerous to persons or property.  
NE - Cruelty - Article 10. Offenses Against Animals   NE ST 28-1001 to 1020   This Nebraska statutory section comprises the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  The cruelty provision provides that a person who abandons or cruelly neglects an animal is guilty of a Class I misdemeanor.  Intentional animal cruelty results in a Class I misdemeanor for the first offense and a Class IV felony for any subsequent offense, unless such cruel mistreatment involves the knowing and intentional torture, repeated beating, or mutilation of the animal where such an act automatically results in a Class IV felony.  Animal means any vertebrate member of the animal kingdom, but does not include an uncaptured wild creature (which appears to exclude otherwise heinous, intentional acts to wildlife).  
NE - Endangered Species - Article 8. Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act   NE ST 37-801 to 811   These statutes comprise the Nebraska Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act.  Included are the definitions used in the Act, the legislative intent behind the Act, and the duty of the commission that oversees the Act.  Violation of the Act constitutes a Class II misdemeanor.  
NE - Exotic pets - Chapter 37. Game and Parks. Article 4. Permits and Licenses. (B) Special Permits and Licenses.   NE ST 37-477 to 37-482   This set of Nebraska laws provides that no person shall keep in captivity any wild bird or mammal that is either in need of conservation or listed as an endangered or threatened species. Further, no person shall keep in captivity in this state any wolf, any skunk, or any member of the families Felidae (except the domestic cat) and Ursidae (the bear family). Any person legally holding in captivity, on March 1, 1986, any such animal subject to the prohibition shall be allowed to keep the animal for the duration of its life. The section also outlines the legal requirements for obtaining and maintaining captive wildlife. (See also Chapter 37. Game and Parks. Article 2. Game Law General Provisions).  
NH - Cruelty - Cruelty to Animals   N.H. Rev. Stat. 644:8 - 644:8-f; N.H. Rev. Stat. 105:14 - 18   These New Hampshire statutes provide the animals anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions for the state.  Included are general anti-cruelty laws for any animal (including domestic and wild animals), exhibitions of fighting animals, provisions for protection of animals riding in motor vehicles, restrictions related to docking the tail of a horse, provisions for the use of animals in science classes or fairs, laws against maiming or willfully interfering with police dogs or horses,  laws related to the willful interference with organizations or projects involving animals, and provisions related to dogs riding in pick-up trucks.  
NH - Endangered - Chapter 212-A. Endangered Species Conservation Act   N.H. Rev. Stat. 212-A:1 to 212-A:15   These New Hampshire statutes outline the Endangered Species Conservation Act.  The definitions of the terms used in the Act are described especially with regard to what constitutes endangered and threatened species.  Violation of the Act is accomplished by taking a protected species and incurs a misdemeanor penalty.  
NH - Exotic Pets, Wildlife - Chapter 207. General Provisions as to Fish and Game. Import, Possession, or Release of Wildlife.   N.H. Rev. Stat. 207:14 - 207:15-a   This New Hampshire section states that no person shall import, possess, sell, exhibit, or release any live marine species or wildlife, or the eggs or progeny thereof, without first obtaining a permit from the executive director except as otherwise permitted. The executive director has the authority to determine the time period and any other conditions governing the issuance of such permit. The executive director may refuse to issue a permit if he determines that such issuance may pose significant disease, genetic, ecological, environmental, health, safety, or welfare risks to persons, marine species or wildlife. Any wildlife release or imported contrary to these provisions are subject to seizure. (See also Chapter 466-A. Wolf Hybrids).  
NJ - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   NJ ST 4:22-10 to 4:22-60  

These New Jersey statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty provisions.  According to the definitional section, "animal" or "creature" includes the whole brute creation.  Exclusions under the act include state regulated scientific experiments, state sanctioned killing of animals, hunting of game, training of dogs, normal livestock operations, and the killing of rats and mice.  With regard to livestock practices, no person may be cited or arrested for a first offense involving a minor or incidental violation of any provision of this title involving alleged cruelty to domestic livestock unless that person has first been issued a written warning. 

