Animal Legal and Historical Center
Great Apes and the Law: A complete resource for the legal status of the Great Apes within the United States
Michigan State University College of Law

General information

Federal and International


Specific State Information

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Federal US Great Ape Regulations

Material Name Citation Summary
US - AWA - AWA Primate Regulations (Subpart D - Primate Standards)   9 CFR 3.75 - 3.92  

This portion of the AWA regulations contains the humane care provisions for non-human primates. Included are requirements for housing facilities, primary enclosures, provisions for psychological well-being, feeding, watering, sanitization, employee requirements, and transportation standards.

US - AWA Regulations - Part 2. Regulations. Subparts A to I   9 CFR 2.1 to 2.133  

This set of the regulations sets out the requirements and process for licensing and registration of deals, exhibitors and research facilities.

US - Chimpanzees - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List All Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as Endangered   76 FR 54423-01   We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list all chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Based on our review, we find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that listing all chimpanzees as endangered may be warranted. Therefore, with the publication of this notice, we are initiating a review of the status of the species to determine if listing the entire species as endangered is warranted. To ensure that this status review is comprehensive, we are requesting scientific and commercial data and other information regarding this species. Based on the status review, we will issue a 12-month finding on the petition, which will address whether the petitioned action is warranted, as provided in section 4(b)(3)(B) of the Act.  
US - Chimpanzees - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Chimpanzee and Pygmy Chimpanzee   55 FR 9129-01   The Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) reclassifies wild populations of the chimpanzee and all populations of the pygmy chimpanzee from threatened to endangered status. Both species have declined through such problems as massive habitat destruction, excessive hunting and capture by people, and lack of effective national and international controls. This rule will enhance the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, for these species. Captive populations of the chimpanzee will continue to be classified as threatened, and individuals of that species in the United States will continue to be covered by a special regulation allowing activities otherwise prohibited.  
US - CITES Regs - Taking, Possession, Transportation, Sale, Purchase, Barter, Exportation, and Importation of Wildlife and Plants. Part 23. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (Cites).   50 C. F. R. 23.1 - 23.92   These regulations describe the purpose of CITES, the criteria for listing in the appendices, and the requirements for importing or exporting protected animals or plants.  
US - Endangered Species - Subpart A. Introduction and General Provisions   50 C.F.R. 17.1 - 17.9  

These regulations for the Endangered Species Act (ESA) cover the introductory materials, including the purpose, definitions, and scope of the administrative regulations.  They also include regulations related to "pre-Act" wildlife and examples of such possession as well as provisions for Native Alaskans.

US - Endangered Species - Subpart B - Lists (Endangered/Threatened Species)   50 C.F.R. 17.11   The list in this section contains the names of all species of wildlife which have been determined by the Services to be Endangered or Threatened. It also contains the names of species of wildlife treated as Endangered or Threatened because they are sufficiently similar in appearance to Endangered or Threatened species.    
US - Endangered Species - Subpart C. Endangered Wildlife   50 C.F.R. 17.21 - 17.23  

These Endangered Species Act regulations describe illegal actions with respect to endangered wildlife, including prohibited taking, transporting, and selling among other things.  They also outline exceptions to the taking prohibition including those related to scientific purposes, enhancement of a species propagation, and economic hardship permits.

US - Endangered Species - Subpart D. Threatened Species.   50 C.F.R. 17.31 - 48  

These Endangered Species Act regulations relate to threatened species.  Included in the provisions are requirements for obtaining permits to take such species for one of the following purposes:  scientific purposes, or the enhancement of propagation or survival, or economic hardship, or zoological exhibition, or educational purposes, or incidental taking, or special purposes consistent with the purposes of the Act.  Also included are special rules for certain mammals (grizzly bears, gray wolves, African elephants, leopards, Utah prairie dogs, mountain lions, etc.), reptiles (alligators, crocodiles, etc.), birds (bald eagle), and fishes among other species.

US - Primate - Animal Welfare; Draft Policy on Environment Enhancement for Nonhuman Primates   64 Fed Reg 38145 (July 15, 1999)  

Under the Animal Welfare Act, our regulations require that dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities that maintain nonhuman primates develop and follow a plan for environment enhancement adequate to promote the psychological well-being of the nonhuman primates. We have developed a draft policy to clarify what we believe must be considered and included in the plan in order for dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities to adequately promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates.

US - Sanctuary, great apes - Part 9. Standards of Care for Chimpanzees Held in the Federally Supported Sanctuary System   42 CFR 9.1 - 13  

This set of regulations sets minimum standards of care for the chimpanzees that are maintained in the Federal Chimpanzee Sanctuary System, which was established by the CHIMP Act.


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