 
NJ - Endangered - Chapter 2A. Wildlife Generally   NJ ST 23:2A-1 to 23:2A-1:15   These statutes comprise the New Jersey Endangered and Nongame Species Conservation Act.  The definitions used in the Act are described as well as the rules for listing species, the powers and duties of the supervising department, and the designation of funding.  Under the statute, violation of the Act incurs a civil penalty of $250-5,000.  
NM - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   NMSA 1978, 30-18-1 to 30-18-15   This section comprises the New Mexico anti-animal cruelty provisions.  As used in this section, "animal" does not include insects or reptiles.  Cruelty to animals occurs when person negligently mistreats, injures, kills without lawful justification or torments an animal or abandons or fails to provide necessary sustenance to an animal under that person's custody or control.  Extreme cruelty to animals, a fourth-degree felony, consists of a person intentionally or maliciously torturing, mutilating, injuring or poisoning an animal or maliciously killing an animal.  Upon conviction, the court may order a person to participate in an animal cruelty prevention program or an animal cruelty education program, or to obtain psychological counseling for treatment of a mental health disorder.  
NM - Endangered Species - Chapter 17. Game and Fish and Outdoor Recreation.   N. M. S. A. 1978, 17-2-37 to 17-2-46   These statutes comprise the New Mexico Wildlife Conservation Act.  Included in the provisions are definitions related to the statute, legislative policies, and regulations for listing or delisting species.  Violation of the Act constitutes a misdemeanor and can incur a penalty from $50 - 1,000 depending on the categorization of the species taken.  
NV - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   N. R. S. 574.010 to 574.510   This comprehensive section comprises the Nevada anti-cruelty statutes.  The section first empowers private prevention of cruelty to animals societies and outlines their powers and responsibilities, including the power to arrest.  Under this section, "animal" does not include the human race, but includes every other living creature.  Animal cruelty, as described in Section 574.100, prohibits the overdriving, overloading, torture, cruel beating or unjustifiable injuring, maiming, mutilation or killing of an animal, as well as the deprivation of necessary sustenance, food or drink.  The first offense under this section is a misdemeanor with enhancement to a felony for a third or subsequent convictions.  Animals fighting is also prohibited under the section, with enhanced sentences for subsequent convictions.  Other specific crimes include mistreatment of dogs, abandonment of animals, poisoning (although the section does not prohibit the destruction of "noxious animals"), and basic requirements for the care of dogs and cats kept in kennels or sold by pounds or pet shops.  
NV - Endangered Species - Protection and Propagation of Native Fauna (Chapter 503)   N. R. S. 503.584 - 503.589   These statutes provide that the Legislature of Nevada has an interest in protecting native species from extinction and sets forth the authority to establish programs to protect designated species.  However, if a native species is found to be destructive under the statute, the statute provides for removal if appropriate.  Under statute, the ultimate responsibility for management rests with the governor for reviewing state programs and entering into interstate and federal agreements.  
NY - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   McKinney's Agriculture and Markets Law 331 - 379; McKinney's Penal Law 130.20   These New York statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty provisions.  "Animal" includes every living creature except a human being.  A person who overdrives, overloads, tortures or cruelly beats or unjustifiably injures, maims, mutilates or kills any animal, or deprives any animal of necessary sustenance, food or drink, is guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable by imprisonment for not more than one year, or by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars, or by both.  Exclusions include properly conducted scientific tests, experiments or investigations, involving the use of living animals approved by the state commissioner of health.  
NY - Dangerous animal - 209-cc. Notification of presence of wild animals and dangerous dogs   McKinney's General Municipal Law 209-cc   New York state law requires anyone in possession of dangerous dogs and dangerous wild animals (which include non-human primates, non-domesticated dogs and cats, bears, venomous, constrictors and python snakes, and certain crocodiles) to report the presence of that animal to the clerk of the city, town, or village in which the animal resides. The report must be filed by April 1st every year and must list all of the physical locations where the animal may be kept. The clerk must then notify all local police, fire, and emergency medical service departments of the presence of that animal. Any person who fails to report the presence may be fined up to $250 dollars for the first offense and $1,000 dollars for each subsequent offense. Zoos and other U.S. Department of Agriculture-licensed exhibitors are exempt from the reporting requirement.  
NY - Endangered Species - Chapter 43-B. Of the Consolidated Laws.   N.Y. Envtl. Conserv. Law 11-0535  

The New York code for endangered species defines endangered species as any species which meets one of the following criteria:  native species in imminent danger of extirpation or extinction in New York; or species listed as endangered by the United States Department of the Interior in the Code of Federal Regulations (50 CFR part 17).

 
NY - Enforcement - Agriculture and Markets Law - Article 3. Investigation; Practice and Procedure; Violations; Penalties.   McKinney's Agriculture and Markets Law 32 - 45-a   This article outlines the procedures and penalties for violations of New York's Agriculture and Markets Law.  
NY - Enforcement, Conservation - Article 71. Enforcement.   McKinney's ECL 71-0101 to 71-0927   This set of statutes outlines the procedures and penalties for violations of New York's Environmental Conservation Law.  
NY - Exotic - Chapter 43-B. Of the Consolidated Laws.   McKinney's E. C. L. 11-0917   This New York laws begin by stating that wild game and other wildlife may only be possessed if lawfully taken in compliance with the Fish and Wildlife Law and the accompanying regulations. Skunk, bobcat, mink, raccoon and muskrat may be bought and sold alive during their respective open seasons. No live wolf, coyote, coydog, fox, skunk, venomous reptile or raccoon shall be possessed or transported, except under a license or permit issued by the department. Every such license or permit shall contain a prominent notice warning the licensee or permittee of his or her duty to exercise due care in safeguarding the public from attack; failure to do so is a crime under section three hundred seventy of the agriculture and markets law.  
NY - Exotic - Chapter 43-B. Of the Consolidated Laws.   McKinney's E. C. L. 11-0501 to 11-0539   This set of New York statutes provides some of the state's fish and wildlife laws. Among the provisions include a prohibition against interference with wildlife, restriction on the possession and importation of certain wildlife such as wolves, wolfdogs, coyotes, coydogs, foxes, skunks, and venomous reptiles, and laws that allows individuals to take destructive wildlife. No person shall knowingly possess, harbor, sell, barter, transfer, exchange or import any wild animal for use as a pet in New York state, except that any person who possessed a wild animal for use as a pet at the time that this section went effect may retain possession of such animal for the remainder of its life.  
NY - Testing, animals - Title I. General Provisions: State Laboratories; Approved Laboratories   McKinney's Public Health Law 500 - 505-a   The following statutes provide protections for animals used in experiments and research.  The statutes also require that alternative nonanimal testing methods be used when certain requirements are met.  
NY - Wildlife, Exotics - Title 1. Short Title; Definitions; General Provisions   McKinney's E. C. L. 11-0101 to 11-0113   This set of statutes represents the definitional portion of New York's Fish and Wildlife Law. Among the provisions include definitions for game and non-game, a definition for "wild animal," which includes big cats, non-domesticated dogs, bears, and venomous reptiles, and the state's hunter harassment law. The section also provides that the State of New York owns all fish, game, wildlife, shellfish, crustacea and protected insects in the state, except those legally acquired and held in private ownership. (See also link to Article 25-B. § 370. Protection of the public from attack by wild animals and reptiles).  
OH - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   R.C. 959.01 - 959.99  

These statutes comprise Ohio's anti-animal cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  Included in the prohibited acts are abandoning domestic animals, willfully injuring or poisoning domestic or agricultural animals, drugging animals in competition, and "cruel" acts to both wild and domestic animals as defined by statute.  The section also prohibits dogfighting and cockfighting.

 
OH - Endangered Species - Chapter 1518. Endangered Species.   R.C. 1518.01 - 1518.99; 1531.25, 1531.99   These Ohio statutes protect both endangered plants and animals as defined by the State of Ohio as well as those species listed on the federal ESA list.  Taking of an endangered or threatened animal species constitutes a misdemeanor and the person is required upon pleading guilty to the offense, in addition to any fine, term of imprisonment, seizure, and forfeiture imposed, to make restitution for the minimum value of the wild animal illegally held, taken, or possessed.  Notably, if the aggregate value of the animal(s) taken exceeds $1,000, a person is guilty of a felony.  
OH - Exotic - Chapter 935. Dangerous Wild Animals and Restricted Snakes   R.C. 935.01 - .99   On June 5, 2012, Ohio governor Kasich signed the "Dangerous Wild Animal Act" into law. Under this new section, no person shall possess a dangerous wild animal on or after January 1, 2014 unless he or she is authorized under an unexpired wildlife shelter/propagation permit or other exception. Dangerous wild animals include big cats, some smaller exotic cats, bears, elephants, hyenas, gray wolves, alligators, crocodiles and nonhuman primates other than lemurs. Except as provided, no person shall acquire, buy, sell, trade, or transfer possession or ownership of a dangerous wild animal on or after the effective date of this section  
OK - Cruelty - Animal Facilities Protection Act/Consolidated Cruelty Laws   21 Okl. St. Ann. 1680 - 1700   These Oklahoma statutes comprise the Animal Protection Act.  The main thrust of the act is the prohibition of animal cruelty and animal fighting.  Included in the provisions are the definitions (including the statutory definition of "animal") and the prohibited acts related to animal facilities.  The statute further provides that no one shall intentionally damage the enterprise conducted at an animal facility (including releasing animals there with the intent to deprive the owner of such facility).  Violation incurs a felony with a fine of up to $5,000 or imprisonment up to seven years or both.  
OK - Endangered Species - Part 4. Protected Game   29 Okl. St. Ann. 5-402, 412, 412.1; 29 Okl. St. Ann. 2-109, 135   Under Oklahoma law, no person may possess, hunt, chase, harass, capture, shoot at, wound or kill, take or attempt to take, trap or attempt to trap any endangered or threatened species or subspecies without specific written permission of the Director.  Violation incurs a $100 - 1,000 penalty with up to 30 days in jail.  
OK - Wildlife - Part 5. Possession of Wildlife.   29 Okl.St.Ann. 7-501 - 504   Under these Oklahoma statutes, no person may possess any wildlife or parts thereof during the closed season, any endangered or threatened species or parts thereof at any time, or any native bear or native cat that will grow to reach the weight of 50 lbs. or more, with exceptions. A conviction could result in a fine of $100-$500 and/or by imprisonment up to 30 days. In addition, no person may buy, barter, trade, or sell all or any part of any fish or wildlife or the nest or eggs of any bird protected by law, with exceptions. A first violation could result in a fine of $100 to $500 and/or by imprisonment up to 60 days.  
OR - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   O. R. S. 167.310 - 390   These Oregon statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty laws.  "Animal" means any nonhuman mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian or fish.  The term "assault," which is generally associated with human crimes, is used to define certain crimes against animals.  Animal abuse may be elevated to a felony offense if the act was committed directly in front of a minor child or if the perpetrator was previously convicted of domestic violence.  
OR - Endangered Species - Chapter 496. Application, Administration and Enforcement of Wildlife Laws. Threatened or Endangered Wildlife Species   O. R. S. 496.171 - 996; 498.026   These Oregon statutes set out the definitions and rules relating to the Oregon endangered species laws.  Specifically, Oregon law provides rules for listing based on the federal ESA list as well as the state criteria.  Violation of the law constitutes a Class A misdemeanor with an enhanced felony provision for subsequent convictions involving certain species (i.e., taking of game fish with a total value of $200 or more or the taking of antelope, black bear, cougar, deer, elk, moose, mountain goat or mountain sheep in violation of the wildlife laws) within a ten-year period.  
OR - Exotic Pets - Chapter 609. Animal Control; Exotic Animals; Dealers.   O. R. S. 609.205 - 335   These Oregon laws concern the regulation of exotic pets in the state. An "exotic animal" for purposes of the section means a  member of the family Felidae not indigenous to Oregon (except the domestic cat), any nonhuman primate, any nonwolf member of the family Canidae not indigenous to Oregon (except the domestic dog), any bear except the black bear, and any member of the order Crocodylia.  A person may not keep an exotic animal in this state unless the person possesses a valid State Department of Agriculture permit for that animal issued prior to the effective date of this 2009 Act.  
PA - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   18 Pa.C.S.A. 5511 - 5511.3; 18 Pa.C.S.A. 3129   This section constitutes the Pennsylvania anti-cruelty provisions.  The section distinguishes between misdemeanor and felony cruelty and the type of animal involved.  Misdemeanor cruelty (a fine of $500) occurs when a person kills, maims or disfigures any domestic animal of another person, administers or exposes a domestic animal to poison, or interferes with a guide or service animal.  A person commits a felony of the third degree if he or she willfully and maliciously kills, maims or disfigures any zoo animal in captivity or intentionally administers poison to such. Any person convicted of violating the provisions of this paragraph shall be sentenced to pay a fine of not less than $1,000 or to imprisonment for not more than two years, or both, and the court may also order a presentence mental evaluation.  A subsequent conviction under this paragraph shall be a felony of the third degree. Also included in these provisions is the Horse Transport Law, which prohibits the transporting of horses stacked on top of each other. Exclusions under the act include the killing of animals found to be destroying domestic animals, the hunting of game animals, the killing of dogs declared nuisances, and pest control.  
PA - Endangered Species - Chapter 104. Wild Resource Conservation   34 Pa.C.S.A. 2167; 34 Pa.C.S.A. 2924; 34 Pa.C.S.A. 925; 32 P.S. 5301 - 14  

This set of Pennsylvania laws comprises the state's endangered species provisions. Section 2167 makes it unlawful for any person to bring into or remove from this Commonwealth, or to possess, transport, capture or kill, or attempt, aid, abet or conspire to capture or kill, any wild bird or wild animal, or any part thereof, or the eggs of any wild bird, which are endangered or threatened species. It is the duty of every officer having authority to enforce this title to seize all wild birds or wild animals, or any part thereof, or the eggs of any wild bird, which have been declared endangered or threatened. Any commerce in endangered species is also prohibited. For a first violation, a person may have his or her hunting privileges revoked for 7 years. A second violation during that period may result in forfeiture of the privilege to hunt for 10 years. A third violation brings the forfeiture to 15 years.

 
PA - Exotic Pets - Subchapter D. Permits Relating to Wildlife; Chapter 147. Special Permits. Subchapter N. Exotic Wildlife Possession   34 Pa.C.S.A. 2961 - 2965; 58 Pa. Code 147.261 - 262   These Pennsylvania statutes represent the state's exotic pet laws. “Exotic wildlife" includes all bears, coyotes, lions, tigers, leopards, jaguars, cheetahs, cougars, wolves and any crossbreed of these animals. The commission may issue a permit to a person to act as an exotic wildlife dealer. No permit shall be granted by the commission until it is satisfied that the provisions for housing and caring for the exotic wildlife and protection for the public are proper and adequate and in accordance with the standards which may be established by regulations. It is unlawful to release any exotic wildlife into the wild, fail to exercise due care in safeguarding the public, or recklessly engage in conduct that places another person in danger of attack from exotic wildlife.  
PA - Permits - Chapter 29. Special Licenses and Permits. Subchapter A. General Provisions.   34 Pa.C.S.A. 2901 - 2908   This chapter of Pennsylvania laws allows the commission to issue permits to take wildlife. Among the permit categories include endangered or threatened species permits, wildlife menagerie, wildlife (exotic) dealer, and wildlife (exotic) possession permits. It is unlawful to exercise any of the privileges granted by a permit issued under this title without first securing the required permit.  
RI - Cruelty - Chapter 1. Cruelty to Animals   Gen. Laws, 1956, 4-1-1 - 40; Gen.Laws 1956, 11-10-1   These Rhode Island statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  The cruelty law provides that whoever overdrives, overloads, overworks, tortures, torments, deprives of necessary sustenance, or cruelly beats, mutilates or kills any animal, is subject to imprisonment up to 11 months, or a fine of $50.00 - $500, or both.  The intentional cruelty provision expands the penalty to 2 years possible imprisonment or a fine of $1,000, or both.  
RI - Endangered Species - Chapter 37. Endangered Species of Animals and Plants.   Gen. Laws, 1956, 20-37-1 - 5   These Rhode Island statutes set out the legislative policy and definitions related to state endangered species law, including the definition of "animal" and what constitutes an "endangered species."  By statute commerce is strictly prohibited, as it it illegal to "buy, sell, offer for sale, store, transport, import, export, or otherwise traffic in any animal or plant or any part of any animal or plant whether living, dead, processed, manufactured, preserved, or raw if the animal or plant has been declared to be an endangered species by either the United States secretaries of the interior or commerce or the director of the Rhode Island department of environmental management."  Violation of the Act results in fines from $500-5,000 or up to one year imprisonment, or both.  
RI - Exotic Pets - Chapter 18. Importation of Wild Animals   Gen. Laws, 1956, 4-18-1 - 15   This chapter of Rhode Island laws proclaims that its intent is to provide safeguards for the protection of persons in the state from disease hazards associated with imported wild animals. Under the chapter, no person shall import into, receive, or possess in this state without first obtaining a permit from the department, animals of the following orders, families, and genera: primates, carnivores, amphibia, reptilia, canidae, and insecta. Personal pets under a special permit are exempted from the importation permit requirement. A permit may be granted by the department to import a wild animal as a personal pet, if a written affidavit or declaration under penalty of perjury is completed at the time of entry at the site of first arrival. This chapter also requires that certain species undergo quarantine for specified periods of time. Any person who violates any provisions of this chapter shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars ($100), and the loss of any specimen referred to in this chapter.  
SC - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   Code 1976 47-1-10 - 210; Code 1976 16-15-120   This South Carolina subsection comprises the state's anti-cruelty laws.  The term "animal" under this subchapter includes all living vertebrate creatures except homo sapiens (but see the exclusion section where fowl are specifically excluded).  Animal cruelty occurs when a person knowingly or intentionally overloads, overdrives, overworks, ill-treats any animal, deprives any animal of necessary sustenance or shelter, inflicts unnecessary pain or suffering upon any animal, or by omission or commission knowingly or intentionally causes these things to be done.  The statute also has a felony provision for the torture, tormenting, needless mutilation, cruel killing, or infliction of excessive or repeated unnecessary pain.  
SC - Endangered Species - Chapter 15. Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act   Code 1976 50-15-10 - 90   These statutes comprise the "South Carolina Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act."  Included in the provisions are definitions and criteria related to the listing of endangered species.  Interestingly, while funds for investigations into endangered species come through the general fund and appropriations, additional funding is secured through permits from the Alligator Control and Management Program.  Violation of the provisions constitutes misdemeanors of varying penalties as well as forfeiture of equipment used in the illegal takings.  
SD - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   S D C L 9-29-11; S D C L 40-1-1 - 41; S D C L 40-2-1 - 9; S D C L 43-39-12, 12.1; SDCL 22-22-42   These South Dakota statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  "Animal," any mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, or fish, except humans.  The mistreatment, torture, or cruelty of an animal is any act or omission whereby unnecessary, unjustifiable, or unreasonable physical pain or suffering is caused, permitted, or allowed to continue including acts of mutilation.  The neglect of an animal is the failure to provide food, water, protection from the elements, adequate sanitation, adequate facilities, or care generally considered to be standard and accepted for an animal's health and well-being consistent with the species, breed, physical condition, and type of animal.  No person owning or responsible for the care of an animal may inhumanely treat such animal. A violation of this section is a Class 1 misdemeanor.  Exemptions include regulated scientific experiments using live animals and the destruction of dangerous animals.  
SD - Endangered Species - Chapter 34A-8. Endangered and Threatened Species   S D C L 34A-8-1 - 13; 34A-8A-1 - 9   These South Dakota statutes provide the definitions and regulations related to endangered and threatened species in the state.  Under statute, state agencies shall establish and conduct control programs at state expense on private lands that are encroached upon by prairie dogs from contiguous public lands.  It is a misdemeanor to take, possess, transport, import, export, process, sell or offer for sale, buy or offer to buy (nor may a common or contract carrier transport or receive for shipment) a listed species as defined by statute.  
SD - Exotic Pets - Chapter 40-3. State Animal Industry Board (captive wildlife provisions)   S D C L 40-3-23 - 29   These South Dakota statutes establish the Animal Industry Board, which promulgate rules to allow nondomestic mammals that are safe to the public and to the free-roaming animals of the state to be imported or possessed. The Board regulates the breeding, raising, marketing, and transportation of any captive nondomestic mammals. The Board may also develop and implement programs to identify animals and premises involved to further animal health and food safety.  
TN - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   T. C. A. 39-14-201 - 217   These Tennessee anti-cruelty provisions define "animal" as a domesticated living creature or a wild creature previously captured.  A person commits the offense of cruelty to animals (a Class A misdemeanor)  if he or she intentionally or knowingly tortures, maims or grossly overworks an animal; fails unreasonably to provide necessary food, water, care or shelter for an animal in the person's custody; abandons unreasonably an animal in the person's custody; transports or confines an animal in a cruel manner; or inflicts burns, cuts, lacerations, or other injuries or pain.  Animal fighting is also prohibited under this section, with dog fighting incurring a felony penalty and cockfighting resulting in a misdemeanor in most cases.  A person commits aggravated cruelty (a Class E felony) to animals when, with aggravated cruelty and with no justifiable purpose, he or she intentionally kills or intentionally causes serious physical injury to a companion animal.  Exclusions include animal farming, research, veterinary practices, hunting, trapping, "dispatching" rabid animals or wild animals on one's property, among other things.  
TN - Endangered Species - Nongame and Endangered or Threatened Wildlife Species Conservation Act of 1974   T. C. A. 70-8-101 - 112   These Tennessee statutes comprise the Tennessee Nongame and Endangered or Threatened Wildlife Species Conservation Act of 1974 and includes the legislative intent, definitions, and factors relevant to endangered species investigations.  By statute, it is unlawful for any person to take, attempt to take, possess, transport, export, process, sell or offer for sale or ship nongame wildlife, or for any common or contract carrier knowingly to transport or receive for shipment nongame wildlife.  Violation constitutes a Class B misdemeanor and incurs warrantless searches and seizure of the wildlife taken and the instrumentalities used in the taking.  
TN - Exotic Pet - Part 4. Exotic Animals.   T. C. A. 70-4-401 - 417   This Tennessee chapter relates to the private possession of wildlife. It is unlawful for any person to possess, transport, import, export, buy, sell, barter, propagate or transfer any wildlife, whether indigenous to this state or not, except as provided by this part and rules and regulations promulgated by the Tennessee wildlife resources commission pursuant to this part. Additionally, no person shall possess Class I (all species inherently dangerous to humans such as wolves, bears, lions and poisonous snakes) or Class II (native species that are  not listed in other classes) wildlife without having documentary evidence showing the name and address of the supplier of such wildlife and date of acquisition. In order to obtain a permit to possess Class I wildlife, a person must be 21, have at least 2 years of experience handling such animals (or take an approved written exam), have a full-time resident caretaker, and must have a plan for the quick and safe recapture of the wildlife, among other provisions. The annual permits and fees for personal possession of  Class I wildlife are $150/animal or $1,000/facility.  
TN - Wildlife - Part 2. Wildlife Regulation and Protection   T. C. A. 70-4-201 - 211   These Tennessee statutes make it unlawful to barter, sell, transfer, or to purchase any wildlife without a hunting or fishing license. The unlawful importation, possession, or sale of skunks or red foxes is a Class C misdemeanor. The statutes also impose requirements on transport and storage of other wildlife.  
TX - Circus - Chapter 2152. Regulation of Circuses, Carnivals, and Zoos.   V. T. C. A., Occupations Code 2152.001 - 202   This set of Texas laws concerns the regulation of carnivals, circuses, and zoos. However, circuses are specifically exempted from regulation if they are licensed by the USDA and if the circus provides proof of (mandatory) inspection at least once a year. "Circus" is defined as a commercial variety show featuring animal acts for public entertainment. In Texas, the Texas Board of Health must adopt standards for the operation of circuses, carnivals, and zoos that promote humane conditions for animals and protect the public health and safety. A person may not operate a circus, carnival, or zoo unless the person holds a license issued under this chapter for the circus, carnival, or zoo. A person who knowingly operates a circus without a license under this chapter commits a Class C misdemeanor.  
TX - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   TX PENAL 42.09; 42.091; 42.092; 42.10; 42.105   These comprise Texas' anti-cruelty laws.  Texas has laws that prohibit cruelty to both livestock (§ 42.09) and non-livestock animals (§ 42.092).  Both laws requires a scienter of intentionally or knowingly, and enumerate limited defenses.  "Animal" means a domesticated living creature and wild living creature previously captured but does not include an uncaptured wild creature.  Also included is Texas animal fighting provision, which criminalizes being a spectator at an animal fighting exhibition among other things. In 2011, Texas enacted a law prohibiting cockfighting.  
TX - Dangerous - Subchapter E: Dangerous Wild Animals   V. T. C. A., Health & Safety Code 822.101 - 116   Chapter 822, Subchapter E regulates the keeping of dangerous wild animals. It imposes a registration requirement upon the owner of a dangerous wild animal and also sets forth insurance requirements.  One thing to note is that Texas animal cruelty laws do not apply to these wild animals.  
TX - Endangered Species - Chapter 68. Endangered Species   V. T. C. A., Parks & Wildlife Code 68.001 - 021   Texas defines endangered species as those listed on the federal ESA List as well as those designated in the state.  No person may capture, trap, take, or kill, or attempt to capture, trap, take, or kill, endangered fish or wildlife nor may he or she possess, sell, distribute, or offer or advertise for sale those species (unless allowed as described in the subchapter).  Notably, this chapter excepts from its provisions coyotes, cougars, bobcats, prairie dogs, and red foxes (with no mention as to what occurs in the event they become endangered).  Violation of the provisions results in a Class C Parks and Wildlife Code misdemeanor for the first offense, a Class B misdemeanor for the second offense, and a Class A misdemeanor for subsequent offenses.  
TX - Exotic Animal - Discharge of Firearm in Public Place   V.T.C.A., Penal Code 42.01   Although it is illegal to discharge a firearm in a public place, or across a public road, this statute makes it an affirmative defense that the shooter had a reasonable fear of bodily injury to himself or to another by a "dangerous wild animal," which term includes but is not limited to a chimpanzee, orangutan, gorilla, lion, tiger, or bear.  
TX - Exotic pets - Subchapter A. Regulation of Keeping of Wild Animals   V. T. C. A., Local Government Code 240.001 - 004  

In this subchapter, “wild animal” is defined as a nondomestic animal that the commissioners court of a county determines is dangerous and is in need of control in that county. The commissioners court of a county by order may prohibit or regulate the keeping of a wild animal in the county. A person commits a Class C misdemeanor if the person violates an order adopted under this subchapter and the order defines the violation as an offense.

 
TX - Ordinances - 215.032. Exhibitions; Shows; Amusements   V.T.C.A., Local Government Code 215.032   This statute authorizes municipalities to prohibit or regulate circuses, exhibitions, and menageries.  
UT - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   U.C.A. 1953 76-9-301 - 307  

These Utah statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty provisions.  "Animal" is defined as a live, nonhuman vertebrate creature, but animals raised for agricultural purposes and wildlife are excluded from the definition.  A person is guilty of cruelty to animals if the person intentionally, knowingly, recklessly, or with criminal negligence fails to provide necessary food, care, or shelter for an animal in his custody, abandons an animal in the person's custody, transports or confines an animal in a cruel manner, injures an animal, or causes any animal to fight with another animal for amusement or gain.  Aggravated cruelty (i.e., torturing, poisoning, or intentionally killing an animal) and dogfighting incur stiffer penalties.

 
UT - Wildlife - Title 23. Wildlife Resources Code of Utah   U.C.A. 1953 23-13-1 - 19   Under these Utah statutes, all wildlife is the property of the state unless held in private ownership, but it is illegal to hold protected wildlife in captivity, with exceptions, such as for furbearers. Other provisions deal with invasive species, forbid remote-controlled hunting, establish the Utah State Hunting and Fishing Day, and provide penalties for violations.  
VA - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   Va. Code Ann. 3.2-6500 - 6590; Va. Code Ann. 18.2-361   These Virginia statutes set forth Title 3.2, the Comprehensive Animal Care laws, which include the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions. For the purposes of § 3.2-6570, the operative animal cruelty law, animal means any nonhuman vertebrate species including fish except those fish captured and killed or disposed of in a reasonable and customary manner. The section has a misdemeanor animal cruelty law as well as a felony provision related to torture or willful infliction of cruelty. The section requires companion animal owners to provide adequate care.  
VA - Endangered Species - Article 6. Endangered Species.   Va. Code Ann. 29.1-563 - 570   These Virginia statutes prohibit the taking, transportation, possession, sale, or offer for sale within the Commonwealth of species listed on the U.S. Endangered Species List or any other species designated by the state board.  Violation of this provision generally results in a Class 1 misdemeanor.  Interestingly, the state mandates that anyone who keeps a non-native or exotic reptile must keep the reptile so as to prevent it from running-at-large or escaping.  Violation of this provision is a Class 2 misdemeanor.  
VT - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   13 V.S.A. 351 - 400   This Vermont statutory section contains the amended anti-cruelty and animal fighting laws.  Animal cruelty, as defined by § 352, occurs when a person overworks, overloads, tortures, torments, abandons, administers poison to, cruelly beats or mutilates an animal, or deprives an animal which a person owns or possesses of adequate food, water, shelter, rest, sanitation, or necessary medical attention.  It is also animal cruelty  if one owns, possesses, keeps or trains an animal engaged in an exhibition of fighting.  The section excludes scientific research activities, hunting, farming, and veterinary activities among others.  
VT - Endangered Species - Chapter 123. Protection of Endangered Species   10 V.S.A. 5401 - 10   These Vermont statutes set out the state's endangered species provisions, including the related definitions, rules for listing species, and regulations for establishing the committees.  Violation of the provisions against taking incur penalties ranging from $500 - 1,000 for the first offense.  Interestingly, there is a provision that provides for the location of listed endangered species to be kept "confidential in perpetuity" except to landowners and bona fide purchasers of relevant land.  
VT - Exotic pet, wildlife - 4709. Importation, stocking wild animals   10 V.S.A. 4709   This Vermont law provides that a person may not bring into the state or possess any live wild bird or animal of any kind, unless the person obtains from the commissioner a permit to do so. Applicants shall pay a permit fee of $100.00.  
WA - Cruelty - Chapter 16.52. Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.   West's RCWA 16.52.010 - 320   This section of statutes contains Washington's anti-cruelty provisions.  Under the section, "animal" means any nonhuman mammal, bird, reptile, or amphibian.  WA ST 16.52.205 and WA ST 16.52.207 are the primary anti-cruelty provisions that categorize cruelty in either the first or second degree.  A person is guilty of animal cruelty in the first degree (a class C felony) when he or she intentionally inflicts substantial pain on, causes physical injury to, or kills an animal by a means causing undue suffering, or forces a minor to inflict unnecessary pain, injury, or death on an animal.  A person is guilty of animal cruelty in the second degree (a misdemeanor) if, under circumstances not amounting to first degree animal cruelty, the person knowingly, recklessly, or with criminal negligence inflicts unnecessary suffering or pain upon an animal.  An owner of an animal is guilty of animal cruelty in the second degree the owner knowingly, recklessly, or with criminal negligence fails to provide the animal with necessary food, water, shelter, rest, sanitation, ventilation, space, or medical attention and the animal suffers unnecessary or unjustifiable physical pain as a result of the failure, or if he or she abandons the animal.  
WA - Exotic Pet - Chapter 16.30. Dangerous Wild Animals   West's RCWA 16.30.005 - 900   This Washington chapter passed in 2007 regulates the keeping of dangerous wild animals. By definition, a potentially dangerous wild animal includes, among others, lions, tigers, captive-bred cougars, jaguars, cheetahs, leopards, wolves, (but excluding wolf-hybrids), bears, hyenas, non-human primates, elephants, rhinoceroses, certain reptiles, and venomous snakes. A person shall not own, possess, keep, harbor, bring into the state, or have custody or control of a potentially dangerous wild animal. A person in legal possession of a potentially dangerous wild animal prior to July 22, 2007, and who is the legal possessor of the animal may keep possession of the animal for the remainder of the animal's life.  
WA - Health - Chapter 16.36. Animal Health   West's RCWA 16.36.005 - 160   These laws set forth the laws for importation and health requirements of certain imported animals. It also allows the director to establish inspection procedures for the transportation of animals. A section provides that it is unlawful for a person to bring an animal into Washington state without first securing a certificate of veterinary inspection, reviewed by the state veterinarian of the state of origin, verifying that the animal meets the Washington state animal health  
WA - Research - 19.86.145. Penalties--Animals used in biomedical research   West's RCWA 19.86.145   This law provides that any violation of RCW 9.08.070 - 9.08.078 (relating to concealing or taking a pet animal with the intent to deprive or defraud the owner) or RCW 16.52.220 (relating to transfer of mammals other than rats or mice for use in research) constitutes an unfair or deceptive practice. Research institutions that violate this provision face only monetary penalties not to exceed $2,500.  
WI - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   W. S. A. 951.01 - 18; W.S.A. 944.17   This section comprises the Wisconsin anti-cruelty section.  Under the section, "animal" includes every living warm-blooded creature (except a human being), reptile, or amphibian.  The section prohibits "mistreating animals," which is defined as treating any animal, whether belonging to the person or another, in a cruel manner.  This section does not prohibit bona fide experiments carried on for scientific research or normal and accepted veterinary practices.  This section also prohibits the instigation of dogfights, and has a unique provisions that prohibits the shooting of caged or staked animals.  
WI - Endangered Species - 29.604. Endangered and threatened species protected   W. S. A. 29.604, 29.977, 29.983   This Wisconsin statute embodies the legislative view that certain wild animals and wild plants are endangered or threatened and are entitled to preservation and protection as a matter of general state concern. Violation of the Act with regard to protected animal species may result in a $500-2,000 for a taking, and a $2,000-5,000 fine with 9 months imprisonment for an intentional taking.  Both incur the suspension of hunting license privileges.  Incidental takings may be allowed through permit if steps are taken to establish and file a "conservation plan."  
WI - Exotic pets - Chapter 169. Captive Wildlife   W. S. A. 169.01 - 46   The Wisconsin wildlife laws require a license to take a wild animal from the wild or to import one into the state. A license is also required to exhibit, breed, rehabilitate, hunt, and/or purchase wild animals. Violations can result in fines, forfeiture, and/or imprisonment.  
WV - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   W. Va. Code, 7-10-1 - 5; 61-8-19 - 23   These West Virginia statutes comprise the state's anti-cruelty and animal fighting provisions.  If any person cruelly mistreats, abandons or withholds proper sustenance, including food, water, shelter or medical treatment, necessary to sustain normal health and fitness or to end suffering or abandons any animal to die, or uses, trains or possesses any domesticated animal for the purpose of seizing, detaining or maltreating any other domesticated animal, he or she is guilty of a misdemeanor.  If any person intentionally tortures or maliciously kills an animal, or causes, procures or authorizes any other person to torture or maliciously kill an animal, he or she is guilty of a felony.  The provisions of this section do not apply to lawful acts of hunting, fishing, trapping or animal training or farm livestock, poultry, gaming fowl or wildlife kept in private or licensed game farms if kept and maintained according to usual and accepted standards of livestock, poultry, gaming fowl or wildlife or game farm production and management.  The section also prohibits animal fighting as a misdemeanor unless the animals involved were wild game or fur-bearing animals, in which case it becomes a felony.  
WV - Exotic Pet - 20-2-51. Permit for keeping pets; 20-2-52. Permits for roadside menageries   W. Va. Code, 20-2-51; W. Va. Code, 20-2-52,   This West Virginia statute provides that the state fish and game director may issue a permit to a person to keep and maintain in captivity as a pet, a wild animal acquired from a commercial dealer or during the legal open season. The fee is charged is two dollars.  
WV - Scientific research - 20-2-50. Permit to hunt, kill, etc., wildlife for scientific or propagation purposes   W. Va. Code, 20-2-50   Under this West Virginia law, the director may issue a permit to a person to hunt, kill, take, capture or maintain in captivity wildlife exclusively for scientific purposes, but not for any commercial purposes.  
WY - Cruelty - Consolidated Cruelty Statutes   WY ST 6-3-203   Wyoming amended its cruelty law in early 2011 to include the new offense of "household pet animal cruelty." Under the general anti-cruelty part of the law, a person commits cruelty to animals if he or she knowingly and with intent to cause death, injury or undue suffering overrides an animal or drives an animal when overloaded, unnecessarily or cruelly beats, tortures, torments, injures, mutilates or attempts to kill an animal, or carries an animal in a manner that poses undue risk of injury or death.  The neglect component provides that person who has charge and custody of any animal and unnecessarily fails to provide it with the proper food, drink or protection from the weather, or cruelly abandons the animal, or fails to provide the animal with appropriate medical care is also guilty of cruelty.  
WY - Wildlife, exotic hybrid - Chapter 1. Game and Fish Administration.   WY ST 23-1-101 to 109  

This section of Wyoming statutes states that all wildlife in the state is considered the property of the state.  It further provides that there is no private ownership of live animals classified in this act as big or trophy game animals. “Exotic species” means any wild animals, including amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, crustaceans or birds not found in a wild, free or unconfined status in Wyoming. This section also contains the management laws for delisted gray wolves that were repealed in 2012.

 

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